QUANTUM TELEPORTATION BREAKTHROUGH ANNOUNCED BY SCIENTISTS – Discovery opens up new ‘dimension’ in transmitting information @ Scientists have made a major breakthrough in quantum teleportation, successfully transferring something far more complex than ever before. & Facial recognition algorithms can be deployed to hunt for dark matter – The same type of neural networks that make facial recognition tools are now being used to look for and characterize dark matter. ´´Quantum teleportation is a process in which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location. Because it depends on classical communication, which can proceed no faster than the speed of light, it cannot be used for faster-than-light transport or communication of classical bits.´´ @ Other News

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QUANTUM TELEPORTATION BREAKTHROUGH ANNOUNCED BY SCIENTISTS

Discovery opens up new ‘dimension’ in transmitting information

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The Independent Tech

Scientists have made a major breakthrough in quantum teleportation, successfully transferring something far more complex than ever before.

Quantum teleportation is a still mysterious phenomena that can see information flung across space.

The effect is not the same as the teleportation often seen in science fiction – where matter is moved through space – but instead is the transfer information about the quantum state of a particle. It could have huge and unimagined effects on the way we organise and transmit information, including the possibility of a vastly more complicated quantum internet.

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Until now, scientists have only been able to teleport quantum bits, or qubits. Those are the simplest possible piece of quantum information, where a particle can be in two states at once.

But a qutrit – which scientists have now successfully teleported – adds a whole extra dimension. If a qubit is polarised in two ways at once, a qutrit is polarised in three directions – a vastly more complicated unit, and a far greater challenge for the scientists involved.

It means, in effect, that scientists have more detailed information that can be teleported. A qubit could be 0 or 1; a qutrit can be 0, 1 or 2.

Sending a qutrit rather than a qubit means a vast increase in complexity, because of the nature of the process.

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But it also means that the effect could be far more useful. The extra information that can be transferred could power technologies such as a possible quantum internet, allowing for instant and very secure communication. 

“The higher the dimensions of your quantum system, the more secure you can ensure your communication is and the more information you can encode,” Ciarán Lee, from University College London, told New Scientist. “But going from a qubit to a qutrit is especially difficult — the tricks you use for qubits have to do with a nice symmetry that qutrits don’t have.”

The researchers report in their new paper, published in Physical Review Letters, that the demonstrations of their technique had a 75 per cent fidelity. That may appear low, but is far better than similar techniques that do not use quantum entanglement and is likely to improve in time.MORE ABOUTQUANTUM TELEPORTATION

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Humans and Technology

An important quantum algorithm may actually be a property of nature

Evidence that quantum searches are an ordinary feature of electron behavior may explain the genetic code, one of the greatest puzzles in biology.

by Emerging Technology from the arXivSep 12, 2019

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Back in 1996, a quantum physicist at Bell Labs in New Jersey published a new recipe for searching through a database of N entries. Computer scientists have long known that this process takes around N steps because in the worst case, the last item on the list could be the one of interest.

However, this physicist, Lov Grover, showed how the strange rules of quantum mechanics allowed the search to be done in a number of steps equal to the square root of N.

That was a big deal. Searching databases is a foundational task in computer science, used for everything from finding telephone numbers to breaking cryptographic codes. So any speed-up is a significant advance.

Quantum mechanics provided an additional twist. At the time, Grover’s recipe was only the second quantum algorithm that had been proved faster than its classical counterpart. (The first was Peter Shor’s algorithm for factoring numbers, which he discovered in 1994.) Grover’s work was an important factor in preparing the way for the quantum computing revolution that is still ongoing today.

But despite the interest, implementing Grover’s algorithm has taken time because of the significant technical challenges involved. The first quantum computer capable of implementing it appeared in 1998, but the first scalable version didn’t appear until 2017, and even then it worked with only three qubits. So new ways to implement the algorithm are desperately needed.  

Today Stéphane Guillet and colleagues at the University of Toulon in France say this may be easier than anybody expected. They say they have evidence that Grover’s search algorithm is a naturally occurring phenomenon. “We provide the first evidence that under certain conditions, electrons may naturally behave like a Grover search, looking for defects in a material,” they say.

That has obvious implications for quantum computing, but its real import may be much more profound. For some time, theorists have debated whether quantum search could explain one of the greatest mysteries about the origin of life. The idea that Grover searches occur in nature could finally solve the conundrum.

First some background. Because it is so fundamental, Grover’s search algorithm can be reformulated in a variety of ways. One of these is as a quantum walk across a surface—the way a quantum particle would move randomly from one point to another.

What is quantum communication?

 

Explainer: What is quantum communication?

Researchers and companies are creating ultra-secure communication networks that could form the basis of a quantum internet. This is how it works.

Clearly, this process is a kind of search of two-dimensional space. But because a quantum particle can explore many paths at the same time, it is much faster than a classical search.

The nature of the surface has an important influence on the search. For example, one type of surface consists of a square grid where the quantum particle has four possible moves at each vertex.

But there are many other possible grids; a triangular one, for example, where the quantum particle has three choices at each vertex. “The triangular grid is of particular interest because of its resemblance to several naturally occurring crystal-like materials,” say Guillet and co.

The team focused on simulating the way a Grover search works for electrons exploring triangular and square grids, but they also included other physically realistic effects, such as defects in the grid in the form of holes, and quantum properties such as interference effects.

Quantum walk

The results are eye-opening. The question they ask is how quickly an electron can find the hole in a grid. And the team’s big breakthrough is to show that these simulations reproduce the way real electrons behave in real materials.

In other words, this is evidence that free electrons naturally implement the Grover search algorithm when moving across the surface of certain crystals.

That has immediate implications for quantum computing. “[This work] may be the path to a serious technological leap, whereby experimentalist would bypass the need for a full-fledged scalable and error-correcting Quantum Computer, and take the shortcut of looking for ‘natural occurrences’ of the Grover search instead,” say the team.

The work also has implications for our thinking about the genetic code and the origin of life. Every living creature on Earth uses the same code, in which DNA stores information using four nucleotide bases. The sequences of nucleotides encode information for constructing proteins from an alphabet of 20 amino acids.

But why these numbers—four and 20—and not some others? Back in 2000, just a few years after Grover published his work, Apoorva Patel at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore showed how Grover’s algorithm could explain these numbers.

Patel’s idea is related to the way DNA is assembled inside cells. In this situation, the molecular machinery inside a cell must search through the molecular soup of nucleotide bases to find the right one. If there are four choices, a classical search takes four steps on average. So the machinery would have to try four different bases during each assembly step.

But a quantum search using Grover’s algorithm is much quicker: Patel showed that when there are four choices, a quantum search can distinguish between four alternatives in a single step. Indeed, four is optimal number.

This thinking also explains why there are 20 amino acids. In DNA, each set of three nucleotides defines a single amino acid. So the sequence of triplets in DNA defines the sequence of amino acids in a protein.

But during protein assembly, each amino acid must be chosen from a soup of 20 different options. Grover’s algorithm explains these numbers: a three-step quantum search can find an object in a database containing up to 20 kinds of entry. Again, 20 is the optimal number.

In other words, if the search processes involved in assembling DNA and proteins is to be as efficient as possible, the number of bases should be four and the number of amino acids should to be 20—exactly as is found. The only caveat is that the searches must be quantum in nature.

When Patel published his idea, quantum physicists immediately pooh-poohed it. At the time, they were bogged down in their own attempts to control quantum processes, which they could do only by isolating quantum particles in extreme environments such as at temperatures close to absolute zero.

