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“Our missions in the decades to come to the Moon, Mars and beyond are all fueled by innovations like this one.” @ Twitter and LinkedIn Images like LnkedIn invitation to be my contact and my LinkedIn contacts @ NEWS AND VIEWS 23 OCTOBER 2019 Gut microbes regulate neurons to help mice forget their fear Microorganisms in the gut influence fear-related learning. The results of a study that reveals some of the mechanistic underpinnings of this phenomenon promise to boost our understanding of gut–brain communication.

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SubscribeSearchLoginNEWS AND VIEWS  23 OCTOBER 2019

Gut microbes regulate neurons to help mice forget their fear

Microorganisms in the gut influence fear-related learning. The results of a study that reveals some of the mechanistic underpinnings of this phenomenon promise to boost our understanding of gut–brain communication.

Drew D. Kiraly

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The gut’s resident bacteria, collectively called the gut microbiota, can have marked effects on brain function and on behaviour — but the mechanisms underlying this interplay remain largely unknown. Writing in Nature, Chu et al.1 define these mechanisms in unprecedented scope and detail. The authors report that mice lacking a complex microbiota exhibit altered fear-associated behaviour, changes in gene expression in cells in the brain, and alterations in the firing patterns and rewiring ability of neurons. The work represents a leap forward in our understanding of the interplay between the gut and brain.Read the paper: The microbiota regulate neuronal function and fear extinction learning

Animals update their responses to environmental cues throughout their lives. This process of behavioural adaptation is driven by underlying cellular and molecular changes in the brain. Chu and colleagues analysed how changes in the gut microbiota affect one such adaptation: fear conditioning.

First, the authors trained mice to associate a tone with an electric shock, and measured how strongly that association was formed. The association developed normally both in control animals and in animals that had been treated with antibiotics to deplete their gut microbiota. The researchers then performed an extinction task, in which they repeatedly played the tone without an electric shock before measuring the rate at which the animals updated their behaviour (such an update indicates that the fear response has been extinguished). The microbiota-deficient mice were unable to update their response, and showed persistent fearful behaviour long after control animals had adapted. Chu et al. found the same phenomenon in mice that had been raised germ-free in sterile isolators and so had never developed a gut microbiota.

The current study is not the first to examine the effects of the microbiota on fear conditioning — previous work has shown a decrease in the acquisition of this response in germ-free mice compared with controls2,3. But Chu and colleagues are the first to report a specific deficit in fear extinction (Fig. 1). What truly sets their work apart, however, is the breadth and depth of the mechanistic findings that they subsequently went on to gather.

Figure 1 | Multiple effects of the gut microbiota on the brain. The gut’s resident bacteria, the microbiota, can markedly affect the brain and behaviour. Chu et al.1 provide evidence that the microbiota is needed for mice to update their behaviour in response to changing environmental cues — for example, to stop reacting to a once-frightening stimulus when it is no longer threatening (a phenomenon called fear extinction). The authors hypothesize that this role in behavioural adaptation involves metabolite molecules that are produced by the microbiota and circulate in the blood. They suggest that the metabolites modulate the ability of the brain’s immune cells, microglia, to engulf and degrade structures called dendritic spines that form synaptic connections between neurons. In addition, microglia could affect neuronal activity directly — together, these activities would promote behavioural adaptation. In support of this idea, the researchers show that changes in the microbiota lead to altered gene expression in microglia and neurons, and to changes in dendritic-spine maintenance.

Extinction of the fear response is heavily dependent on the function of the brain’s prefrontal cortex4. Chu et al. performed in vivo imaging of this brain region in their animals to analyse both neuronal activity patterns and the formation and elimination of structures called dendritic spines, which are involved in the formation of synaptic connections between neurons. During the fear-extinction test, control animals showed less dendritic-spine elimination and more spine formation than did microbiota-deficient animals. The ability to create synapses and to maintain appropriate existing synapses is a key part of synaptic plasticity — a process crucial to learning and memory, in which the strength of synaptic connections changes in response to changes in neuronal activity. A higher ratio of spine formation to elimination might therefore partially explain why control animals were better able to appropriately extinguish the fearful stimulus.

Tight control of gene expression is also crucial for proper regulation of synaptic and behavioural plasticity. Previous work has indicated that changes in the microbiota alter the gene-expression profile of the prefrontal cortex as a whole5, but Chu and colleagues performed RNA sequencing on single cells throughout the region, enabling them to identify gene-expression changes in individual cell types. These data show that microbiota depletion has a more pronounced effect on excitatory than on inhibitory neurons, setting the stage for future research in which the microbiota could be targeted to alter the characteristics of specific neuronal populations.

