Messages I sent to my Twitter Follower: The Jackson Laboratory @jacksonlab and other informations @ Einstein’s 1905 paper on the Photoelectric Effect – The paper that earned Einstein his Nobel Prize & The age of the mouse and the human being with the genetics influence in certain ways in pathophysiology in the humans and mice. So, mice researches are very important for the society as well as researches with humans. @ Shep Doeleman on the Breakthrough Prize-winning black hole photo & Mathematicians proposed an express method for calculation of the propagation of light

Jackson Laboratory

Featured Article Translation to medicine: The Maine Cancer Genomics Initiative By Joyce Dall’Acqua Peterson A snowy, sunny landscape fill the windows along two walls of the conference room at the Alfond Center for Cancer Care in Augusta, Maine. Oncologists Jens Rueter and oncologist Rachit Kumar are reviewing the case of one of Kumar’s patients, identified only as a 56-year-old female with a malignant tumor on her pancreas. Other experts, including clinical expert Lincoln Nadeau and clinical trials support specialist Catherine DelVecchio, are at the table or on speakerphone, discussing genetic variants found in the patient’s tumor and possible treatment options. This is a meeting of the tumor board of the Maine Cancer Genomics Initiative (MCGI), The Jackson Laboratory’s bold effort to bring advanced cancer diagnostics and treatment to community hospitals across Maine has already enrolled more than 500 cancer patients for advanced testing. The ultimate goal is better outcomes for Maine cancer patients. “Every oncology practice in Maine has agreed to participate in the MCGI,” said Rueter, who is MCGI’s medical director. “Incorporating these technologies will enable more precise cancer diagnoses and more targeted cancer treatments.” Rueter noted that Maine has one of the highest incidences of cancer in the country, with approximately 9,000 new cancer cases each year. Moreover, most American cancer patients receive their care at community hospitals, and this is especially true in Maine, a large state with a small population. The MCGI was designed to bring access to the latest advances in precision cancer care to all Maine physicians and their patients. At the heart of the MCGI is a sophisticated genetic cancer test, the JAX Cancer Treatment Profile, a testing panel of 358 cancer-related genes known to be associated with various cancers. The panel assesses a patient’s genetic profile based on associations with response or resistance to FDA-approved targeted therapies or new drugs in development. One of the largest obstacles to the wider adoption of cancer genomic testing in clinical care is the interpretation of clinical genomic test results. Accordingly, the MCGI Genomic Tumor Board provides an opportunity for clinicians to meet with experts in the field with extensive experience in using clinical genomic testing results, to review testing results and receive guidance in potential treatment options for each patient. “The ultimate goal,” said Rueter, “is better outcomes for Maine cancer patients.”  Maine Cancer Genomics InitiativeThe Maine Cancer Genomics Initiative (MCGI) is a special alliance of cancer experts, clinicians and researchers from The Jackson Laboratory who are focused on improving outcomes for cancer patients across Maine.


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New Scientist


Shep Doeleman on the Breakthrough Prize-winning black hole photo

SPACE 5 September 2019

By Leah Crane

Shep Doeleman
Shep Doeleman led the team that took the first picture of a black hole

In April, the world saw the first ever image of a black hole. The picture quickly spread around the globe, taking front-page spots in newspapers and going viral online. The image shows an ethereal ring of orange light that has been stretched around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the M87 galaxy, 55 million light years away.

It was taken using eight telescopes around the world by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration. The 387 scientists in the collaboration have now been awarded the $3 million Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics in recognition of their work. New Scientist spoke with the leader of the collaboration, Shep Doeleman at Harvard University.

First things first: how does the EHT work?

The EHT basically turns the Earth itself into a telescope, and we do that by using radio dishes all across the globe that all look at the same black hole at the same time. Then we take the hard drives and fly them to one place and use a supercomputer to line up all the data together. When you do that, it’s like having a telescope as big as the Earth.

The EHT's image of a black hole
The EHT’s image of a black hole was published in April

How did it feel to see that image of the black hole for the first time?

It was jaw-dropping. It came in waves for us. We first started looking at the data that we had taken in 2017, and we just saw the raw data in graphs. But even there we could see signs of what might have been a silhouette of a black hole. We split up into four different groups and each analysed the data separately. When we came together and saw that all four teams had seen this ring, that’s when we began to exhale. We knew that we had it.The first black hole: Emma Chapman at New Scientist Live

What do you think is the importance of the image?

This image is destined to be iconic, I think, just because it was the first time that we’ve seen a black hole, and seeing is believing. We were focused on the science, but it was the resonance of the image across the globe with a curious public that rocked us a little bit on our heels.