The obvious problem, they said, was that living things operate in a warm, messy environment in which quantum states would be immediately destroyed.

Biologists were equally dismissive, saying that quantum processes couldn’t possibly be at work inside living things.

Since then, an increasing body of evidence has emerged that quantum processes play an important role in a number of biological mechanisms. Photosynthesis, for example, is now thought to be an essentially quantum process.

The work of Guillet and co throws a new perspective on all this. It suggests that Grover’s algorithm is not only possible in certain materials; it seems to be a property of nature. And if that’s true, then the objections to Patel’s ideas start to crumble.

It may be that life is just an example of Grover’s quantum search at work, and that this algorithm is itself a fundamental property of nature. That’s a Big Idea if ever there was one.

Ref: arxiv.org/abs/1908.11213 : The Grover search as a naturally occurring phenomenonShareLinkAuthor

Emerging Technology from the arXivPopular

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ExpandClimate ChangeAug 26

Whoops! California’s carbon offsets program could extend the life of coal mines.

A new study highlighting the risks of perverse incentives offers the latest evidence that carbon offsets are a deeply flawed way of combating climate change.

Humans and TechnologyAug 24

The chemistry behind how you make a record-breaking giant soap bubble

The art of creating giant bubbles is more mysterious than it seems, but researchers are at last teasing apart the chemistry of thin soapy films.

Read more

Humans and Technology

The new battle in Hong Kong isn’t on the streets; it’s in the apps

Activists are using Airdrop, livestreams, and innovative maps to keep their protest alive. But the authorities have plenty of tech of their own.

Silicon ValleyAug 23

YouTube has removed 210 channels that posted about the Hong Kong protests

 

It’s unclear which rules the channels had broken, though, or even which ones have been taken down….

 

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Meet the next generation of entrepreneurs. They’re all over 65.

How “stalkerware” apps are letting abusive partners spy on their victims

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Quantum radar has been demonstrated for the first time

A radar device that relies on entangled photons works at such low power that it can hide behind background noise, making it useful for biomedical and security applications.

Tech PolicyAug 22

Desperate Venezuelans are making money by training AI for self-driving cars

Growing competition to develop self-driving cars—and the high stakes of getting things right—have created new crowdworking platforms that could be a lifeline for desperate workers.

Read moreBlockchainAug 22

Some crypto-criminals think jumping across blockchains covers their tracks. Big mistake.

BlockchainAug 22

The US has blacklisted digital currency addresses for three Chinese nationals

 

The Treasury Department has blacklisted several digital currency addresses it says belong to three Chinese nationals accused of trafficking synthetic opioids in the US. …

 

ExpandSpaceAug 22

This inflatable space home could give future astronauts room to stretch out

 

American aerospace company Sierra Nevada has unveiled a full-scale prototype for a brand-new inflatable habitat that could be home to future astronauts living and working in deep space….

 

ExpandSmart CitiesAug 22

Waymo is going to share its self-driving data—but it’s still not enough

Waymo, the self-driving spinoff of Alphabet, is the latest firm to offer up some of the information gleaned from its vehicles to the wider research community….

 

ExpandComputingAug 22

A super-secure quantum internet just took another step closer to reality

 

Scientists have managed to send a record-breaking amount of data in quantum form, using a strange unit of quantum information called a qutrit….

 

ExpandTech PolicyAug 22

Here’s how social-media firms should tackle online hate, according to physics

Read moreClimate ChangeAug 21

The Brazilian Amazon is on fire—here’s why that’s bad news for the planet

 

Forest fires have soared in the Brazilian Amazon this year, sharpening concerns about rising deforestation and climate emissions under the nation’s new far-right president….

 

ExpandSilicon ValleyAug 21

YouTube has removed videos of robots fighting, citing “animal cruelty”

The videos’ removal raises some intriguing questions about YouTube’s automated take-down process….

 

ExpandAstronomyAug 21

Astronomers might have spotted a black hole gobbling up a neutron star

 

Scientists have spotted the most exotic gravitational waves on record yet, after a black hole probably lunched on a neutron star….

 

ExpandTech PolicyAug 20

Twitter’s state-media ban should include Voice of America

Twitter and Facebook have hosted ads from US-backed outlets, sometimes even illegally.

Read more

Teen video app TikTok is the latest battlefield in the Kashmir conflict

What is Section 230 and why does Donald Trump want to change it?

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Ransomware hackers hit nearly two dozen Texas cities

 

In what looks like a highly coordinated cyberattack, approximately 23 cities and government agencies in Texas have been hit by hackers who held the captured computer systems ransom, Texas authorities …

 

ExpandBlockchainAug 20

The World Bank is still loving its blockchain-powered bonds

The World Bank’s blockchain-based bond wasn’t just a one-hit wonder. Nearly a year after it issued the two-year bond, the government-run global development bank has issued a second round, bringing the…

 

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Biotechnology

Doctors have put human livers in suspended animation

Supercooling organs could save the lives of people on transplant waiting lists.

Absolute unitAug 20

The world’s biggest chip is bigger than an iPad and will help train AI

 

Cerebras Systems’ new semiconductor boasts 1.2 trillion transistors—and will turbocharge AI applications….

 

ExpandBiotechnologyAug 20

Measuring the shape of proteins just got easier thanks to mathematics

Read moreDisinformationAug 20

Facebook and Twitter are cracking down on Chinese propaganda accounts

 

Between them, the companies have suspended nearly 1,000 accounts believed to be part of a Chinese government operation to sow disinformation about the protests in Hong Kong….

 

ExpandHumans and TechnologyAug 20

A map of the brain could help to guess what you’re reading

A 3D map of how the brain responds to words could unlock new ways to understand and treat dyslexia and speech disorders….

 

ExpandHumans and TechnologyAug 20

Twitter got you down? Try taking your phone out for fresh air.

 

A strange new piece of sentiment analysis research adds to the evidence that nature makes people happier—even if they’re staring at their phones while they’re outside….

 

ExpandClimate ChangeAug 19

How nanoparticles that harvest light could curb climate emissions

Syzygy Plasmonics has raised nearly $6 million to produce a cleaner form of hydrogen, using a novel type of photocatalyst.

Humans and TechnologyAug 19

The anatomy of a sextortion spam campaign

The latest genre of nuisance email tries to blackmail victims with threats to send embarrassing images or information to their contacts. A new analysis reveals just how much money this type of scam can generate.

Read moreSilicon ValleyAug 19

China’s state media is paying Twitter to promote ads against Hong Kong protesters

 

China’s official state news agency Xinhua is promoting tweets attacking the protesters and claiming they do not have wider support….

 

ExpandBlockchainAug 15

New money-laundering rules change everything for cryptocurrency exchanges

Complying with regulators could mean the difference between going mainstream and remaining forever on the margins of the global financial system.

Artificial IntelligenceAug 15

These bionic shorts help turn an epic hike into a leisurely stroll

 

Forget the Thighmaster. Someday you might add a spring to your step when walking or running using a pair of mechanically powered shorts….

 

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A startup that marries AI with empathy is helping women conceive

These companies claim to provide “fair-trade” data work. Do they?

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A new clothing line confuses automated license plate readers

Garments from Adversarial Fashion feed junk data into surveillance cameras, in an effort to make their databases less effective….

 

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The AIOps mission: Simplify the complex

The technology allows businesses to manage large volumes of data across distributed IT systems and reduces the time it takes to perform and respond to daily operational tasks.