The authors’ single-cell sequencing also reveals gene-expression changes in microglia, the brain’s resident immune cells. Previous studies6,7 have shown that altering the microbiota causes changes in microglial gene expression and function. Chu and colleagues found high expression of genes associated with an immature state in the microglia of their microbiota-deficient animals — a change that might affect the cells’ ability to function normally.Gut microbes alter the walking activity of fruit flies

In the past decade, it has become clear that microglia have a crucial role in synaptic connectivity. By engulfing and degrading unwanted synapses, the cells ensure that neuronal connections are pruned or maintained as needed8. Changes in this process can alter neurodevelopment9 and are implicated in psychiatric disease10. The researchers’ RNA sequencing revealed changes in genes related to the role of the microglia in synapse organization and assembly. Although Chu et al. did not directly assess changes in the engulfment of synapses, their results lay the groundwork for future research into how interactions between the microbiota and microglia affect synapse density in the brain.

Finally, Chu and colleagues profiled gut metabolites (the molecules produced from metabolic processes) to identify molecules that might drive the gut–brain interactions they had observed. The authors found four metabolites that were significantly less abundant in microbiota-deficient mice than in controls. They therefore posit that the microbiota affects neurons and microglia in the brain through metabolites that are released into the circulation.

The gut microbiota is highly metabolically active, and the theory that the gut and brain communicate through circulating microbiota-derived metabolites is a popular one11. Manipulations of microbial metabolites have been shown to affect a range of behaviours, from autism-like actions12 to those involving reward-seeking for drugs13. Experiments that manipulate levels of the metabolites identified by Chu et al. could improve our understanding of gut–brain communication.

Such research could also reveal a route to translating the current findings into clinical advances. The potential applications are wide-ranging, because alterations in cognition and synaptic plasticity are seen in nearly all neuropsychiatric disorders. Perhaps most germane to the current study would be the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, in which people cannot extinguish memories of frightening or traumatic experiences. Chu and colleagues’ work raises the possibility of targeting the gut microbiota and its metabolites as a strategy for helping such individuals. Much remains to be done, but this study is an important step in our mechanistic understanding of the gut–brain axis.

Nature 574, 488-489 (2019)doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-03114-1

References

  1. 1.Chu, C. et al. Nature 574, 543–548 (2019).
  2. 2.Hoban, A. E. et al. Mol. Psychiatry 23, 1134–1144 (2018).
  3. 3.Lu, J. et al. PLoS ONE 13, e0201829 (2018).
  4. 4.Maren, S., Phan, K. L. & Liberzon, I. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 14, 417–428 (2013).
  5. 5.Hoban, A. E. et al. Transl. Psychiatry 6, e774 (2016).
  6. 6.Erny, D. et al. Nature Neurosci. 18, 965–977 (2015).
  7. 7.Thion, M. S. et al. Cell 172, 500–516 (2018).
  8. 8.Schafer, D. P. et al. Neuron 74, 691–705 (2012).
  9. 9.Zhan, Y. et al. Nature Neurosci. 17, 400–406 (2014).
  10. 10.Sekar, A. et al. Nature 530, 177–183 (2016).
  11. 11.Cryan, J. F. & Dinan, T. G. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 13, 701–712 (2012).
  12. 12.Hsiao, E. Y. et al. Cell 155, 1451–1463 (2013).
  13. 13.Kiraly, D. D. et al. Sci. Rep. 6, 35455 (2016).

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16 Comments

  1. How’s it been?

    I’d like to share some very significant information that’s been going all over the internet relevant to our future well being.

    We are approaching a future of a one-world cashless money society in which we will be mandated to receive an RFID microchip implanted in our body. This microchip will hold all of our data and we will lose much more of our privacy because of the tracking power.

    Even more of a concern, have you heard that this was predicted almost two-thousand years ago from a very well known person named Jesus? How could this be? Keep reading… This may be the most important article you will ever read.

    • “Also he(the false prophet) compels all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free men and the slaves, to be given a mark on their right hand or on their forehead signifying allegiance to the beast, and that no one will be able to buy or sell, except the one who has the mark, either the name of the beast or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let the person who has enough insight calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man; and his number is six hundred and sixty-six” (Revelation 13:16-18 AMP)….

    Speaking of the last times, this can only be pointing to a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but we are getting close to. Why? Because we would be able to buy or sell without accepting the mark of the beast among each other if physical money was still in use. It logically deduces itself to this conclusion.

    This mark can’t be anything spiritual, because the word references two unique physical spots. If it were to be spiritual, it would just say in the forehead.

