– The New York Times @ Health Facts Aren’t Enough. Should Persuasion Become a Priority? Those with the least understanding of science oppose it the most and also think they know the most, a study showed @ Novel anti-cancer nanomedicine for efficient chemotherapy & Extinct Denisovan Woman Gets Her First Portrait Thanks to DNA from Her Pinky Bone @ Program on Negotiation – Harvard Law School – Daily Blog -> What is Negotiation? Learn the building blocks of indispensable negotiation business skills #time @ #data www.google.com

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The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

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https://www.livescience.com/Denisovan-facial-reconstruction-dna-methylation.html?fbclid=IwAR0in4aysbipiW9SLAMuwdM42f0qeVODkc2M74vniUeu7UzqUnaApHUcJMU

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https://www.nytimes.com

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Nanotechnology
Sep 17, 2019
Novel anti-cancer nanomedicine for efficient chemotherapy(Nanowerk News) Researchers at the University of Helsinki in collaboration with researchers from Åbo Akademi University,Finland and Huazhong University of Science and Technology,China have developed a new anti-cancer nanomedicine for targeted cancer chemotherapy. This new nano-tool provides a new approach to use cell-based nanomedicines for effcient cancer chemotherapy (Nature Communications“Tumor exosome-based nanoparticles are efficient drug carriers for chemotherapy”).
Exosomes contain various molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and RNA. Now the researchers have harnessed them together with synthetic nanomaterial as carriers of anticancer drugs. The new exosome-based nanomedicines enhanced tumor accumulation, extravasation from blood vessels and penetration into deep tumor parenchyma after intravenous administration.
The new exosome-based nanomedicines enhanced tumor accumulation, extravasation from blood vessels and penetration into deep tumor parenchyma after intravenous administration. (Image: Santos Lab) (click on image to enlarge)
“This study highlights the importance of cell-based nanomedicines”, says the principal investigator and one of the corresponding authors of this study, Hélder A. Santos, Associate Professor at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Nanoparticles-based drug delivery systems have shown promising therapeutic effcacy in cancer. To increase their targettibility to tumors, nanoparticles are usually functionalized with targeted antibodies, peptides or other biomolecules. However, such targeting ligands may sometimes have a negative infuence on the nanoparticle delivery owing to the enhanced immune-responses.
Biomimetic nanoparticles on the other hand combine the unique functionalities of natural biomaterials, such as cells or cell membranes, and bioengineering versatility of synthetic nanoparticles, that can be used as an efficient drug delivery platform.
The developed biocompatible exosome-sheathed porous silicon-based nanomedicines for targeted cancer chemotherapy resulted in augmented in vivo anticancer drug enrichment in tumor cells. “This demonstrates the potential of the exosome-biomimetic nanoparticles to act as drug carriers to improve the anticancer drug efficacy”, Santos concludes.
Source: University of Helsinki
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Extinct Denisovan Woman Gets Her First Portrait Thanks to DNA from Her Pinky Bone

By Brandon Specktor – Senior Writer a day ago History 

From a scrap of DNA on a severed pinky bone comes the first close-up of humanity’s long-gone relatives.

An artist's rendering show's the first-ever portrait of a Denisovan woman, recreated from an ancient DNA sample.

An artist’s rendering show’s the first-ever portrait of a Denisovan woman, recreated from an ancient DNA sample.(Image: © Maayan Harel)

As recently as 15,000 years ago, humans shared their caves with another group of upright apes called the Denisovans. The two hominins were genetically distinct, splitting from their nearest common ancestor more than 500,000 years earlier, but they were physically close. Humans and Denisovans mated — probably a lot — over a range that spanned from Siberia to Southeast Asia, leaving a scant genetic lineage that’s still detectable in some human populations today.

Besides those genetic scraps, only a few reminders of our ancient familiars remain — a jawbone, some teeth and a girl’s pinky bone with a dollop of DNA on its tip, plucked from a cave in Siberia in 2010. No complete skeletons or skulls have ever been found, leaving scientists to wonder: What did these proto-people even look like?