Read moreProduced in association with AppDynamicsClimate ChangeAug 15

A hotter planet will make solar power less efficient

Humans and TechnologyAug 15

Teen video app TikTok is the latest battlefield in the Kashmir conflict

Read moreComputingAug 14

NYC has hired hackers to hit back at stalkerware

Read more

Special issue: longevity

Can we treat aging?

The anti-aging drug that’s just around the corner

01.What if aging weren’t inevitable, but a curable disease?If this controversial idea gains acceptance, it could radically change the way we treat getting old.02.Has this scientist finally found the fountain of youth?Editing the epigenome, which turns our genes on and off, could be the “elixir of life.”03.I tried Prolon’s starvation diet so you wouldn’t have toA diet based on caloric restriction might make you live longer. It’ll certainly feel like longer.ComputingAug 14

Data leak exposes unchangeable biometric data of over 1 million people

 

You can always change your password. Your fingerprints and face are another story….

 

ExpandSilicon ValleyAug 14

Facebook paid people to listen to voice recordings, too

 

It’s the fifth big tech company forced to admit to the practice this year….

 

ExpandComputingAug 13

16 million Americans will vote on hackable paperless machines

Experts agree that paper ballots are needed, but eight American states will use completely paperless machines in the 2020 elections.

BlockchainAug 13

North Korea is funding its weapons program with stolen cryptocurrency

Hacking has become a central strategy for Kim Jong-un’s regime to generate revenue and soften the blow of economic sanctions. A new report from the United Nations, seen by the Associated Press,…

 

ExpandTech PolicyAug 13

The tech employee backlash, Whole Foods edition

 

The news: A group of anonymous Whole Foods employees is calling out Amazon (which bought the supermarket chain in 2017) for working with Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). An open letter,…

 

 

ExpandArtificial IntelligenceAug 13

Having mastered Space Invaders, chess, and Go, AI tackles video soccer

Google’s artificial-intelligence researchers have created a football simulator for training the next generation of machine-learning algorithms.

Read moreArtificial IntelligenceAug 13

Nvidia just made it easier to build smarter chatbots and slicker fake news

Chip maker Nvidia is betting that AI’s language skills will advance rapidly—it’s releasing a powerful tool for putting together chatty programs.

 

These companies claim to provide “fair-trade” data work. Do they?

China has started a grand experiment in AI education. It could reshape how the world learns.

Sign up for The Algorithm — artificial intelligence, demystified

Also stay updated on MIT Technology Review initiatives and events?YesNoSilicon ValleyAug 13

Google’s algorithm for detecting hate speech is racially biased

 

AI systems meant to spot abusive online content are far more likely to label tweets “offensive” if they were posted by people who identify as African-American….

 

ExpandSpaceAug 12

A planetary telescope would use Earth’s atmosphere as a giant lens

The “terrascope” could outperform the light-gathering power of any feasible ground-based telescope.

Silicon ValleyAug 12

The White House wants to regulate social-media moderation

If enacted, the executive order would vastly expand the Federal Communications Commission’s responsibilities….

 

ExpandArtificial IntelligenceAug 9

Toyota is giving robot helpers more brains, but they’ll still suck for a while

 

A new Japanese research effort aims to use cutting-edge AI to deliver robots capable of assisting the elderly and people with disabilities….

 

ExpandBiotechnologyAug 9

Don’t change your DNA at home, says America’s first CRISPR law

A California “human biohacking” bill calls for warnings on do-it-yourself genetic-engineering kits.

Read moreHumans and TechnologyAug 9

A fingernail-size gadget could help prevent babies from being stillborn

 

Researchers have published a pilot study that introduces a new at-home, wearable device that could cut down on some of the 2.6 million stillbirths that occur every year around the world….

 

ExpandSpaceAug 9

Astronomers have discovered the largest black hole ever observed

Humans and TechnologyAug 9

You can now practice firing someone in virtual reality

Meet Barry: his sole purpose in life is to listen patiently, and then protest or sob a little as you fire him from an imaginary job in virtual reality….

 

Expand

Biotechnology

Biohackers are pirating a cheap version of a million-dollar gene therapy

A group of independent biologists say they plan to copy a costly gene therapy. Are they medicine’s Robin Hood or a threat to safety?

Climate ChangeAug 8

Giving up just half your hamburgers can really help the climate

Read moreBlockchainAug 8

An attempted heist at Coinbase was scary good, even though it failed

Read moreHumans and TechnologyAug 8

Your Apple Watch might one day spot if you’re developing Alzheimer’s

 

A feasibility study suggests that data collected from smartphones and digital apps might help speed up the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease….

 

ExpandComputingAug 8

How phishing attacks trick our brains

Why you’re more of a sucker than you think.

Read more

Business Lab podcast: Keren Elazari on the importance of hackers

Is AI the next big climate-change threat? We haven’t a clue

Sign up for The Download — your daily dose of what’s up in emerging technology

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Trusted data and the future of information sharing

How policy innovation is promoting data sharing and AI.

Produced in association with IMDAArtificial IntelligenceAug 7

China’s path to AI domination has a problem: brain drain

 

A new analysis shows that the number of Chinese AI researchers has increased tenfold over the last decade, but the majority of them live outside the country….

 

ExpandSmart CitiesAug 7

New York City’s first self-driving shuttle service launches today

Six autonomous six-seater shuttles will be offering free rides around a one-mile loop of New York’s Brooklyn Navy Yard….

 

ExpandComputingAug 7

China’s cyber-spies make money on the side by hacking video games

 

Just because you’re a world-class Chinese government hacker busy conducting espionage against geopolitical adversaries doesn’t mean you can’t make a little extra money on the side….

 

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SPONSORED

Excelling in the new data economy

Effectively managing the massive influx of data is a matter of rethinking data management tactics and technologies.

Read moreProduced in association with IntelArtificial IntelligenceAug 6

Facebook, Google, Twitter aren’t prepared for presidential deepfakes

 

None of the big three internet foghorns—Facebook, Google, or Twitter—seems to have a clear plan for dealing with AI-generated fake videos, or “deepfakes,” ahead of next year’s presidential election,…

 

ExpandBlockchainAug 6

The Fed is going to revamp how Americans pay for things. Big banks aren’t happy.

America’s central bank plans to build its own real-time payment system, much to the chagrin of big commercial banks….

 

ExpandTech PolicyAug 6

CloudFlare dropping 8chan helps fight hate even if 8chan comes back

CloudFlare has changed expectations of the moral obligations of technology companies. 

BiotechnologyAug 6

A fake eye that sheds fake tears could replace animal testing

 

Is that supposed to be an eye? Yes, and the researchers who made this biomechanical version (which contains human cells) say it might eventually replace animals for testing….

 

ExpandSmart CitiesAug 6

A Japanese “flying car” has successfully made its first test flight

 

Companies around the world are racing to be the first to launch self-flying vehicles….

 

ExpandTech PolicyAug 5

Democrats have told Google to make its contractors permanent employees

The news: Ten Democratic senators—including presidential hopefuls Kamala Harris, Bernie Sanders, and Elizabeth Warren—have asked Google to turn its army of temporary workers into full-time employees….

 

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Special issue: longevity

Young pioneers on their hopes for technology, and older trailblazers on their regrets

SPONSORED

The past decade and the future of cosmology and astrophysics

Technological advances will continue to expand our understanding of the cosmos. They may also offer an awareness of the future of the human species and the planet in its charge.