    Now here is where it gets interesting. It is amazing how accurate the holy scriptures are concerning this RFID microchip. Here are some notes from a person named Carl Sanders who worked with a group of engineers to help invent this RFID chip in the 1900’s.

    Carl Sanders attended 17 New World Order conferences with heads-of-state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the CIA to talk about plans on how to bring forth this one-world system. The government commissioned Carl Sanders to design a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the nations-a microchip that would be inserted below the skin with a hypodermic needle(a quick, convenient procedure that would be progressively accepted by the people).

    Carl Sanders, with a team of engineers behind him, with U.S. grant monies provided by tax dollars, took on this assignment and produced a microchip that is powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable by way of the temperature fluctuations in our skin. With out having knowledge of the Bible (Carl was not a follower of Jesus at the time), these men spent one-and-a-half-million dollars gathering data on the best and most convenient place to have the RFID chip placed in the body.

    Guess what? These researchers found that the forehead and the back of the hand(the two places Revelation says the mark will go) aren’t just the most convenient locations, however are also the only viable spots for constant, consistent temperature changes inside the skin to recharge the lithium battery. The microchip is approximately 7 millimeters in length, .75 millimeters in diameter, about the dimensions of a grain of rice. It is capable of containing many pages of information about you. All of your general history, work data, crime records, health data, and financial information may be saved on this microchip.

    Mr. Sanders believes that this microchip, which he regretfully helped bring forth, is the “mark of the beast” mentioned in Revelation 13:16-18. The Greek word for “mark” is “charagma,” which means a “scratch or etching.” It’s also interesting to be aware that the number 666 is a word in the original Greek language. This word being “chi xi stigma,” with the final part, “stigma,” also meaning “to stick or prick. Carl believes this is referencing to the use of a hypodermic needle being poked in a person to insert the microchip.”

    Mr. Sanders reached out to a doctor asking what would happen if the lithium contained inside the RFID chip was exposed in the human body. The medical doctor responded by saying a horrible sore would show up in that location. This is what the book of Revelation says:

    “And the first went and poured out his bowl on the earth; and there came an evil and grievous sore upon the men that had the mark of the beast, and those who worshipped its image” (Revelation 16:2 DARBY).

    God’s word tells us that we cannot buy or sell without having the mark of the beast, or the number of its name. The number being identified as 666. God’s word us to count the number 666. How do we calculate 666?

    This is where it becomes an eye opener. Calculating the number 666 has been long debated throughout centuries, but has finally been revealed in these last days by God. What you will read establishes itself with the holy scriptures the true meaning to count 666.

    In the Bible, God uses the number 3 for confirming things. Below are a few examples:

    “For there are three that bear witness in heaven: the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one” (1 John 5:7 NKJV).

    “and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures” (1 Corinthians 15:4 NKJV).

    “…Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was and is and is to come!” (Revelation 4:8 NKJV).

    What is interesting is the the mark is described in detail in three separate verses (Revelation 13:16,17,18), and each verse lists 3 different characteristics of the given subject. The final 3 being the number six being used 3 times in a row. This leads to the mystery to unlocking how to count the number 666.

    What does it mean to calculate the number 666? It means to add up. How may we add up 666? Remember my past point about God confirming in 3’s. So logically, what would be the most rational way to count the number 666? To count it equally in 3’s based off the number. It is not reasonable to count it equally as 600+60+6, this would also revert us back to the beginning. We are not able to count it as 600+600+600, or 60+60+60, because there are no zeroes in between or at the end of 666. The only rational option is 6+6+6=18. What is interesting is that the verse that tells us to count the number of the beast itself is verse 18, being the 3rd verse out of three verses that describe the mark. What is 18 divided by 3? 6. So 3×6=18, or 6+6+6=18.

    Another fascinating point is the only two other possible combinations (making a combined total of 3 possible combinations) for placing a “+” symbol in between the 6’s are 66+6=72, and 6+66=72. Add up both 72’s together and you get 144. Why the number 144 is interesting is because the verse following Revelation 13:18 is the first time in the scriptures where the 144,000 are being mentioned in detail:

    “Then I looked, and behold, a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having His Father’s name written on their foreheads…” (Revelation 14:1).

    Now if you add up all 3 numbers by counting 666 by moving the plus symbol around in all three possible combinations, we would get 72+72+18=162. What is fascinating about the number 162, is, if you divide 144,000 by 162, you get 888. The name for Jesus in Greek gematria adds up to 888. The New Testament was written in the Greek language. Revelation 14:1 not only mentions the 144,000, but also the Lamb being Jesus.