Scientifically, the first thing that we’ve done is confirmed that Einstein’s theory of gravity holds, to the precision of our measurements, right up to the very edge of a supermassive black hole. We also started to understand black hole accretion. Do black holes eat voraciously, do they eat timidly, how do they send out these jets, we’ve started to understand that from our observations.

What’s next for the EHT?

Scientists are never satisfied and the EHT is no exception. What we’re focusing on now is building out the telescope array so we can try to make videos that show us dynamically how matter orbits the black hole. We think that understanding how these black holes eat, live, exist over time is crucial to understanding these monsters and how galaxies interact with them.

So we are focusing on building new dishes and maybe even launching telescopes into space. In 20 years I think that we will have space-based platforms so that the EHT will not be limited by the size of the Earth, which will sharpen our images. I think we’re entering an era of precision imaging of black holes.

Why is this so important?

There really are no deeper questions in the universe than how black holes work. Because we know that at their heart they contain this mystery of how do gravity and quantum mechanics work together, which is the deepest question there is right now.

How do you feel about the prize?

I know the whole team feels this sense of accomplishment, and to have your peers recognise it, to have a prize like the Breakthrough prize recognize it, means that it’s not just that we think we did something important – the whole world feels it. I couldn’t be more proud of the team. I just couldn’t be more proud.TRENDINGLATESTVIDEOFREE

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SEPTEMBER 13, 2019

Mathematicians proposed an express method for calculation of the propagation of light

by RUDN University

RUDN University and NSI RAS mathematicians proposed an express method for calculation of the propagation of light
Credit: RUDN University

Mathematicians from RUDN University and the Nuclear Safety Institute of the RAS (NSI RAS) have proposed a numerical method for solving equations describing the propagation of light in a medium. They used the nonlinear eikonal equation with boundary conditions as the basis. Such a problem cannot be solved directly, so the mathematicians developed a numerical method, performed calculations, and produced a picture of the “behavior” of such solutions. The results could become the basis for a comprehensive theory of approximate solutions of such differential equations. The method can be applied in the production of lenses and optical crystals. The article was published in the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics.

The eikonal equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation. It describes the propagation of light in a medium and is necessary for solving problems in optics. It makes it possible to connect planar optics, taught in schools, and wave optics, which is described by complex equations.

It is traditional to use a method based on solving a large system of nonlinear equations to find a numerical solution (i.e., to obtain a sufficiently accurate approximate solution) for the eikonal equation.

RUDN University and NSI RAS mathematicians used a different approach, which makes it easier to find a solution for the nonlinear eikonal equation using a numerical method: a change of variables with the addition of a parameter. The change results in new equations, which, on the one hand, are simpler than the initial ones: the problem becomes linear. On the other hand, their solutions are not the solutions of the original system. However, as the parameter decreases the solutions for the new system get closer to the solutions for the original one.

Mathematicians gradually (by a certain fixed value) decreased the value of the added parameter and for each such value solved the equation numerically. For each subsequent parameter value the resulting solution was compared with the previous ones. As the parameter decreased the solutions changed less and less, that is, the result of the calculations stabilized. It turned out that a sufficiently stable solution requires a relatively small parameter value. The resulting solution was taken as an approximation of the original equation.

The mathematicians have demonstrated that such a method produces fairly good results on representative model problems.

“Computational complexity—the so-called ‘computational costs’ of the approach we are talking about—does not exceed that of other approaches. Although, we solve a linear boundary value problem, and that, of course, is less laborious than solving a nonlinear problem,” explained Petr Vabishevich, the author of the study and a member of the Research Center for Computational Methods in Applied Mathematics of the RUDN University.

Vabishevich and his co-authors modeled the equation for anisotropic media. From the point of view of physics, this is an environment in which the physical properties of light propagation in different directions are not the same. Materials with these properties are now widely used in optical devices.

Besides optics, the eikonal equation is also used to numerically solve equations describing the motion of a fluid. Such modeling is necessary to create realistic pictures in computer graphics—for example, in the film “Pirates of the Caribbean” the water was not just drawn but calculated on a physical level. The speed of calculation, which could potentially be improved by the method developed by mathematicians at RUDN University and NSI RAS, plays a key role in such cases.

Explore furtherMathematician calculates wave velocity for post-stroke therapy

More information: Alexander G. Churbanov et al. Numerical solution of boundary value problems for the eikonal equation in an anisotropic medium, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics (2019). DOI: 10.1016/ by RUDN University737 shares

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