Produced in association with BBVA

What a lack of unexplained gory deaths tells us about dark matter

A new thrust technology for nanosatellites could make them more efficient

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Cloudflare has stopped hosting 8chan after a weekend of mass shootings in the US

 

Web infrastructure firm Cloudflare has stopped hosting the infamous discussion website 8chan after it was used to publish and promote a white supremacist manifesto by the gunman who killed 20 people…

 

ExpandTech PolicyAug 2

Apple and Google have stopped letting humans listen to voice recordings

 

The suspension is only temporary, though, and in Google’s case it has only ended the practice in European Union countries….

 

ExpandHumans and TechnologyAug 2

AI could be your wingman—er, wingbot—on your next first date

AIMM wants to disrupt online dating. What could go wrong?

Read moreArtificial IntelligenceAug 2

AI researchers need to stop hiding the climate toll of their work

The Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence (AI2) is proposing a new way to incentivize energy-efficient machine learning….

 

ExpandHumans and TechnologyAug 1

You’re not imagining it: always checking dating apps makes you feel worse

 

study just out in the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships found that people who compulsively checked dating apps ended up feeling more lonely than before….

 

ExpandTech PolicyAug 1

How YouTubers plan to take on YouTube for better working conditions

BlockchainAug 1

“Crypto rogue” nations want to use blockchains to undermine the US dollar

Read moreBiotechnologyAug 1

Disgraced CRISPR scientist had plans to start a designer-baby business

Read moreComputingAug 1

Business Lab podcast: Keren Elazari on the importance of hackers

How thinking of helpful hackers as the immune systems of the internet can make your security stronger and better prepare and secure your digital presence.

BiotechnologyAug 1

Scientists are making human-monkey hybrids in China

Scientists may have taken a big—and controversial—leap by mixing human cells into monkey embryos.

Read moreComputingAug 1

A new bill aims to protect US voters from the next Cambridge Analytica

 

As the 2020 campaign season accelerates, a US lawmaker introduced a bill on Thursday that would regulate how political parties use voters’ data in federal elections….

 

ExpandBiotechnologyAug 1

The Impossible Burger is coming to a shop (and a Burger King) near you

 

US regulators have approved a key ingredient in Impossible Foods’ plant-based burger patties, clearing the way for them to go on sale directly to consumers….

 

Expand

Man with brain implant on Musk’s Neuralink: “I would play video games”

What’s new and what isn’t about Elon Musk’s brain-computer interface

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DeepMind’s algorithm can predict serious kidney injury 48 hours before it happens

It’s only accurate a little more than half the time, though, raising questions over whether and how it could be used in real-life settings….

 

ExpandArtificial IntelligenceJul 31

Instead of practicing, this AI mastered chess by reading about it

Machines that appreciate “brilliant” and “dumb” chess moves could learn to play the game—and do other things—more efficiently.

iPhone hack

Websites have been quietly hacking iPhones for years, says Google

Websites delivered iOS malware to thousands of visitors in the biggest iPhone hack ever. There’s no telling who was infected—or who was behind it.

Look, no handsJul 31

This autonomous bicycle shows China’s rising expertise in AI chips

 

It might not look like much, but this wobbly self-driving bicycle is a symbol of growing Chinese expertise in advanced chip design….

 

ExpandSilicon ValleyJul 31

Google’s new Pixel 4 phone will be the first to use its Soli gesture tech

 

The technology is going to be embedded in the new phone and will likely pop up across a range of devices in the future….

 

ExpandArtificial IntelligenceJul 31

Machine vision can spot unknown links between classic artworks

A new algorithm reveals a web of artistic connections by looking for humans posed similarly in different paintings.

Read moreHumans and TechnologyJul 30

Amazon hasn’t dominated the clothing industry yet. Here’s why.

After books, movies, and groceries, Amazon has announced it’s tackling the last and toughest bastion of retail with Personal Shopper by Prime Wardrobe….

 

ExpandTech PolicyJul 30

A new bill would ban making social media too addictive

 

The news: One of Big Tech’s most vocal critics in the US Congress has introduced a bill to limit social-media companies’ ability to use design features like infinite scrolling, video autoplay, and…

 

ExpandSpaceJul 30

NASA’s exoplanet hunter has spotted three new worlds in a nearby solar system

 

They were found using NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, which launched in April 2018 to hunt for habitable worlds in the nearby universe….

 

ExpandBlockchainJul 30

Libra may never launch, Facebook has warned investors

The company has warned investors that the currency, which it wants to launch next year, may not ever get off the ground….

 

ExpandComputingJul 30

A hacker stole the personal data of 100 million Capital One customers

 

The alleged hacker behind one of the biggest ever cyberattacks on a bank then boasted about what she’d done on Twitter and  Slack, according to the FBI….

 

ExpandFacebookJul 30

Facebook isn’t doing enough to tackle misinformation, say fact-checkers

 

Full Fact, a charity that has been part of Facebook’s third-party fact-checking program for six months, says the company needs to be more transparent and expand the program to its other platforms,…

 

ExpandSmart CitiesJul 29

How much electricity does a country use? Just ask cell-phone users.

Mobile-phone data looks set to change the way infrastructure is planned in the developing world.

Read more

These colorful stickers are helping blind people find their way around

Roman amphitheaters act like seismic invisibility cloaks

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What a lack of unexplained gory deaths tells us about dark matter

Silicon ValleyJul 29

Apple contractors hear confidential details from Siri, a whistleblower claims

Those who work on quality control for Apple’s Siri voice assistant “regularly hear confidential details” about users, according to a contractor paid to assess responses to Siri recordings….

 

ExpandSpaceJul 29

A huge asteroid flew very close to Earth last week. How did we miss it?

 

The asteroid managed to get within just 73,000 kilometers (45,360 miles) of our planet without anyone noticing. The miss lends a new sense of urgency to preparations for a potential collision one day….

 

ExpandComputingJul 29

Is AI the next big climate-change threat? We haven’t a clue

Read moreTakes one to know oneJul 26

A new tool uses AI to spot text written by AI

 

AI algorithms can generate text convincing enough to fool the average human—potentially providing a way to mass-produce fake news, bogus reviews, and phony social accounts. Thankfully, AI can now be…

 

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AI and fake news

OpenAI has released the largest version yet of its fake-news-spewing AI

The AI lab has also released a report to explain why it is releasing the model in increments.

01.The technology behind OpenAI’s fiction-writing, fake-news-spewing AI, explainedFebruary 201902.An AI that writes convincing prose risks mass-producing fake newsFebruary 201903.Can AI win the war against fake news?December 201704.An AI for generating fake news could also help detect itMarch 2019ComputingJul 26

A light sentence for a famous hacker has actually made the world safer

Marcus Hutchins has seen both sides of the law. On Friday, the 25-year-old was sentenced to no prison time and one year of supervised release for his role as a malware developer from 2012 to 2015,…

 

ExpandTech PolicyJul 26

Computers can’t tell if you’re happy when you smile

Read moreSpaceJul 26

SpaceX’s Starhopper rocket just went for its first test “hop”

 

The flight only lasted about 15 seconds—but it’s the crucial first test for SpaceX’s new spaceship….

 

ExpandSilicon ValleyJul 25

Apple’s spending $1 billion to buy most of Intel’s 5G modem business

 

The technology and people it’s acquiring will reinforce its push into 5G wireless services…

 

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Keeping pace in a smarter world

The benefits of smart spaces go far beyond security—they drive more efficient operations; reduce environmental impact; and provide a seamless, responsive experience.

Produced in association with Hitachi VantaraBlockchainJul 25

We’ve had private currencies like Libra before. It was chaos.

If private digital currencies start competing with national currencies, it could cause some of them to be more volatile. Almost 200 years ago, we saw something similar.