    Now what is interesting concerning the number for Jesus, 888, is that if you apply this same formula, you get 8+8+8=24. Why the number 24? Revelation chapter 4 tells us there are 24 elders seated around the throne of God. This is the same throne where Jesus sits:

    “Immediately I was in the Spirit; and behold, a throne set in heaven, and One sat on the throne. And He who sat there was like a jasper and a sardius stone in appearance; and there was a rainbow around the throne, in appearance like an emerald. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and on the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting, clothed in white robes; and they had crowns of gold on their heads” (Revelation 4:2-4).

    Now if you take 8+8+8=24, and 8+88=96, and 88+8=96, you get 24+96+96=216. Take 144,000 divided by 216 and you get 666. Keep in mind that this was the identical formula to get the quantity 162 out of counting 666 that brought about the value 888 when dividing 144,000 by 162. It is perpetual.

    With using the same method of counting by adding the “+” symbol in between the numbers, why do all these numbers relate in such a manner?

    Yet another fascinating factor to notice is that if you add up all of the numbers from 1 to 36, it totals 666. The number 36, as in three sixes? Could this be a sign that we have to add up three sixes instead of perceiving the number as six-hundred sixty six?

    So what may this suggest? We know in this world we’re recognized by numbers in numerous forms. Starting from our birth certificate to social security, also with our drivers license, being identified based on a system of ruler ship. So it’s possible that this RFID chip will incorporate a brand new identification that has a total of 18 characters.

    Might this be the title of the beast, the number of its name? The one-world beast system that is recognized by 18 characters? This would match the scriptures that speaks of a mark that we ought to have to buy or sell in our right-hand or forehead, and that it additionally carries the number of the beast, during a future cashless money society.

    Go to: https://biblefreedom.com to see all the proof!

    The scriptures warns us in the end times that a false prophet will stand up performing miraculous signs deceiving many to obtain this mark:

    “Then the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet who worked signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image” (Revelation 19:20).

    At all costs, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name” (Revelation 14:9-11).

    We are living in very prophetic times with major Biblical prophecies being fulfilled. When Donald Trump recognized Jerusalem as capital of Israel on December 6th of ’17, this was a huge step to bring forth the Third Temple foretold within the Bible.

    The Bible tells us that the Antichrist will seat himself in this temple:

    “…and the man of sin is revealed, the son of perdition, who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thessalonians 2:3-4).

    Inside the Islamic faith, there is a figure referred to as the Mahdi, known as their messiah who they’re waiting to be revealed. There are various testimonies from people on-line who consider this man shall be Barack Obama who may be the biblical Antichrist. I personally have had unusual dreams about him. He got on stage proclaiming himself to be a follower of Christ with no affiliation to the Muslim faith, however it was later revealed by his circle of relatives that he certainly is a faithful Muslim.

    His real birth name is stated to be Barry Soetoro, and he had his name switched to Barack Obama. Why would he do this?

    Jesus says, “And He said to them, ‘I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven'” (Luke 10:18).

    In Hebrew, the word “Barack” means “lighting”, and the usage of “Bama” (Strongs Hebrew phrase 1116) is used to mean the “heights” of heaven.

    The day following the election of Barack Obama (11/04/08), the triumphing select 3 lotto numbers in Illinois (Obama’s home state) for 11/5/08 were 666.

    Obama use to be a U.S. senator for Illinois, and his zip code was 60606.

    Regardless, whoever seats himself in the future Third Temple in Jerusalem, declaring themselves to be God IS THE ANTICHRIST. DO NOT BE LEAD ASTRAY.

    So, why do we need Jesus?

    “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Romans 2:23).

    “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 6:23).

    Our own works can’t save our souls from our sins. If we step before a judge in the court of law, being guilty of a criminal offense, the judge will not judge us by the good that we have carried out, rather the crimes we’ve committed. If we as fallen humanity, created in God’s image, pose this type of moral justice, how much more a perfect, righteous, and Holy creator?

    God has delivered to us His ethical law’s through the 10 commandments received by Moses at Mt. Siani. These legal guidelines were not given so we may be justified, however in order that we might see the need for the saviour. They’re the mirror of God’s character of what He has put in every one of us, with our conscious bearing witness that we all know that it is an offense to steal, lie, dishonor our mother and father, and son on.

    We may strive to follow all the moral laws of the 10 commandments, however we’ll in no way catch up to them to be justified before a Holy God. That same word of the law given to Moses became flesh over 2000 years ago inside the body of Jesus Christ. He was brought forth to be our justification by perfectly fulfilling the law, living a sinless life that solely God could accomplish.

