ARTICLE: Tumor exosome-based nanoparticles are efficientdrug carriers for chemotherapy @ NATURE COMMUNICATIONS| (2019) 10:3838 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11718 @ Nanocapsules deliver gene-editing payload @ New cells identified that repair tissue – University of Oxford & 4 easy steps to write a winning abstract for your academic research @ 3D Printed Cells and Bioinks for Making Implantable Blood Vessels & ´´Scientific writing in English started in the 14th century.[2] The Royal Society established good practice for scientific writing. Founder member Thomas Sprat wrote on the importance of plain and accurate description rather than rhetorical flourishes in his History of the Royal Society of London. Robert Boyle emphasized the importance of not boring the reader with a dull, flat style.[1]´´ #time #data #innovation #graphics #researches #intentions #goal #goals #references #longevity #age #ages #genetics #physiology #biochemistry #reading #messages #LevelOfImportance #content #subjects #country #countries#probability #reader #person #people www.google.com www.forbes.com www.usa.gov www.nobelprize.org www.wordpress.com www.wikipedia.org www.gmail.com www.yahoo.com www.youtube.com

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  • – > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics – ´´My´´ Dissertation @ #Innovation #energy #life #health #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

https://drtjgunn.org/2019/09/13/nanocapsules-deliver-gene-editing-payload/?fbclid=IwAR0U-NiQxI3f0xhX-M7RBt8mxjzVWMkCmB_6H3tj6Sd0EytG2M9nFW660A0

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11718-4.epdf?author_access_token=6rSQXxKc7jfTMVF_6sCsANRgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0PB_VTT3ixT-hlNcG_Sc-SupXLyyfqdhXMVn0Ou8nXNYyEC3nPQLHXj6jrvUf0inS74Axrmy0Z7iQb7s1mE8mq934xzR6vFy3oKD5C2xQzIyA%3D%3D

http://www.nature.com/naturecommunications https://www.nature.com/ncomms/ https://www.ierek.com/news/index.php/2018/04/01/4-easy-steps-write-winning-abstract-academic-research/?fbclid=IwAR1Rrp2RGkkvzlJLJ51DovvQnWDTSANMKRPF1km03WB9EPbLjuGA0X2EPoQ

https://www.facebook.com/SantosLabNano/

13 Sep 2019 Belle Dumé

Physics World | Biomaterials

Researchers have developed a new non-viral nanocapsule to deliver a gene-editing payload into biological cells. The capsule, which is made of a biodegradable polymer, is a version of the CRISPR-Cas9 with guide RNA. The structure could help overcome some of the problems associated with viral vector delivery of gene editing tools.

sarah_gong
Shaoqin Sarah Gong. Courtesy: University of Wisconsin–Madison

CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) genome editing could potentially be used to treat many genetic diseases, including those currently without a cure. Most delivery technologies for CRISPR require viral vectors, however.

Although viral vectors are very efficient (viruses have, after all, billions of years of experience in invading cells), they can cause undesirable immune responses in the body. They also need to be altered to carry gene editing-machinery, rather than their own viral genes, into cells to alter their DNA (to correct a problem in the genetic code, for example, that causes a disease). This process, which needs to be adapted to each type of new cell target, can be time-consuming and complex.

In recent years, researchers have begun developing non-viral vectors, which are typically easier and cheaper to produce and scale up. Many of these are based on cationic liposomal components or polymers and can successfully encapsulate CRISPR-Cas9. They are beset with problems though, including the fact that they are relatively large (more than 100 nm across), can only accommodate a low gene-editing payload, are unstable and, most importantly, highly cytotoxic.

The Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein nanocapsule

A team led by Shaoqin (Sarah) Gong of the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the US has now developed the Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) nanocapsule (NC) to address these challenges. The RNP NCs are very small (around 25 nm in size) and are very stable in the extracellular space, including the bloodstream, thanks to their covalent nature. They also have high RNP loading content, good biocompatibility and high editing efficiency.

“Unlike other previous RNP delivery nanosystems that typically contain multiple copies of the RNP, the RNP nanocapsule we report on normally contains just one RNP per nanoparticle,” explains Gong. “What is more, we can conveniently modify the surfaces of the RNP NCs with various targeted ligands, such as peptides, so that they can be used to target different organs/cells and treat different types of diseases.”