Read moreBlockchainJul 25

India might ban cryptocurrency and give its users jail time

 

A government panel’s recommendation is only the latest in a series of developments suggesting that India will not be a friendly place for the technology—at least private versions of it….

 

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The fight over Facebook’s digital currency could change the face of banking

Even Donald Trump is dumping on Facebook’s digital-currency dreams

Sign up for the Chain Letter — blockchains, cryptocurrencies, and why they matter

Also stay updated on MIT Technology Review initiatives and events?YesNoArtificial IntelligenceJul 25

Palmer Luckey’s military startup will monitor US bases with AI

Anduril, a company founded by Oculus Rift inventor Palmer Luckey, has secured a contract to monitor US military bases with its autonomous surveillance tech….

ExpandClimate ChangeJul 25

Automakers have agreed with California to make more efficient cars, in a rebuke to Trump

 

The agreement comes as the White House works to roll back Obama-era rules that could avoid billions of tons of climate emissions….

 

ExpandSilicon ValleyJul 25

Forget the fine—we should have taken Facebook to court, says FTC commissioner

 

The $5 billion fine and accompanying order won’t force accountability or impose any restrictions on the way Facebook collects or uses people’s data, warned one of the FTC’s five commissioners….

 

ExpandHumans and TechnologyJul 25

Alexa is powering new games where you control the action with your voice

Games played with voice commands are catching on, and now Amazon is betting on the nascent industry.

BlockchainJul 25

The New York Times thinks a blockchain could help stamp out fake news

Blockchain technology is at the core of a new research project the New York Times has launched, aimed at making “the origins of journalistic content clearer to [its] audience.”…

 

ExpandComputingJul 24

Barr’s call for encryption backdoors has reawakened a years-old debate

Attorney General William Barr’s speech on Tuesday reignited a dispute that’s more relevant than ever.

Read moreTech PolicyJul 24

Websites are (probably) making less money because of GDPR

 

The news: A new working paper suggests that websites are making less money because of the General Data Protection Rule (GDPR). It’s the first study of how the European privacy law affects the revenue…

 

ExpandVRJul 24

The VR illusion that makes you think you have a spider’s body

 

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Facial recognition algorithms can be deployed to hunt for dark matter

 

The same type of neural networks that make facial recognition tools are now being used to look for and characterize dark matter.

The dark stuff: We’ve never directly detected or measured dark matter, but we know it exists because we can see its influence on the universe. Many of the movements of different stars and galaxies cannot be explained by the gravity exerted by the matter we can see. Something else must be at play. 

All matter, including dark matter, is capable of slightly bending light rays and causing “weak gravitational lensing” in the observations made by our telescopes. Scientists can use these distortions to map out the regions of the night sky where dark matter is most likely situated. 

Looking for familiar faces: A team of researchers from ETH Zurich in Switzerland trained a neural network model (of the type often employed to analyze visual imagery) to look for subtle signs of weak gravitational lensing caused by dark matter. The model was trained by being fed simulated data that taught it what scientists typically look for when hunting for dark matter. The model ended up being 30% more accurate than human scientists at spotting and labeling potential signs of dark matter in images.

The machine-learning model was then used to analyze actual dark-matter maps created from the European Southern Observatory’s Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS). Findings reported in Physical Review D this week show that the model was able to analyze the maps in finer detail than current methods, and modeled the likely location of dark matter more sharply.

The other dark mystery: Next, the team hopes to apply the model to other cosmological maps to learn more about the distribution and behavior of dark energy, a mysterious force that is driving the expansion of the universe.ShareLinkTaggedFace RecognitionAuthor

Neel V. PatelImageESO

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Quantum teleportation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
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Quantum teleportation is a process in which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location. Because it depends on classical communication, which can proceed no faster than the speed of light, it cannot be used for faster-than-light transport or communication of classical bits. While it has proven possible to teleport one or more qubits of information between two (entangled) quanta,[1][2][3] this has not yet been achieved between anything larger than molecules.[4]

Although the name is inspired by the teleportation commonly used in fiction, quantum teleportation is limited to the transfer of information rather than matter itself. Quantum teleportation is not a form of transportation, but of communication: it provides a way of transporting a qubit from one location to another without having to move a physical particle along with it.

The term was coined by physicist Charles Bennett. The seminal paper[5] first expounding the idea of quantum teleportation was published by C. H. Bennett, G. BrassardC. CrépeauR. JozsaA. Peres, and W. K. Wootters in 1993.[6] Quantum teleportation was first realized in single photons,[7] later being demonstrated in various material systems such as atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. The latest reported record distance for quantum teleportation is 1,400 km (870 mi) by the group of Jian-Wei Pan using the Micius satellite for space-based quantum teleportation.[8][9][10]

Non-technical summary[edit]

In matters relating to quantum or classical information theory, it is convenient to work with the simplest possible unit of information, the two-state system. In classical information, this is a bit, commonly represented using one or zero (or true or false). The quantum analog of a bit is a quantum bit, or qubit. Qubits encode a type of information, called quantum information, which differs sharply from “classical” information. For example, quantum information can be neither copied (the no-cloning theorem) nor destroyed (the no-deleting theorem).

Quantum teleportation provides a mechanism of moving a qubit from one location to another, without having to physically transport the underlying particle to which that qubit is normally attached. Much like the invention of the telegraph allowed classical bits to be transported at high speed across continents, quantum teleportation holds the promise that one day, qubits could be moved likewise.[11][12] As of 2015, the quantum states of single photons, photon modes, single atoms, atomic ensembles, defect centers in solids, single electrons, and superconducting circuits have been employed as information bearers.[13]

The movement of qubits does not require the movement of “things” any more than communication over the internet does: no quantum object needs to be transported, but it is necessary to communicate two classical bits per teleported qubit from the sender to the receiver. The actual teleportation protocol requires that an entangled quantum state or Bell state be created, and its two parts shared between two locations (the source and destination, or Alice and Bob). In essence, a certain kind of quantum channel between two sites must be established first, before a qubit can be moved. Teleportation also requires a classical information channel to be established, as two classical bits must be transmitted to accompany each qubit. The reason for this is that the results of the measurements must be communicated between the source and destination so as to reconstruct the qubit, or else the state of the destination qubit would not be known to the source, and any attempt to reconstruct the state would be random; this must be done over ordinary classical communication channels. The need for such classical channels may, at first, seem disappointing, and this explains why teleportation is limited to the speed of transfer of information, i.e., the speed of light. The main advantages is that Bell states can be shared using photons from lasers,[8] and so teleportation is achievable through open space, i.e., without the need to send information through cables or optical fibers.

The quantum states of single atoms have been teleported.[1][3][2] Quantum states can be encoded in various degrees of freedom of atoms. For example, qubits can be encoded in the degrees of freedom of electrons surrounding the atomic nucleus or in the degrees of freedom of the nucleus itself. It is inaccurate to say “an atom has been teleported”. It is the quantum state of an atom that is teleported. Thus, performing this kind of teleportation requires a stock of atoms at the receiving site, available for having qubits imprinted on them.[3] The importance of teleporting the nuclear state is unclear:[citation needed] the nuclear state does affect[how?] the atom, e.g. in hyperfine splitting, but whether such state would need to be teleported in some futuristic “practical” application is debatable.[according to whom?]