    The gap between us and the law can never be reconciled by our very own merit, but the arm of Jesus is stretched out by the grace and mercy of God. And if we are to grab on, by faith in Him, He will pull us forward being the one to justify us. As in the court of law, if someone steps in and pays your fine, even though you are guilty, the judge can do what is legal and just and let you go free. That is what Jesus did almost 2000 years ago on the cross. It was a legal transaction being fulfilled within the spiritual realm by the shedding of His blood, with His last words being, “…It is finished!…” (John 19:30).

    Now why did Jesus have to die for us?

    Because God is Holy and just, the wrath that we deserve could not go unnoticed. Through the perfect righteousness and justice of God’s character, it must be reconciled, it ought to be quenched and satisfied.

    For God takes no pleasure in the dying of the wicked (Ezekiel 18:23). That is why in Isaiah chapter 53, where it speaks of the coming Messiah and His soul being a sacrifice for our sins, why it says it satisfied God to crush His only begotten Son.

    This is because the wrath that we deserve was justified by being poured out upon His Son. For if it was poured out upon us deserve it, we would all perish and go to hell. God created a means of escape by pouring it out on His Son who’s soul could not stay in Hades, but was raised and seated at the right hand of God in power.

    Now once we put on the Lord Jesus Christ (Romans 13:14), God no longer looks at the individual who deserves His wrath, but the glorious image of His perfect Son living in our hearts, justifying us as if we acquired the wrath we deserve, making a means of escape from the curse of death.

    Now what we ought to do is repent and believe in the savior, confessing and turning from our sins. That is not only a head knowledge of believing in Jesus, butrather receiving His words, taking them to heart. In which we no longer live to practice sin, however turn away from our sins and practice righteousness:

    “Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived. Neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor homosexuals, nor sodomites, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners will inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you. But you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of our God” (1 Corinthians 6:9-11).

    By doing so we may become transformed into the image of God by means of faith in His Son Christ Jesus Who is inclined to give the Holy Spirit to whoever ask of Him:

    “Most assuredly, I(Jesus) say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’ (John 3:5-6).

    “But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His” (Romans 8:9).

    Now what are you waiting for? Our Father in heaven only wishes the best for us all, restoring all the pieces this world has stolen from us. This is what it means to be “holy”. To be made whole.

    He’s waiting to listen to you. That God given tongue to speak language, by using faith, pray to Him, ask Him to forgive you by confessing to Him your sins and be willing to forsake them; that you receive the sacrifice of His Son Jesus on the cross, and that you want His Holy Spirit living inside you reworking you into a child of the living God.

    Jesus says, “but whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him(the Holy Spirit) will never thirst. But the water that I shall give him will become in him a fountain of water springing up into everlasting life.”

    Did you realize that Jesus spoke more about hell than anyone else in the holy scriptures, even more than He spoke about heaven?! For this very cause He was brought forth to die for us, to rescue us from this place that we earned by our sins against a holy God.

    He describes hell as a actual place where,

    “Their worm does not die
    And the fire is not quenched” (Mark 9:44).

    And where,

    “There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth…” (Luke 13:28).

    Jesus tells us who to fear,

    “And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell” (Matthew 10:28).

    “Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, ‘Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God. And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.’

    Then He who sat on the throne said, ‘Behold, I make all things new.’ And He said to me, ‘Write, for these words are true and faithful.’

    And He said to me, ‘It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. He who overcomes shall inherit all things, and I will be his God and he shall be My son. But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.'” (Revelation 21:1-8).

    Out of all the world religions, how can we make certain the Bible got it right? The scientific facts has established and continues to support that the universe once had a beginning in which space, time and matter were created. Many know this as the big bang.

    “The non-biblical religions tell us that god or god’s create within space and time that eternally exist. The Bible stands alone and says that time and space don’t exist until God creates the universe.” – Astronomer(Phd) Hugh Ross

    The Bible not only got it correct that space, time and matter all came into existence at the beginning of the universe, it additionally states in 7 distinct places that the universe is in a continuous state of expansion thousands of years before scientists discovered these facts.

    Did you know that the real Noah’s Ark was found in the place where God’s holy word told us it would be with the correct dimensions? As well as proof for the destruction of Sodom & Gomorrah and the Exodus account of the Red Sea crossing?

    The Bible is the most translated and examine historical book in the history of the world, filled with predictive prophecies, matching what we find inside the book of nature. Wouldn’t you count on God’s word to be so?

    This info and more can all be discovered here: https://biblefreedom.com

    Jesus loves you!

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