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The RNP NCs are also relatively straightforward to make and they can be lyophilized (freeze-dried), which makes it easier to purify, store, transport and dose them, she adds. And last but not least, the Cas9 protein and sgRNA are present in a 1:1 molar ratio. The RNP only survives for a short time within the target cell, thus producing less off-target effects.

“This is important since editing the wrong tissue in the body after injecting gene therapies is of grave concern,” says team member Krishanu Saha, who co-chairs a steering committee for a consortium on gene editing in the US. “If reproductive organs are inadvertently edited, the patient would pass on the gene edits to their children and every subsequent generation.”

The researchers made their nanocapsules by enriching monomers with different charges and functionalities around the Cas9 RNP complex. They then polymerized the structure to form the nanocapsule. “As mentioned, this polymer coating is stable in the bloodstream/extracellular space, but it falls apart inside cells so that the RNP can edit the cell genome,” explains Gong.

krishanu_saha
Krishanu Sahu. Courtesy: University of Wisconsin–Madison

Gene editing experiments

She and her colleagues tested out their delivery capsules in gene editing experiments on murine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tissue and skeletal muscle. “We locally injected our nanocapsules into subretinal spaces or skeletal muscles. We found that the capsules efficiently delivered their gene-editing machinery and modified the appropriate target genes in the tissue in question. Furthermore, by functionalizing the surface of the nanocapsules, we were able to modulate the extent and efficiency of the gene-editing process.”

Xiaoyuan (Shawn) Chen, senior investigator at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) at the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), who was not involved in this work, says that the new technique is a “cool” way of using relatively small sized nanocapsules for high efficiency loading. “The crosslinking the researchers employed makes the particles stable during the delivery phase but readily releases the payload inside the cytosol thanks to cleavage of the linkers by a molecule called glutathione. The imidazole groups present also allow efficient endosomal escape through a proton sponge effect.

“Although the current study has only attempted local delivery for RPE cells and skeletal muscle cells, the same principle may be used to deliver RNP targeting to other organs.”READ MORESimple tweak reprogrammes DNA-responsive hydrogel smart materials

Broadening the applications of CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology

The Wisconsin-Madison team believes that its work will facilitate the development of safe and efficient delivery nanosystems for the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing tools, for both in vitro and in vivo applications. “In particular, it will broaden the applications of this gene-editing technology and so help us better understand and treat various genetic diseases,” Gong tells Physics World.

“We now plan to apply this technique to deliver various CRISPR genome editing machineries to treat brain and eye diseases and are currently working with several clinical collaborators to this end.”

Full details of the current study are reported in Nature Nanotechnology 10.1038/s41565-019-0539-2. The researchers have also filed a patent on the nanoparticles they have made.

Belle Dumé is a contributing editor to Physics World

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Simple tweak reprograms DNA-responsive hydrogel smart materialsIn “Physics”

Bacterial nanostructures act as electron-microscope-compatible gene reportersIn “Biomaterials”

Study furthers radically new view of gene controlIn “Bioengineering”Posted byDr. TJ Gunn.orgSeptember 13, 2019Posted inBioengineeringBiomaterialsBiophysicsMedicalMedical & BiophysicsMedical Physics

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New cells identified that repair tissue

2 days ago
University of Oxford

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Researchers find new cells that repair tissue. Credit: University of Oxford

Researchers at Oxford University have discovered that a newly discovered group of cells can help repair tissues in the body.

The researchers, who are supported by the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, say these cells, which are abundant in our bodies, could be harnessed to help heal tissues and treat diseases such as infections of the lung, the bowel or the skin. The research was published in the journal Cell Reports.

The two Oxford teams were investigating a kind of white blood cell, the mucosal associated invariant T cells, or MAIT cells for short, which were only identified in the last few years.

Dr. Timothy Hinks, of the University’s Experimental Medicine Division led one of two research groups studying these cells. He said: “MAIT cells are remarkable in several ways. They are very numerous throughout the different tissues of our bodies. They are also ancient in evolutionary terms, being found in animals as distantly related as humans, mice and even opossums and Tasmanian devils.