An important aspect of quantum information theory is entanglement, which imposes statistical correlations between otherwise distinct physical systems by creating or placing two or more separate particles into a single, shared quantum state. These correlations hold even when measurements are chosen and performed independently, out of causal contact from one another, as verified in Bell test experiments. Thus, an observation resulting from a measurement choice made at one point in spacetime seems to instantaneously affect outcomes in another region, even though light hasn’t yet had time to travel the distance; a conclusion seemingly at odds with special relativity (EPR paradox). However such correlations can never be used to transmit any information faster than the speed of light, a statement encapsulated in the no-communication theorem. Thus, teleportation, as a whole, can never be superluminal, as a qubit cannot be reconstructed until the accompanying classical information arrives.

Understanding quantum teleportation requires a good grounding in finite-dimensional linear algebraHilbert spaces and projection matrixes. A qubit is described using a two-dimensional complex number-valued vector space (a Hilbert space), which are the primary basis for the formal manipulations given below. A working knowledge of quantum mechanics is not absolutely required to understand the mathematics of quantum teleportation, although without such acquaintance, the deeper meaning of the equations may remain quite mysterious.

Protocol[edit]

 
Diagram for quantum teleportation of a photon

The prerequisites for quantum teleportation are a qubit that is to be teleported, a conventional communication channel capable of transmitting two classical bits (i.e., one of four states), and means of generating an entangled EPR pair of qubits, transporting each of these to two different locations, A and B, performing a Bell measurement on one of the EPR pair qubits, and manipulating the quantum state of the other pair. The protocol is then as follows:

  1. An EPR pair is generated, one qubit sent to location A, the other to B.
  2. At location A, a Bell measurement of the EPR pair qubit and the qubit to be teleported (the quantum state {\displaystyle |\phi \rangle }) is performed, yielding one of four measurement outcomes, which can be encoded in two classical bits of information. Both qubits at location A are then discarded.
  3. Using the classical channel, the two bits are sent from A to B. (This is the only potentially time-consuming step after step 1, due to speed-of-light considerations.)
  4. As a result of the measurement performed at location A, the EPR pair qubit at location B is in one of four possible states. Of these four possible states, one is identical to the original quantum state {\displaystyle |\phi \rangle }, and the other three are closely related. Which of these four possibilities actually obtained, is encoded in the two classical bits. Knowing this, the EPR pair qubit at location B is modified in one of three ways, or not at all, to result in a qubit identical to {\displaystyle |\phi \rangle }, the qubit that was chosen for teleportation.

It is worth to notice that the above protocol assumes that the qubits are individually addressable, that means the qubits are distinguishable and physically labeled. However, there can be situations where two identical qubits are indistinguishable due to the spatial overlap of their wave functions. Under this condition, the qubits cannot be individually controlled or measured. Nevertheless, a teleportation protocol analogous to that described above can still be (conditionally) implemented by exploiting two independently-prepared qubits, with no need of an initial EPR pair. This can be made by addressing the internal degrees of freedom of the qubits (e.g., spins or polarizations) by spatially localized measurements performed in separated regions A and B shared by the wave functions of the two indistinguishable qubits.[14]

Experimental results and records[edit]

Work in 1998 verified the initial predictions,[15] and the distance of teleportation was increased in August 2004 to 600 meters, using optical fiber.[16] Subsequently, the record distance for quantum teleportation has been gradually increased to 16 kilometres (9.9 mi),[17] then to 97 km (60 mi),[18] and is now 143 km (89 mi), set in open air experiments in the Canary Islands, done between the two astronomical observatories of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.[19] There has been a recent record set (as of September 2015) using superconducting nanowire detectors that reached the distance of 102 km (63 mi) over optical fiber.[20] For material systems, the record distance is 21 metres (69 ft).[21]

A variant of teleportation called “open-destination” teleportation, with receivers located at multiple locations, was demonstrated in 2004 using five-photon entanglement.[22] Teleportation of a composite state of two single qubits has also been realized.[23] In April 2011, experimenters reported that they had demonstrated teleportation of wave packets of light up to a bandwidth of 10 MHz while preserving strongly nonclassical superposition states.[24][25] In August 2013, the achievement of “fully deterministic” quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported.[26] On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.[27][28] On 26 February 2015, scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei, led by Chao-yang Lu and Jian-Wei Pan carried out the first experiment teleporting multiple degrees of freedom of a quantum particle. They managed to teleport the quantum information from ensemble of rubidium atoms to another ensemble of rubidium atoms over a distance of 150 metres (490 ft) using entangled photons.[29][30][31] In 2016, researchers demonstrated quantum teleportation with two independent sources which are separated by 6.5 km (4.0 mi) in Hefei optical fiber network.[32] In September 2016, researchers at the University of Calgary demonstrated quantum teleportation over the Calgary metropolitan fiber network over a distance of 6.2 km (3.9 mi).[33]

Researchers have also successfully used quantum teleportation to transmit information between clouds of gas atoms, notable because the clouds of gas are macroscopic atomic ensembles.[34][35]

In 2018, physicists at Yale demonstrated a deterministic teleported CNOT operation between logically encoded qubits.[36]

Formal presentation[edit]

There are a variety of ways in which the teleportation protocol can be written mathematically. Some are very compact but abstract, and some are verbose but straightforward and concrete. The presentation below is of the latter form: verbose, but has the benefit of showing each quantum state simply and directly. Later sections review more compact notations.

The teleportation protocol begins with a quantum state or qubit {\displaystyle |\psi \rangle }, in Alice’s possession, that she wants to convey to Bob. This qubit can be written generally, in bra–ket notation, as:

{\displaystyle |\psi \rangle _{C}=\alpha |0\rangle _{C}+\beta |1\rangle _{C}.}

The subscript C above is used only to distinguish this state from A and B, below.

Next, the protocol requires that Alice and Bob share a maximally entangled state. This state is fixed in advance, by mutual agreement between Alice and Bob, and can be any one of the four Bell states shown. It does not matter which one.

{\displaystyle |\Phi ^{+}\rangle _{AB}={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|0\rangle _{A}\otimes |0\rangle _{B}+|1\rangle _{A}\otimes |1\rangle _{B})},
{\displaystyle |\Phi ^{-}\rangle _{AB}={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|0\rangle _{A}\otimes |0\rangle _{B}-|1\rangle _{A}\otimes |1\rangle _{B})},
{\displaystyle |\Psi ^{+}\rangle _{AB}={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|0\rangle _{A}\otimes |1\rangle _{B}+|1\rangle _{A}\otimes |0\rangle _{B})},
{\displaystyle |\Psi ^{-}\rangle _{AB}={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|0\rangle _{A}\otimes |1\rangle _{B}-|1\rangle _{A}\otimes |0\rangle _{B})}.

In the following, assume that Alice and Bob share the state {\displaystyle |\Phi ^{+}\rangle _{AB}.} Alice obtains one of the particles in the pair, with the other going to Bob. (This is implemented by preparing the particles together and shooting them to Alice and Bob from a common source.) The subscripts A and B in the entangled state refer to Alice’s or Bob’s particle.

