Novel anti-can­cer nanomedi­cine for efficient chemo­ther­apy # Ray Kurzweil – Google – Gmail – E-mails – E-mail – Team – Messages – Time – Analysis – Internet Society – Feelings – Thinking – Society – Typing – Writing – Reading – Probability – Possibilities – Person – Message – People & New method for the measurement of nano-structured light fields & Hyundai to build flying cars with NASA engineers @ GENE EDITING RIDS MICE OF DNA SEGMENT LINKED TO AUTISM # Modeling Cancer in Mice: Integration of Bioinformatics and Therapy & Genetic chemotherapy: Fabricated molecule induces ‘cancer cell suicide’ in mice @ Role of the Jh Mouse in Immuno-oncology Research & ´´Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.[1] Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. ´´

Hyundai to build flying cars with NASA engineers

I´d like so much you share this scientific blog because there are very important informations for human health like my dissertation [The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-8] and my monograph (Chagas disease research in laboratory – Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi). I did very detailed graphics about variations of all mice weights during all experimental time in my dissertation that are not in the scientific article as well as details about time of exercise and rest of the animals. They are very innovative graphics for the world scientific community! They can be an excellent reference for researches of many types in the future! Many people gave me positive feedbacks about it! These data are in my blog. So, is fundamental I inform you about these facts. Note: I do not earn money from this blog.

Very relevant observations:                      

1. Cancer is very related to the weight loss of the patient.

2. Age, weight and genetics of the person are very important factors that influence cancer in a determined ways.

3. The genetics of the mouse is very similar to that of the human.

4. Maintaining proper body weight is one of the main ways to prevent cancer of a person.

5. Animal testing has a very high importance to world society.

6. The mouse is the main animal model used as the basis for research on diseases that affect humans.

There are in this blog data about the invitations I received by direct messages through the Internet to participate in 73 very important events in 32 cities in a little time (Hong Kong, Auckland, Melbourne, Toronto, Edinburgh, Madrid, Suzhou, Stanbul, Miami, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Abu Dhabi, San Diego, Bangkok, Dublin, Sao Paulo, Dubai, Boston, Berlin, Stockholm, Prague, Valencia, Osaka, Amsterdam, Helsinki, Paris, Tokyo, Vienna, Rome, Zurich, London and Frankfurt) because I participated of very innovative and important researches in Brazil.

Many people of different countries have visited it! Therefore, this blog sharing is important for the world progress, of course. 

In my dissertation the progression of lung cancer was lower in the group of mice that practiced anaerobic physical activity. Weight lifting (bodybuilder) is a great example of anaerobic physical activity in humans. It would be very important, innovative and interesting to do researches in mice and humans testing a substance or substances, analyzing biochemical, pathological, pharmacological and physiological factors like weights in all experimental time [Weight loss of the patient is very associated with cancer – The syndrome of Anorexia-Cachexia (SAC) is a frequent complication in patients with advanced malignant neoplasia], the influence of age and genetics within the group itself and in the other groups in the inhibition and progression of câncer and other situations, for example. In this context, it is essential to seek new methodologies for the treatment, prevention and early detection of cancer and other diseases, such as vaccines and other very modern and efficient technologies. It is fundamental to consider the significance of variants like weight, age and genetics in relation to cancer. It is not easy to understand cancer in all aspects. So, more researches about it are very necessary in the world.

Link of my dissertation:

Link of my monograph:

Gratitude: I am very grateful because I was invited by Internet through direct message to participate in 55 very important science events in the world in 25 cities in less than 1 year.

Dr. TJ

Dr. TJ

Welcome friends Worldwide! Enjoy Science, Physics and Mathematics

New method for the measurement of nano-structured light fields

Posted byDr. TJ Gunn.orgSeptember 20, 2019Leave a commenton New method for the measurement of nano-structured light fields

by University of Münster

New method for the measurement of nano-structured light fields
A monolayer of organic molecules is placed in the focused light field and replies to this illumination by fluorescence, embedding all information about the invisible properties. Credit: Pascal Runde

Structured laser light has already opened up various different applications: it allows for precise material machining, trapping, manipulating or defined movement of small particles or cell compartments, as well as increasing the bandwidth for next-generation intelligent computing.

If these light structures are tightly focused by a lens, like a magnifying glass used to start a fire, highly intense three-dimensional light landscapes will be shaped, facilitating a significantly enhanced resolution in named applications. These kinds of light landscapes have paved the way for such pioneering applications as Nobel prize awarded STED microscopy.

