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The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice
- PMID: 22683274
- DOI: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006
GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto
GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto
GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto
GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto
Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto
DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS
Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto
Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
20,067 views|Jun 18, 2019,10:23 am
A Graphic Design Revolution For Scientific Conference Posters
Last week, NPR’s “All Things Considered” covered an unusual topic: Scientific conference posters. For the first time in decades, scientists are rethinking the traditional design of the posters they make to share their research at meetings. This sudden spotlight on what was always a mundane part of scientific discourse has launched a conversation about the need for basic art and design skills for scientists.
A classic poster session at the 2014 conference of the American Geophysical Union (AGU). NASA Ames
Scientific conferences are a lot like any other professional conference: A series of talks in hotel event centers, a marketplace of company booths, networking events. But there’s another aspect to scientific conferences. With more researchers hoping to share their research than there are presentation slots in the conference program, many scientists instead summarize their work on a poster.
At a large conference, there can be hundreds of these posters, often showing the work of early career researchers just starting out in their field. It’s impossible to see them all, so visitors make a snap decision about which posters to read. Unfortunately, many of the posters are so crammed full of text and graphs that there is nothing eye-catching on them to draw people in.
NPR interviewed PhD student Mike Morrison about his initiative to encourage researchers to make better conference posters. His downloadable templates have given scientists an opportunity to create a different style of conference poster. By using negative space, and a prompt to summarize the poster in a single sentence, Morrison has convinced scientists that less is more.
It’s an impressive feat, because most communication between scientists involves tedious levels of detail, to ensure that their colleagues have enough information to replicate the work. A conference presentation doesn’t have that same purpose. It should just be an introduction to the topic, but many scientists – used to being asked for all the details – still try to put far too much information on a poster.
Morrison’s new and recognizable style of poster making is starting to appear at conferences after researchers found and shared his video highlighting the problems with traditional poster design.
After the NPR piece aired, Morrison’s method got even more attention. Scientists took to Twitter to share their own experiences with the new design, but also to discuss how it could further improve.
Amy Cheu is a is a PhD student studying vertebrate biology at Clark University. She’s also an illustrator, and her background in art gives her a good eye for conference poster design. Cheu is wary of the new “better poster” trend, because it doesn’t seem to solve one of the core problems of scientific posters. “Every example or use I have seen so far has continued the trend of text-heavy, graphic-poor posters. Only now, the text is smaller and smashed into the corners of the poster.”
Instead of focusing on text, Cheu would like to see more focus on images. “Effective conference posters are focused on graphics, whether it be in the form of illustrations, figures, graphs, or photographs. The text should only be there to supplement the graphic content.” As an example, she highlights the conference posters made by Nicholas Wu, a biologist at the University of Queensland, in Australia.
One of the conference posters designed by Nicholas Wu, making use of eye-catching images, a consistent color scheme, and minimal text. Nicholas Wu
Morrison’s better poster design is still a far cry from work like Wu’s, but it could be a step in the right direction, as experts on scientific poster design are finally finding their audience.
Echo Rivera has made a business out of teaching scientists proper design skills when it comes to making presentation slides. She likens the better poster trend to the popularity of Prezi presentation software a few years ago. “It has the potential to get people interested in using design and creativity in their research communication.”
Rivera’s main expertise is slide presentations, but a lot of the skills she teaches scientists also translate to poster making. For example, she advises people to start by storyboarding their idea and to make use of basic graphic design techniques. Ultimately, she says, “A good conference poster catches people’s attention and makes them excited to hear about your research before they even read about it or talk to you.”
There is generally very little training for scientists on how to make a conference poster. Usually, once a PhD student has their first poster presentation, they ask someone else in their lab for help. They’ll borrow their old posters, edit the lab’s default poster powerpoint template, and create something that looks exactly like every poster made by everyone else – full of text, and with very little thought to design.
What Morrison has done is giving researchers a second option. They don’t have to edit the lab poster template – they can edit the templates he provides. It’s that familiar process that made this method catch on.
But Morrison’s template asks scientists to put more thought in the process than they’re used to. “Other templates didn’t necessarily ask you to think about what you were putting on them because they allowed it all,” says Derek Crowe, a PhD student in biomedical genetics with a former career in visual communication and design, “In order to use Mike’s layout though, my hand is forced.”