At this point, Alice has two particles (C, the one she wants to teleport, and A, one of the entangled pair), and Bob has one particle, B. In the total system, the state of these three particles is given by

{\displaystyle |\psi \rangle _{C}\otimes |\Phi ^{+}\rangle _{AB}=(\alpha |0\rangle _{C}+\beta |1\rangle _{C})\otimes {\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|0\rangle _{A}\otimes |0\rangle _{B}+|1\rangle _{A}\otimes |1\rangle _{B}).}

Alice will then make a local measurement in the Bell basis (i.e. the four Bell states) on the two particles in her possession. To make the result of her measurement clear, it is best to write the state of Alice’s two qubits as superpositions of the Bell basis. This is done by using the following general identities, which are easily verified:

{\displaystyle |0\rangle \otimes |0\rangle ={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|\Phi ^{+}\rangle +|\Phi ^{-}\rangle ),}
{\displaystyle |0\rangle \otimes |1\rangle ={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|\Psi ^{+}\rangle +|\Psi ^{-}\rangle ),}
{\displaystyle |1\rangle \otimes |0\rangle ={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|\Psi ^{+}\rangle -|\Psi ^{-}\rangle ),}

and

{\displaystyle |1\rangle \otimes |1\rangle ={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}(|\Phi ^{+}\rangle -|\Phi ^{-}\rangle ).}

One applies these identities with A and C subscripts. The total three particle state, of AB and C together, thus becomes the following four-term superposition:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}|&\psi \rangle _{C}\otimes \ |\Phi ^{+}\rangle _{AB}\ =\\{\frac {1}{2}}{\Big \lbrack }\ &|\Phi ^{+}\rangle _{AC}\otimes (\alpha |0\rangle _{B}+\beta |1\rangle _{B})\ +\ |\Phi ^{-}\rangle _{AC}\otimes (\alpha |0\rangle _{B}-\beta |1\rangle _{B})\\\ +\ &|\Psi ^{+}\rangle _{AC}\otimes (\beta |0\rangle _{B}+\alpha |1\rangle _{B})\ +\ |\Psi ^{-}\rangle _{AC}\otimes (\alpha |1\rangle _{B}-\beta |0\rangle _{B}){\Big \rbrack }.\\\end{aligned}}}[37]

The above is just a change of basis on Alice’s part of the system. No operation has been performed and the three particles are still in the same total state. The actual teleportation occurs when Alice measures her two qubits A,C, in the Bell basis

{\displaystyle |\Phi ^{+}\rangle _{AC},|\Phi ^{-}\rangle _{AC},|\Psi ^{+}\rangle _{AC},|\Psi ^{-}\rangle _{AC}}.

Experimentally, this measurement may be achieved via a series of laser pulses directed at the two particles[citation needed]. Given the above expression, evidently the result of Alice’s (local) measurement is that the three-particle state would collapse to one of the following four states (with equal probability of obtaining each):

  • {\displaystyle |\Phi ^{+}\rangle _{AC}\otimes (\alpha |0\rangle _{B}+\beta |1\rangle _{B})}
  • {\displaystyle |\Phi ^{-}\rangle _{AC}\otimes (\alpha |0\rangle _{B}-\beta |1\rangle _{B})}
  • {\displaystyle |\Psi ^{+}\rangle _{AC}\otimes (\alpha |1\rangle _{B}+\beta |0\rangle _{B})}
  • {\displaystyle |\Psi ^{-}\rangle _{AC}\otimes (\alpha |1\rangle _{B}-\beta |0\rangle _{B})}

Alice’s two particles are now entangled to each other, in one of the four Bell states, and the entanglement originally shared between Alice’s and Bob’s particles is now broken. Bob’s particle takes on one of the four superposition states shown above. Note how Bob’s qubit is now in a state that resembles the state to be teleported. The four possible states for Bob’s qubit are unitary images of the state to be teleported.

The result of Alice’s Bell measurement tells her which of the above four states the system is in. She can now send her result to Bob through a classical channel. Two classical bits can communicate which of the four results she obtained.

After Bob receives the message from Alice, he will know which of the four states his particle is in. Using this information, he performs a unitary operation on his particle to transform it to the desired state {\displaystyle \alpha |0\rangle _{B}+\beta |1\rangle _{B}}:

  • If Alice indicates her result is {\displaystyle |\Phi ^{+}\rangle _{AC}}, Bob knows his qubit is already in the desired state and does nothing. This amounts to the trivial unitary operation, the identity operator.
  • If the message indicates {\displaystyle |\Phi ^{-}\rangle _{AC}}, Bob would send his qubit through the unitary quantum gate given by the Pauli matrix
{\displaystyle \sigma _{3}={\begin{bmatrix}1&0\\0&-1\end{bmatrix}}}

to recover the state.

  • If Alice’s message corresponds to {\displaystyle |\Psi ^{+}\rangle _{AC}}, Bob applies the gate
{\displaystyle \sigma _{1}={\begin{bmatrix}0&1\\1&0\end{bmatrix}}}

to his qubit.

  • Finally, for the remaining case, the appropriate gate is given by
{\displaystyle \sigma _{1}\sigma _{3}=-\sigma _{3}\sigma _{1}=-i\sigma _{2}={\begin{bmatrix}0&-1\\1&0\end{bmatrix}}.}

Teleportation is thus achieved. The above-mentioned three gates correspond to rotations of π radians (180°) about appropriate axes (X, Y and Z) in the Bloch sphere picture of a qubit.

Some remarks:

  • After this operation, Bob’s qubit will take on the state {\displaystyle |\psi \rangle _{B}=\alpha |0\rangle _{B}+\beta |1\rangle _{B}}, and Alice’s qubit becomes an (undefined) part of an entangled state. Teleportation does not result in the copying of qubits, and hence is consistent with the no cloning theorem.
  • There is no transfer of matter or energy involved. Alice’s particle has not been physically moved to Bob; only its state has been transferred. The term “teleportation”, coined by Bennett, Brassard, Crépeau, Jozsa, Peres and Wootters, reflects the indistinguishability of quantum mechanical particles.
  • For every qubit teleported, Alice needs to send Bob two classical bits of information. These two classical bits do not carry complete information about the qubit being teleported. If an eavesdropper intercepts the two bits, she may know exactly what Bob needs to do in order to recover the desired state. However, this information is useless if she cannot interact with the entangled particle in Bob’s possession.

Alice’s state in qubit 2 is transferred to Bob’s qubit 0 using a priorly entangled pair of qubits between Alice and Bob, qubits 1 and 0.

Alternative notations[edit]

 
Quantum teleportation in its diagrammatic form.,[38] employing Penrose graphical notation.[39] Formally, such a computation takes place in a dagger compact category. This results in the abstract description of quantum teleportation as employed in categorical quantum mechanics.
 
Quantum circuit representation of quantum teleportation

There are a variety of different notations in use that describe the teleportation protocol. One common one is by using the notation of quantum gates. In the above derivation, the unitary transformation that is the change of basis (from the standard product basis into the Bell basis) can be written using quantum gates. Direct calculation shows that this gate is given by

{\displaystyle G=(H\otimes I)\;C_{N}}

where H is the one qubit Walsh-Hadamard gate and {\displaystyle C_{N}} is the Controlled NOT gate.

Entanglement swapping[edit]

Teleportation can be applied not just to pure states, but also mixed states, that can be regarded as the state of a single subsystem of an entangled pair. The so-called entanglement swapping is a simple and illustrative example.

If Alice has a particle which is entangled with a particle owned by Bob, and Bob teleports it to Carol, then afterwards, Alice’s particle is entangled with Carol’s.

A more symmetric way to describe the situation is the following: Alice has one particle, Bob two, and Carol one. Alice’s particle and Bob’s first particle are entangled, and so are Bob’s second and Carol’s particle:

                      ___
                     /   \
 Alice-:-:-:-:-:-Bob1 -:- Bob2-:-:-:-:-:-Carol
                     \___/

Now, if Bob does a projective measurement on his two particles in the Bell state basis and communicates the results to Carol, as per the teleportation scheme described above, the state of Bob’s first particle can be teleported to Carol’s. Although Alice and Carol never interacted with each other, their particles are now entangled.