However, these nano-fields themselves could not be measured, since components are formed by tight focusing which is invisible for typical measurement techniques. Up to now, this lack of appropriate metrological methods has impeded the breakthrough of nano-structured light landscapes as a tool for material machining, optical tweezers, or high-resolution imaging.

A team around physicist Prof. Dr. Cornelia Denz of the Institute of Applied Physics and chemist Prof. Dr. Bart Jan Ravoo of the Center for Soft Nanoscience at the University of Münster (Germany) successfully developed a nano-tomographic technique which is able to detect the typically invisible properties of nano-structured fields in the focus of a lens—without requiring any complex analysis algorithms or data post-processing. For this purpose, the team combined their knowledge in the field of nano-optics and organic chemistry to realize an approach based on a monolayer of organic molecules. This monolayer is placed in the focused light field and replies to this illumination by fluorescence, embedding all information about the invisible properties.

By the detection of this response the distinct identification of the nano-field by a single, fast and straightforward camera image is enabled. “This approach finally opens the till now unexploited potential of these nano-structured light landscapes for many more applications,” says Cornelia Denz, who is heading the study. The study has been published in the journal “Nature Communications“.

Explore furtherSave time using maths: Analytical tool designs corkscrew-shaped nano-antennae

More information: Eileen Otte et al, Polarization nano-tomography of tightly focused light landscapes by self-assembled monolayers, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-12127-3Journal information:Nature CommunicationsProvided by University of Münster

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Light may magnetise non-magnetic metals, propose physicistsIn “Physics”

Seeing smaller through cells: A natural single-cell biomagnifier for subwavelength imagingIn “Optics – Photonics”

Diamonds are a Physicist best friendIn “Physics”Posted byDr. TJ Gunn.orgSeptember 20, 2019Posted inLasersMedical & BiophysicsNanomaterialsPhysicsPhysics Research

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Novel anti-cancer nanomedicine for efficient chemotherapy

Date:September 17, 2019Source:University of HelsinkiSummary:Researchers have developed a new anti-cancer nanomedicine for targeted cancer chemotherapy. This new nano-tool provides a new approach to use cell-based nanomedicines for efficient cancer chemotherapy.Share:    FULL STORY

Researchers at the University of Helsinki in collaboration with researchers from Åbo Akademi University,Finland and Huazhong University of Science and Technology,China have developed a new anti-cancer nanomedicine for targeted cancer chemotherapy. This new nano-tool provides a new approach to use cell-based nanomedicines for effcient cancer chemotherapy.

Exosomes contain various molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and RNA. Now the researchers have harnessed them together with synthetic nanomaterial as carriers of anticancer drugs. The new exosome-based nanomedicines enhanced tumor accumulation, extravasation from blood vessels and penetration into deep tumor parenchyma after intravenous administration.

“This study highlights the importance of cell-based nanomedicines,” says the principal investigator and one of the corresponding authors of this study, Hélder A. Santos, Associate Professor at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Nanoparticles-based drug delivery systems have shown promising therapeutic effcacy in cancer. To increase their targettibility to tumors, nanoparticles are usually functionalized with targeted antibodies, peptides or other biomolecules. However, such targeting ligands may sometimes have a negative infuence on the nanoparticle delivery owing to the enhanced immune-responses.

Biomimetic nanoparticles on the other hand combine the unique functionalities of natural biomaterials, such as cells or cell membranes, and bioengineering versatility of synthetic nanoparticles, that can be used as an efficient drug delivery platform.

The developed biocompatible exosome-sheathed porous silicon-based nanomedicines for targeted cancer chemotherapy resulted in augmented in vivo anticancer drug enrichment in tumor cells. “This demonstrates the potential of the exosome-biomimetic nanoparticles to act as drug carriers to improve the anticancer drug efficacy,” Santos concludes.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of HelsinkiNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Tuying Yong, Xiaoqiong Zhang, Nana Bie, Hongbo Zhang, Xuting Zhang, Fuying Li, Abdul Hakeem, Jun Hu, Lu Gan, Hélder A. Santos, Xiangliang Yang. Tumor exosome-based nanoparticles are efficient drug carriers for chemotherapyNature Communications, 2019; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11718-4

Cite This Page:

University of Helsinki. “Novel anti-cancer nanomedicine for efficient chemotherapy.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 September 2019. <>.



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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search“Nanotherapeutics” redirects here. For the company, see Nanotherapeutics (company).For other uses, see Nanomedicine (disambiguation).

This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: “Nanomedicine” – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2014)
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Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.[1] Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials (materials whose structure is on the scale of nanometers, i.e. billionths of a meter).ribosome is a biological machine.

Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles.

Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future.[2][3] The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging.[4] Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institutes of Health Common Fund program, supporting four nanomedicine development centers.[5]

Nanomedicine sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with a minimum of $3.8 billion in nanotechnology R&D being invested every year. Global funding for emerging nanotechnology increased by 45% per year in recent years, with product sales exceeding $1 trillion in 2013.[6] As the nanomedicine industry continues to grow, it is expected to have a significant impact on the economy.


Drug delivery[edit]

Nanoparticles(top)liposomes(middle), and dendrimers(bottom) are some nanomaterials being investigated for use in nanomedicine.

Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles.[7] The overall drug consumption and side-effects may be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. Targeted drug delivery is intended to reduce the side effects of drugs with concomitant decreases in consumption and treatment expenses. Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time. This can potentially be achieved by molecular targeting by nanoengineered devices.[8][9] A benefit of using nanoscale for medical technologies is that smaller devices are less invasive and can possibly be implanted inside the body, plus biochemical reaction times are much shorter. These devices are faster and more sensitive than typical drug delivery.[10] The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is largely based upon: a) efficient encapsulation of the drugs, b) successful delivery of drug to the targeted region of the body, and c) successful release of the drug.[citation needed]

Drug delivery systems, lipid-[11] or polymer-based nanoparticles, can be designed to improve the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the drug.[12][13][14] However, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nanomedicine is highly variable among different patients.[15] When designed to avoid the body’s defence mechanisms,[16] nanoparticles have beneficial properties that can be used to improve drug delivery. Complex drug delivery mechanisms are being developed, including the ability to get drugs through cell membranes and into cell cytoplasm. Triggered response is one way for drug molecules to be used more efficiently. Drugs are placed in the body and only activate on encountering a particular signal. For example, a drug with poor solubility will be replaced by a drug delivery system where both hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments exist, improving the solubility.[17] Drug delivery systems may also be able to prevent tissue damage through regulated drug release; reduce drug clearance rates; or lower the volume of distribution and reduce the effect on non-target tissue. However, the biodistribution of these nanoparticles is still imperfect due to the complex host’s reactions to nano- and microsized materials[16] and the difficulty in targeting specific organs in the body. Nevertheless, a lot of work is still ongoing to optimize and better understand the potential and limitations of nanoparticulate systems. While advancement of research proves that targeting and distribution can be augmented by nanoparticles, the dangers of nanotoxicity become an important next step in further understanding of their medical uses.[18]

Nanoparticles are under research for their potential to decrease antibiotic resistance or for various antimicrobial uses.[19][20][21] Nanoparticles might also be used to circumvent multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms.[7]See also: Antibiotic properties of nanoparticles

Systems under research[edit]

Advances in lipid nanotechnology were instrumental in engineering medical nanodevices and novel drug delivery systems, as well as in developing sensing applications.[22] Another system for microRNA delivery under preliminary research is nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of two different microRNAs deregulated in cancer.[23] One potential application is based on small electromechanical systems, such as nanoelectromechanical systems being investigated for the active release of drugs and sensors for possible cancer treatment with iron nanoparticles or gold shells.[24]


Some nanotechnology-based drugs that are commercially available or in human clinical trials include:

  • Abraxane, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat breast cancer,[25] non-small- cell lung cancer (NSCLC)[26] and pancreatic cancer,[27] is the nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel.
  • Doxil was originally approved by the FDA for the use on HIV-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is now being used to also treat ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma. The drug is encased in liposomes, which helps to extend the life of the drug that is being distributed. Liposomes are self-assembling, spherical, closed colloidal structures that are composed of lipid bilayers that surround an aqueous space. The liposomes also help to increase the functionality and it helps to decrease the damage that the drug does to the heart muscles specifically.[28]
  • Onivyde, liposome encapsulated irinotecan to treat metastatic pancreatic cancer, was approved by FDA in October 2015.[29]
  • Rapamune is a nanocrystal-based drug that was approved by the FDA in 2000 to prevent organ rejection after transplantation. The nanocrystal components allow for increased drug solubility and dissolution rate, leading to improved absorption and high bioavailability.[30]


Preclinical research[edit]

Existing and potential drug nanocarriers have been reviewed.[7][31][32][33]

Nanoparticles have high surface area to volume ratio. This allows for many functional groups to be attached to a nanoparticle, which can seek out and bind to certain tumor cells.[34] Additionally, the small size of nanoparticles (5 to 100 nanometers), allows them to preferentially accumulate at tumor sites (because tumors lack an effective lymphatic drainage system). Limitations to conventional cancer chemotherapy include drug resistance, lack of selectivity, and lack of solubility.[35]