“The cells have changed very little in 150 million years, suggesting they play an important role in health. But it’s been hard to work out exactly what that key role is.”

It was first suspected they protect us against bacterial infections. Working with colleagues at the University of Melbourne, in Australia, the Oxford group has since shown that MAIT cells can also protect us against viral infections like influenza.

“But now we have also discovered a third and potentially very important role for these intriguing cells, in repairing damaged tissue,” said Professor Paul Klenerman, of the Nuffield Department of Medicine, who led the second research group.

He added: “When these cells sense bacteria and are activated, they turn on genes which can drive the damaged tissue to heal itself. This may be the explanation for why MAIT cells have proved so important to animals and humans in the past.”

He explained that the discovery opens up the possibility that these cells could be used in the future in new therapies.

“Potentially these cells, which can be activated by simple vitamin-related molecules, could be used to accelerate healing of wounds such as chronic skin ulcers or damaged gut in inflammatory bowel disorders like Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis,” Professor Klenerman said.

More information: Timothy S.C. Hinks et al. Activation and In Vivo Evolution of the MAIT Cell Transcriptome in Mice and Humans Reveals Tissue Repair Functionality, Cell Reports (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.07.039

Journal information: Cell Reports

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Home / IEREK Press / 4 easy steps to write a winning abstract for your academic research

4 easy steps to write a winning abstract for your paper

4 easy steps to write a winning abstract for your paper

4 easy steps to write a winning abstract for your academic research

admin April 1, 2018 IEREK Press Leave a comment 13,447 Views

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May 23, 2018In many fields of research, a report, essay, or study begins with an abstract. An abstract is meant to sell your work; it should explain the topic of your paper, the problem your research is trying to solve or the question you are trying to answer, how you went about doing this, and the conclusion you reached. Writing an abstract is an important part of publishing your research, and you should make the effort to make this portion of your paper detailed and well-written. Many people do not realize the importance of abstracts and of knowing how to write an abstract properly and that what inspired us to write this article.

 Who needs to write an abstract?

  • Researchers who are submitting their articles to be published on journals.
  • Post-graduate Students after completing their Ph.D. dissertation or M.A. thesis.
  • Researchers submitting their papers to participate in a conference.
  • Anyone wants to apply for research grants.

Types of Abstracts:

Critical Abstract
A critical abstract provides, in addition to describing main findings and information, a judgment or comment about the study’s validity, reliability, or completeness. The researcher evaluates the paper and often compares it with other works on the same subject. Critical abstracts are generally 400-500 words in length due to the additional interpretive commentary. These types of abstracts are used infrequently.

Descriptive Abstract
A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract only describes the work being summarized. Some researchers consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short, 100 words or less.

Informative Abstract
the majority of abstracts are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the researcher presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the paper. An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract [purpose, methods, scope] but it also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author. The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is usually no more than 300 words in length.

abstract

4 Steps to write a winning abstract:

Step 1: Write the research paper first

As I’m sure you know, when you write and revise, your plans change. You might move or delete words, paragraphs, and even entire arguments. This means it’s almost impossible to write a summary of your work before you’ve written it. Makes sense, right? Right. So write your research paper first.

Step 2: Identify the key sections of the paper

In basic research essays, you might simply review resources and create an argument based solely on what you’ve read. If this is the case, you’ll need to look for the main arguments of your paper and summarize them to write your abstract.

If, however, you’re writing a more detailed research essay based on the results of your own survey, study, or experiment, you’ll need to identify the following sections.

Problem and why you’re researching the problem: This section will include a brief overview of the problem and explain why the problem is worth researching. It may also perhaps explain why readers should care about this topic.

Methods or procedures used: This section will focus on how you completed your research. For example, did you interview people, complete an experiment, survey people, or complete some other type of research? Though it should be brief and concise, it also needs to be specific. If you surveyed 12 college students or interviewed 19 senior citizens, include that in this section.

Results or findings: This section will include a short description of the results of your study. In other words, what did you learn through your research?

Conclusions or implications: This section will discuss the conclusions of your research. Think about the larger implications of your work. What does it mean in the broad scope of things?

Step 3: Draft a description of the key sections

In can be challenging to write the abstract all at once. Start by sketching out your ideas in a rough draft format.