A new study published today (Sept. 18) in the journal Cell aims to answer that question with an unprecedented genetic analysis. By making a methyl map of the Denisovan’s genome — that is, a map showing how chemical changes to gene expression could influence physical traits — an international team of researchers has reconstructed the first plausible portrait of the 40,000-year-old Denisovan girl whose pinky helped launch a new branch of the human family tree.

Related: Denisovan Gallery: Tracing the Genetics of Human Ancestors

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The results show a figure with a low forehead, protruding jaw and near-nonexistent chin — an overall anatomy not so different from another group of extinct humans, the Neanderthals, who occupied the Earth at around the same time.

“I was expecting Denisovan traits to be similar to Neanderthals, just because Neanderthals are their closest relatives,” lead study author David Gokhman, a geneticist at Stanford University, told Live Science. “But in the few traits where they differ, the differences are extreme.”

A 3D-printed model of a Denisovan woman's head sits on a plate in a laboratory.
The researchers made this 3D-printed model based on their predicted Denisovan skull structure. 

For example, Gokhman and his colleagues found, Denisovans had significantly longer dental arches (that is, their top and bottom rows of teeth jutted out farther) than Neanderthals and modern humans; and the tops of their skulls stretched noticeably wider. These findings give Gokhman some hope that two partial skulls recently discovered in China might actually belong to the wide-headed Denisovans, potentially expanding the meager fossil record of our elusive, dead relatives. 

Pinky Promise

So, how do you reconstruct an extinct person’s face when all you have to work with is some DNA on their fingertip? For this study, Gokhman and his colleagues looked for abnormalities in gene expression — or, how certain physical traits may be influenced by chemical inhibitors in a person’s genetic code.

“There are various layers that compose our genome,” Gokhman said. “We have the DNA sequence itself, where our genes are encoded. Then, on top of that, there are regulatory layers that control which genes are activated or deactivated, and in what tissue.”

One of those layers is a process called DNA methylation. Methylation occurs when chemicals containing one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms — also known as methyl groups — bind to certain DNA molecules. While this binding doesn’t change the underlying DNA sequence, it can interfere with the way that specific genes are expressed. Certain patterns of methylation can indicate whether a cell has cancer, for example, and can lead to anatomical deformities.

So, the researchers looked at the available Denisovan DNA to compare the group’s methylation patterns with those found in humans and Neanderthals to see where their gene expression overlapped, and where it diverged. Once the Denisovans’ unique methylation profile was mapped, the researchers tried to figure out which physical traits were being altered by each methylated gene, based on known human disorders that result when those same genes are inhibited.

The team found a total of 56 traits in Denisovans that they predicted to be different from modern humans and Neanderthals, 32 of which resulted in clear anatomical differences. In addition to their wide skulls and jutting jaws, Denisovans had wider pelvises and rib cages than modern humans, and thinner, flatter faces than Neanderthals.

This chart from the new study compares predicted anatomical differences in the skulls of Denisovans, Neanderthals and modern humans.
The researchers predicted that Denisovans (center) had wider heads and longer dental arches than Neanderthals or modern humans.

To test the accuracy of their anatomical predictions, the researchers also created similar methyl maps for Neanderthals and chimpanzees — two species with known anatomy — that they could use to check their predictions instantly. They found that about 85% of their predictions about which traits diverged and in what direction (say, whether a Neanderthal’s skull was wider or thinner than a human’s) were dead-on. 

This gave the researchers hope that their reconstructed Denisovan was not far off from the ancient reality. A final test of their predictions came in May 2019, when a separate group of researchers reportedly identified a Denisovan jawbone for the first time. When Gokhman and his colleagues compared their predictions to the actual jawbone anatomy, they found that seven out of eight of their predictions matched.

“The only true test of our predictions is to find more Denisovan bones and match them,” Gokhman said. His dream fossil, he added, would include part of a Denisovan face — “just faces are so divergent between different humans,” he said.

Originally published on Live Science.

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