A detailed diagrammatic derivation of entanglement swapping has been given by Bob Coecke,[40] presented in terms of categorical quantum mechanics.

Generalizations of the Teleportation Protocol[edit]

The basic teleportation protocol for a qubit described above has been generalized in several directions, in particular regarding the dimension of the system teleported and the number of parties involved (either as sender, controller, or receiver).

d-dimensional systems[edit]

A generalization to {\displaystyle d}-level systems (so-called qudits) is straight forward and was already discussed in the original paper by Bennett et al.:[5] the maximally entangled state of two qubits has to be replaced by a maximally entangled state of two qudits and the Bell measurement by a measurement defined by a maximally entangled orthonormal basis. All possible such generalizations were discussed by Werner in 2001.[41] The generalization to infinite-dimensional so-called continuous-variable systems was proposed in [42] and led to the first teleportation experiment that worked unconditionally.[43]

Multipartite versions[edit]

The use of multipartite entangled states instead of a bipartite maximally entangled state allows for several new features: either the sender can teleport information to several receivers either sending the same state to all of them (which allows to reduce the amount of entanglement needed for the process) [44] or teleporting multipartite states [45] or sending a single state in such a way that the receiving parties need to cooperate to extract the information.[46] A different way of viewing the latter setting is that some of the parties can control whether the others can teleport.

Logic gate teleportation[edit]

In general, mixed states ρ may be transported, and a linear transformation ω applied during teleportation, thus allowing data processing of quantum information. This is one of the foundational building blocks of quantum information processing. This is demonstrated below.

General description[edit]

A general teleportation scheme can be described as follows. Three quantum systems are involved. System 1 is the (unknown) state ρ to be teleported by Alice. Systems 2 and 3 are in a maximally entangled state ω that are distributed to Alice and Bob, respectively. The total system is then in the state

{\displaystyle \rho \otimes \omega .}

A successful teleportation process is a LOCC quantum channel Φ that satisfies

{\displaystyle (\operatorname {Tr} _{12}\circ \Phi )(\rho \otimes \omega )=\rho \,,}

where Tr12 is the partial trace operation with respect systems 1 and 2, and {\displaystyle \circ } denotes the composition of maps. This describes the channel in the Schrödinger picture.

Taking adjoint maps in the Heisenberg picture, the success condition becomes

{\displaystyle \langle \Phi (\rho \otimes \omega )|I\otimes O\rangle =\langle \rho |O\rangle }

for all observable O on Bob’s system. The tensor factor in {\displaystyle I\otimes O} is {\displaystyle 12\otimes 3} while that of {\displaystyle \rho \otimes \omega } is {\displaystyle 1\otimes 23}.

Further details[edit]

The proposed channel Φ can be described more explicitly. To begin teleportation, Alice performs a local measurement on the two subsystems (1 and 2) in her possession. Assume the local measurement have effects

{\displaystyle {F_{i}}={M_{i}^{2}}.}

If the measurement registers the i-th outcome, the overall state collapses to

{\displaystyle (M_{i}\otimes I)(\rho \otimes \omega )(M_{i}\otimes I).}

The tensor factor in {\displaystyle (M_{i}\otimes I)} is {\displaystyle 12\otimes 3} while that of {\displaystyle \rho \otimes \omega } is {\displaystyle 1\otimes 23}. Bob then applies a corresponding local operation Ψi on system 3. On the combined system, this is described by

{\displaystyle (Id\otimes \Psi _{i})(M_{i}\otimes I)(\rho \otimes \omega )(M_{i}\otimes I).}

where Id is the identity map on the composite system {\displaystyle 1\otimes 2}.

Therefore, the channel Φ is defined by

{\displaystyle \Phi (\rho \otimes \omega )=\sum _{i}(Id\otimes \Psi _{i})(M_{i}\otimes I)(\rho \otimes \omega )(M_{i}\otimes I)}

Notice Φ satisfies the definition of LOCC. As stated above, the teleportation is said to be successful if, for all observable O on Bob’s system, the equality

{\displaystyle \langle \Phi (\rho \otimes \omega ),I\otimes O\rangle =\langle \rho ,O\rangle }

holds. The left hand side of the equation is:

{\displaystyle \sum _{i}\langle (Id\otimes \Psi _{i})(M_{i}\otimes I)(\rho \otimes \omega )(M_{i}\otimes I),\;I\otimes O\rangle }
{\displaystyle =\sum _{i}\langle (M_{i}\otimes I)(\rho \otimes \omega )(M_{i}\otimes I),\;I\otimes \Psi _{i}^{*}(O)\rangle }

where Ψi* is the adjoint of Ψi in the Heisenberg picture. Assuming all objects are finite dimensional, this becomes

{\displaystyle \sum _{i}\operatorname {Tr} \;(\rho \otimes \omega )(F_{i}\otimes \Psi _{i}^{*}(O)).}

The success criterion for teleportation has the expression

{\displaystyle \sum _{i}\operatorname {Tr} \;(\rho \otimes \omega )(F_{i}\otimes \Psi _{i}^{*}(O))=\operatorname {Tr} \;\rho \cdot O.}

Local explanation of the phenomenon[edit]

local explanation of quantum teleportation is put forward by David Deutsch and Patrick Hayden, with respect to the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Their paper asserts that the two bits that Alice sends Bob contain “locally inaccessible information” resulting in the teleportation of the quantum state. “The ability of quantum information to flow through a classical channel […], surviving decoherence, is […] the basis of quantum teleportation.”[47]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b New York Times, Scientists Teleport Not Kirk, but an Atom (2004)
  2. Jump up to:a b Riebe, M.; Häffner, H.; Roos, C. F.; Hänsel, W.; Benhelm, J.; Lancaster, G. P. T.; Körber, T. W.; Becher, C.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; James, D. F. V.; Blatt, R. (2004). “Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms”. Nature429 (6993): 734–737. Bibcode:2004Natur.429..734Rdoi:10.1038/nature02570PMID 15201903.
  3. Jump up to:a b c Barrett, M. D.; Chiaverini, J.; Schaetz, T.; Britton, J.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Knill, E.; Langer, C.; Leibfried, D.; Ozeri, R.; Wineland, D. J. (2004). “Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits”. Nature429 (6993): 737–739. Bibcode:2004Natur.429..737Bdoi:10.1038/nature02608PMID 15201904.
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  5. Jump up to:a b C. H. BennettG. BrassardC. CrépeauR. JozsaA. PeresW. K. Wootters (1993). “Teleporting an Unknown Quantum State via Dual Classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen Channels”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 (13): 1895–1899. Bibcode:1993PhRvL..70.1895BCiteSeerX 10.1.1.46.9405doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.1895PMID 10053414.
  6. ^ A. ZeilingerDance of the Photons, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2010, p. 46. (“The quantum mechanical solution [to teleportation] was proposed in 1993 by an international collaboration of six theoretical physicists: Charles Bennett of IBM; Gilles Brassard, Claude Crépeau, and Richard Jozsa of the University of Montreal; Asher Peres of the Technion (the Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa), and William K. Wootters of Williams College… The Bennett-Brassard-Crépeau-Jozsa-Peres-Wootters paper has the title ‘Teleporting an Unknown Quantum State via Dual Classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels.’ To have the word ‘teleporting’ in the title of a physics paper was quite unusual at the time, since teleportation was considered to be part of science fiction and a somewhat shaky topic. But apparently, there was no better name for the interesting theoretical discovery these scientists made, and it was a very fitting name indeed.”)
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