Problem and why you’re researching the problem

Most college students have income from a full- or part-time job, money from parents, student loans, or other financial aid. By the end of the week (or by the end of the month), many students are broke. Do students not have enough money to meet their basic needs, or are these students just not able to stay on budget? Do they simply spend more money than they should on things that aren’t really necessary?

Methods or procedures used

Twenty-two students at a local university agreed to volunteer for the survey. These students completed a questionnaire regarding their sources of income, their monthly expenses, and how much money they spent (both necessary and unnecessary expenses). Students were also asked to track all money spent for one month.

Results or findings

Based on the results, all 22 students had enough money to meet their monthly required expenses (including money budgeted for entertainment). After looking at the survey results, most students ran out of money because they over-spent on the following four areas: eating out, clothing, alcohol, and music/video games.

Conclusions or implications

Most students surveyed spent more money than they should have on entertainment. When the students surveyed ran out of money, they asked their parents for more money or charged more on their credit cards. (Some did both.) This implies that students need more education about how to budget their money.

Step 4: Put it all together

Drafting each section separately helps ease the stress a little and gives you a chance to outline your ideas, especially when you’re first learning how to write an abstract.

Writing the actual abstract can be a bit trickier though. You need to not only fit all that stuff in one concise paragraph, but you also need to fit it all in within a set number of words.

That means word choice matters, so make every word count!

Here are a few quick tips to help you turn your draft into a respectable abstract:

  • Copy and paste each section together into one paragraph. This will help you see how it sounds as one piece of writing rather than individual sections.
  • Look for awkward wording and places where you might replace vague words with more concrete words.
  • Ask yourself what’s not needed. Can you eliminate any unnecessary content?
  • Ask yourself what’s missing. Do readers need to know anything else in order to understand my research paper?
  • Once you’ve completed a draft of your abstract, set it aside before you revise. When you return to it (hopefully at least 24 hours later), review your draft to make sure you’ve avoided any pitfalls.

Avoid doing these common mistakes:

  • Don’t include any information in your abstract that’s not in your paper.
  • Don’t use jargon or acronyms that readers may not understand.
  • Don’t start sentences with phrases like “It appears that…” or “It is believed…” Cutting these phrases creates a stronger statement (and deletes unnecessary wording).

Revise your abstract and answer these questions:

During the abstract selection process the following 12 points are used as a guide. We strongly recommend that you ensure your abstract satisfies these points.

  1. Does the abstract capture the interest of a potential reader of the paper?
  2. Is the abstract well written in terms of language, grammar, etc.?
  3. Does the abstract engage the reader by telling him or her what the paper is about and why they should read it?
  4. Does the abstract title describe the subject being written about?
  5. Does the abstract make a clear statement of the topic of the paper and the research question?
  6. Does the abstract say how the research was/is being undertaken?
  7. Does the abstract indicate the value of the findings and to whom will they be of use?
  8. Does the abstract describe the work to be discussed in the paper?
  9. Does the abstract give a concise summary of the findings?
  10. Does the abstract conform to the word limit of 300 words?
  11. Does the abstract have between 5 and 10 keywords or phrases that closely reflect the content of the paper?
  12. Should the abstract be accepted?

Authors who do not follow these guidelines are more likely to have their work rejected.Share

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_writing

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Scientific writing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchNot to be confused with Science writing.

This article’s lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page(June 2015)

Scientific writing is writing for science.[1]

Contents

History[edit]

See also: Scientific literature § History

Scientific writing in English started in the 14th century.[2]

The Royal Society established good practice for scientific writing. Founder member Thomas Sprat wrote on the importance of plain and accurate description rather than rhetorical flourishes in his History of the Royal Society of LondonRobert Boyle emphasized the importance of not boring the reader with a dull, flat style.[1]

Because most scientific journals accept manuscripts only in English, an entire industry has developed to help non-native English speaking authors improve their text before submission. It is just now becoming an accepted practice to utilize the benefits of these services. This is making it easier for scientists to focus on their research and still get published in top journals.[citation needed]

Besides the customary readability tests, software tools relying on Natural Language Processing to analyze text help writer scientists evaluate the quality of their manuscripts prior to submission to a journal. SWAN, a Java app written by researchers from the University of Eastern Finland is such a tool.[3][non-primary source needed]