In vivo imaging is another area where tools and devices are being developed.[36] Using nanoparticle contrast agents, images such as ultrasound and MRI have a favorable distribution and improved contrast. In cardiovascular imaging, nanoparticles have potential to aid visualization of blood pooling, ischemia, angiogenesisatherosclerosis, and focal areas where inflammation is present.[36]

The small size of nanoparticles endows them with properties that can be very useful in oncology, particularly in imaging.[7] Quantum dots (nanoparticles with quantum confinement properties, such as size-tunable light emission), when used in conjunction with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), can produce exceptional images of tumor sites. Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (quantum dots) glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. When injected, they seep into cancer tumors. The surgeon can see the glowing tumor, and use it as a guide for more accurate tumor removal.These nanoparticles are much brighter than organic dyes and only need one light source for excitation. This means that the use of fluorescent quantum dots could produce a higher contrast image and at a lower cost than today’s organic dyes used as contrast media. The downside, however, is that quantum dots are usually made of quite toxic elements, but this concern may be addressed by use of fluorescent dopants.[37]

Tracking movement can help determine how well drugs are being distributed or how substances are metabolized. It is difficult to track a small group of cells throughout the body, so scientists used to dye the cells. These dyes needed to be excited by light of a certain wavelength in order for them to light up. While different color dyes absorb different frequencies of light, there was a need for as many light sources as cells. A way around this problem is with luminescent tags. These tags are quantum dots attached to proteins that penetrate cell membranes.[37] The dots can be random in size, can be made of bio-inert material, and they demonstrate the nanoscale property that color is size-dependent. As a result, sizes are selected so that the frequency of light used to make a group of quantum dots fluoresce is an even multiple of the frequency required to make another group incandesce. Then both groups can be lit with a single light source. They have also found a way to insert nanoparticles[38] into the affected parts of the body so that those parts of the body will glow showing the tumor growth or shrinkage or also organ trouble.[39]


Main article: Nanosensor

Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of lab-on-a-chip technology. Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. In particular silica nanoparticles are inert from the photophysical point of view and might accumulate a large number of dye(s) within the nanoparticle shell.[40] Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample. Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots into polymeric microbeads. Nanopore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures.[citation needed]

Sensor test chips containing thousands of nanowires, able to detect proteins and other biomarkers left behind by cancer cells, could enable the detection and diagnosis of cancer in the early stages from a few drops of a patient’s blood.[41] Nanotechnology is helping to advance the use of arthroscopes, which are pencil-sized devices that are used in surgeries with lights and cameras so surgeons can do the surgeries with smaller incisions. The smaller the incisions the faster the healing time which is better for the patients. It is also helping to find a way to make an arthroscope smaller than a strand of hair.[42]

Research on nanoelectronics-based cancer diagnostics could lead to tests that can be done in pharmacies. The results promise to be highly accurate and the product promises to be inexpensive. They could take a very small amount of blood and detect cancer anywhere in the body in about five minutes, with a sensitivity that is a thousand times better a conventional laboratory test. These devices that are built with nanowires to detect cancer proteins; each nanowire detector is primed to be sensitive to a different cancer marker.[24] The biggest advantage of the nanowire detectors is that they could test for anywhere from ten to one hundred similar medical conditions without adding cost to the testing device.[43] Nanotechnology has also helped to personalize oncology for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. It is now able to be tailored to each individual’s tumor for better performance. They have found ways that they will be able to target a specific part of the body that is being affected by cancer.[44]

Blood purification[edit]

Magnetic micro particles are proven research instruments for the separation of cells and proteins from complex media. The technology is available under the name Magnetic-activated cell sorting or Dynabeads among others. More recently it was shown in animal models that magnetic nanoparticles can be used for the removal of various noxious compounds including toxinspathogens, and proteins from whole blood in an extracorporeal circuit similar to dialysis.[45][46] In contrast to dialysis, which works on the principle of the size related diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane, the purification with nanoparticles allows specific targeting of substances. Additionally larger compounds which are commonly not dialyzable can be removed.[citation needed]

The purification process is based on functionalized iron oxide or carbon coated metal nanoparticles with ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic properties.[47] Binding agents such as proteins,[46] antibodies,[45] antibiotics,[48] or synthetic ligands[49] are covalently linked to the particle surface. These binding agents are able to interact with target species forming an agglomerate. Applying an external magnetic field gradient allows exerting a force on the nanoparticles. Hence the particles can be separated from the bulk fluid, thereby cleaning it from the contaminants.[50][51]