With the new template, scientists need to think about their core message, but some people have a difficult time figuring out how to do that, or how to use visuals to present their message. Without proper science communication training, even a better poster template doesn’t work.
Crowe has taken matters into his own hands. Not only does he teach a course on visual communication for scientists at the University of Rochester, but he also shared his poster design tips online. In a nod to Morrison’s “better poster”, Crowe’s is a “butter poster”. He provides step by step instructions on how to organize the poster, and how to think about the content in a visual way.
Derek Crowe’s advice for conference poster design draws on basic graphic design tips. Derek Crowe
Research is an extremely competitive field. Even though it’s ultimately about doing good science, an eye-catching conference poster can make a difference in a field where hundreds of others are also doing good science.
The new better poster trend may not be the final answer to boring conference posters, but it’s getting scientists to understand the power of design.
“Like the graphic novel did for literature, visual languages have the power to add more dimensions to scientific storytelling,” says Crowe. “I’m excited to see what happens as the greater science community begins to take advantage of well-established visual storytelling tools.”
With a little help from artists and visual communication experts, scientific conferences are about to look very different.Eva AmsenContributorI’m a freelance science writer, focused on stories behind the research. My writing about the intersection of science, art and culture has appeared in Nautilus, The…Read MoreLoading …
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3D Printed Artificial Corneas Similar to Human Ones
Tue, 05/28/2019 – 4:00pm1 Commentby Pohang University of Science & Technology (POSTECH)
Schematic illustration of the alignment of collagen fibers within the nozzle during bioink extrusion. Credit: POSTECH
When a person has a severely damaged cornea, a corneal transplant is required. However, there are 2,000 patients waiting for the cornea donation in the country as of 2018 and they wait for 6 or more years on average for the donation. For this reason, many scientists have put their efforts in developing an artificial cornea. The existing artificial cornea uses recombinant collagen or is made of chemical substances such as synthetic polymer. Therefore, it does not incorporate well with the eye or is not transparent after the cornea implant.
Professor Dong-Woo Cho of Mechanical Engineering, Professor Jinah Jang of Creative IT Convergence Engineering, and Ms. Hyeonji Kim at POSTECH, collaborated with Professor Hong Kyun Kim of Ophthalmology at Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, 3D printed an artificial cornea using the bioink which is made of decellularized corneal stroma and stem cells. Because this cornea is made of corneal tissue-derived bioink, it is biocompatible, and 3D cell printing technology recapitulates the corneal microenvironment, therefore, its transparency is similar to the human cornea. This research is recently published on Biofabrication.
The cornea is a thin outermost layer that covers the pupil and it protects the eye from the external environment. It is the first layer that admits light and therefore it needs to be transparent, move as the pupil moves, and have flexibility. However, it has been limited to develop an artificial cornea using synthetic biocompatible materials because of different cornea-related properties. In addition, although many researchers have tried to repeat the corneal microenvironment to be transparent, the materials used in existing studies have limited microstructures to penetrate the light.
The human cornea is organized in a lattice pattern of collagen fibrils. The lattice pattern in the cornea is directly associated with the transparency of cornea, and many researches have tried to replicate the human cornea. However, there was a limitation in applying to corneal transplantation due to the use of cytotoxic substances in the body, their insufficient corneal features including low transparency, and so on. To solve this problem, the research team used shear stress generated in the 3D printing to manufacture the corneal lattice pattern and demonstrated that the cornea by using a corneal stroma-derived decellularized extracellular matrix bioink was biocompatible.
In the 3D printing process, when ink in the printer comes out through a nozzle and passes through the nozzle, frictional force which then produces shear stress occurs. The research team successfully produced transparent artificial cornea with the lattice pattern of human cornea by regulating the shear stress to control the pattern of collagen fibrils.
The research team also observed that the collagen fibrils remodeled along with the printing path create a lattice pattern similar to the structure of native human cornea after 4 weeks in vivo.
Professor Jinah Jang said with excitement, “the suggested strategy can achieve the criteria for both transparency and safety of engineered cornea stroma. We believe it will give hope to many patients suffered from cornea related diseases.”3D Printing