Writing style guides[edit]

Publication of research results is the global measure used by all disciplines to gauge a scientist’s level of success.[citation needed]

Different fields have different conventions for writing style, and individual journals within a field usually have their own style guides. Some issues of scientific writing style include:

  • Some style guides for scientific writing recommend against use of the passive voice, while some encourage it.[4][5] In the mathematical sciences, it is customary to report in the present tense.[6]
  • Some journals prefer using “we” rather than “I” as personal pronoun or a first-person pronoun. The word “we” can sometimes include the reader, for example in mathematical deductions.[citation needed]The acceptability of passive voice in scientific writing is inconsistent. It is not always wanted, but is sometimes encouraged. One reason that passive voice is used in scientific writing is that it is beneficial in avoiding first-person pronouns, which are not formally accepted in science.[7] It can be hard to make claims in active voice, that is, without the words, I” and “we”. The reason that passive voice is sometimes discouraged is that it can be confusing, unless used carefully.[8]

These two simplistic “rules” are not sufficient for effective scientific writing. In practice, scientific writing is much more complex and shifts of tense and person reflect subtle changes in the section of the scientific journal article. Additionally, the use of passive voice allows the writer to focus on the subject being studied (the focus of the communication in science) rather than the author. Similarly, some use of first-person pronouns is acceptable (such as “we” or “I,” which depends on the number of authors). The best thing to do is to look at recent examples of published articles in the field[citation needed].

In the chemical sciences, drawing chemistry is as fundamental as writing chemistry. The point is clearly made by 1981 Nobel Prize-winning chemist Roald Hoffmann.[9]

Scientific report[edit]

The stages of the scientific method are often incorporated into sections of scientific reports.[10] The first section is typically the abstract, followed by the introductionmethodsresultsconclusions, and acknowledgments.[11] The introduction discusses the issue studied and discloses the hypothesis tested in the experiment. The step-by-step procedure, notable observations, and relevant data collected are all included in methods and results. The discussion section consists of the author’s analysis and interpretations of the data. Additionally, the author may choose to discuss any discrepancies with the experiment that could have altered the results. The conclusion summarizes the experiment and will make inferences about the outcomes.[11] The paper will typically end with an acknowledgments section, giving proper attribution to any other contributors besides the main author(s). In order to get published, papers must go through peer review by experts with significant knowledge in the field. During this process, papers may get rejected or edited with adequate justification.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b Joseph E. Harmon, Alan G. Gross (15 May 2007), “On Early English Scientific Writing”, The scientific literatureISBN 9780226316567
  2. ^ Irma Taavitsainen, Päivi Pahta, Medical and scientific writing in late medieval English
  3. ^ “Scientific Writing Assistant”. April 2012.
  4. ^ Day, Robert; Sakaduski, Nancy (30 June 2011). Scientific English: A Guide for Scientists and Other Professionals, Third Edition. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-39173-6.
  5. ^ Dawson, Chris (2007). “Prescriptions and proscriptions. The three Ps of scientific writing – past, passive and personal”. Teaching Science: the Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association53 (2): 36–38.
  6. ^ Nicholas J. Higham, 1998. Handbook of writing for the mathematical sciences, Second Edition. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. p. 56
  7. ^ Lab, Purdue Writing. “More about Passive Voice // Purdue Writing Lab”Purdue Writing Lab. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  8. ^ writingcenter.unc.edu https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/passive-voice/. Retrieved 3 November 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ Hoffmann, Roald (2002). “Writing (and Drawing) Chemistry”. In Jonathan Monroe (ed.). Writing and Revising the Disciplines(PDF). Cornell University Press. pp. 29–53. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  10. ^ Van Way, Charles W. (2007–12). “Writing a Scientific Paper”. Nutrition in Clinical Practice22 (6): 636–640. doi:10.1177/0115426507022006636. ISSN 0884-5336
  11. Jump up to:a b Pollock, Neal W. (2017–12). “Scientific Writing”. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine28 (4): 283–284. doi:10.1016/j.wem.2017.09.007
  12. ^ Nileshwar, Anitha (2018). “Scientific writing”. Indian Journal of Respiratory Care7 (1): 1.
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