The small size (< 100 nm) and large surface area of functionalized nanomagnets leads to advantageous properties compared to hemoperfusion, which is a clinically used technique for the purification of blood and is based on surface adsorption. These advantages are high loading and accessible for binding agents, high selectivity towards the target compound, fast diffusion, small hydrodynamic resistance, and low dosage.[52]

This approach offers new therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of systemic infections such as sepsis by directly removing the pathogen. It can also be used to selectively remove cytokines or endotoxins[48] or for the dialysis of compounds which are not accessible by traditional dialysis methods. However the technology is still in a preclinical phase and first clinical trials are not expected before 2017.[53]

Tissue engineering[edit]

Nanotechnology may be used as part of tissue engineering to help reproduce or repair or reshape damaged tissue using suitable nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors. Tissue engineering if successful may replace conventional treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants. Nanoparticles such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, molybdenum disulfide and tungsten disulfide are being used as reinforcing agents to fabricate mechanically strong biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering applications. The addition of these nanoparticles in the polymer matrix at low concentrations (~0.2 weight %) leads to significant improvements in the compressive and flexural mechanical properties of polymeric nanocomposites.[54][55] Potentially, these nanocomposites may be used as a novel, mechanically strong, light weight composite as bone implants.[citation needed]

For example, a flesh welder was demonstrated to fuse two pieces of chicken meat into a single piece using a suspension of gold-coated nanoshells activated by an infrared laser. This could be used to weld arteries during surgery.[56] Another example is nanonephrology, the use of nanomedicine on the kidney.

Medical devices[edit]

Kinesin is a protein complex functioning as a molecular biological machine. It uses protein domain dynamics on nanoscales

Neuro-electronic interfacing is a visionary goal dealing with the construction of nanodevices that will permit computers to be joined and linked to the nervous system. This idea requires the building of a molecular structure that will permit control and detection of nerve impulses by an external computer. A refuelable strategy implies energy is refilled continuously or periodically with external sonic, chemical, tethered, magnetic, or biological electrical sources, while a nonrefuelable strategy implies that all power is drawn from internal energy storage which would stop when all energy is drained. A nanoscale enzymatic biofuel cell for self-powered nanodevices have been developed that uses glucose from biofluids including human blood and watermelons.[57] One limitation to this innovation is the fact that electrical interference or leakage or overheating from power consumption is possible. The wiring of the structure is extremely difficult because they must be positioned precisely in the nervous system. The structures that will provide the interface must also be compatible with the body’s immune system.[58]

Cell repair machines[edit]

Molecular nanotechnology is a speculative subfield of nanotechnology regarding the possibility of engineering molecular assemblers, machines which could re-order matter at a molecular or atomic scale.[citation needed] Nanomedicine would make use of these nanorobots, introduced into the body, to repair or detect damages and infections. Molecular nanotechnology is highly theoretical, seeking to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield and to propose an agenda for future inquiry. The proposed elements of molecular nanotechnology, such as molecular assemblers and nanorobots are far beyond current capabilities.[1][58][59][60] Future advances in nanomedicine could give rise to life extension through the repair of many processes thought to be responsible for aging. K. Eric Drexler, one of the founders of nanotechnology, postulated cell repair machines, including ones operating within cells and utilizing as yet hypothetical molecular machines, in his 1986 book Engines of Creation, with the first technical discussion of medical nanorobots by Robert Freitas appearing in 1999.[1] Raymond Kurzweil, a futurist and transhumanist, stated in his book The Singularity Is Near that he believes that advanced medical nanorobotics could completely remedy the effects of aging by 2030.[61] According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator Albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him (circa 1959) the idea of a medical use for Feynman’s theoretical micromachines (see nanotechnology). Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would, in theory, be possible to (as Feynman put it) “swallow the doctor“. The idea was incorporated into Feynman’s 1959 essay There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.[62]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up to:a b c Freitas RA (1999). Nanomedicine: Basic Capabilities1. Austin, TX: Landes Bioscience. ISBN 978-1-57059-645-2.
  2. ^ Wagner V, Dullaart A, Bock AK, Zweck A (October 2006). “The emerging nanomedicine landscape”. Nature Biotechnology24(10): 1211–7. doi:10.1038/nbt1006-1211PMID 17033654.
  3. ^ Freitas RA (March 2005). “What is nanomedicine?” (PDF). Nanomedicine1 (1): 2–9. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2004.11.003PMID 17292052.
  4. ^ Coombs RR, Robinson DW (1996). Nanotechnology in Medicine and the Biosciences. Development in Nanotechnology. 3. Gordon & Breach. ISBN 978-2-88449-080-1.
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