´´Here are the 2019 Nobel Prize winners´´ – LinkedIn and website images @ Rewiring the Brain: Zapping with Precision @ ´´Unicamp desenvolve remédio inédito capaz de matar células do câncer de bexiga – Medicamento é seis vezes mais potente do que o usual e pacientes desenganados apresentaram bons resultados. Estudo foi desenvolvido em Campinas´´ @ FACTS – The Jackson Laboratory – ´´To date, 26 Nobel prizes are associated with Jackson Laboratory research, education programs and resources.´´ HISTORY OF THE JACKSON LABORATORY AND OTHER FACTS @ ´´The Nobel Prize (/ˈnoʊbɛl/, NOH-bel; Swedish: Nobelpriset [nʊˈbɛ̂lːˌpriːsɛt]; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.[1][3][4] The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.[5][6][7]´´ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize @ LINKS ABOUT MY MONOGRAPH / LINKS ABOUT ´´MY´´ DISSERTATION @ LINKS ABOUT ANIMAL MODELS DISEASES LIKE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

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Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo´´My´´ Dissertation Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

 

https://www.livescience.com/supercentenarians-have-rare-immune-cell.html?fbclid=IwAR35SEDR5YVFEyf7v9ip7z2xyMPhKytzmOVU6P9SrZ1s1ZYaFb6BGWLwCkw

https://emeritus-executive.berkeley.edu/artificial-intelligence/index.php?fbclid=IwAR1dIud06FVVx-LUvnuQXi201lWD9uEzNpMhjpy8GhfEG7Rezisk8Z92j5I

http://www.facebook.com https://www.anonews.co/teslas-new-solar-roof-will-be-as-cheap-as-a-shingle-roof-and-electric-bill/?fbclid=IwAR1Ug9hjcEI_wYhC2m58RZtzB9F5z0rVNYEEETfFAuI5nMRKe2x3U3gI6KM

https://7news.com.au/sunrise/on-the-show/unexplained-find-could-prove-there-is-life-on-the-red-planet-c-557909?fbclid=IwAR082rEjr2-UBkDQAzf6TriIkEVI2zHlvEGlWLBj5ZfL2OgWmODksqyC6U0

https://www.iflscience.com/space/nasas-curiosity-has-detected-an-unexplained-spike-in-oxygen-on-mars/?fbclid=IwAR3jd5Mkhay7TUXZgrervbVuPLHElPjrp5CXqCOYonDWheVuBLBW6HRGAsU

https://phys.org/news/2019-11-material-world-electricity.html?fbclid=IwAR1T4PZe1EpyK6mmaRgpvO8D8GGamYsstlfUU7_VPX9f2C5D4x7OB9ah_Nw

https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/ciencia/2019/11/zika-inibe-proliferacao-de-celulas-do-cancer-de-prostata.shtml?fbclid=IwAR0HCZnA1N8vhLh6W5naG3WRasweWeSnOZOwhJfm-plSPaCwOocepKiliJk

https://www.jax.org/about-us/fast-facts https://www.jax.org/about-us/history#at-jax

file:///C:/Users/RODRIGO/Desktop/Digicorr/QR%20Codes/Teste/jaxfacts-2015102.pdf

Rewiring the Brain: Zapping with Precision

https://g1.globo.com/sp/campinas-regiao/noticia/2018/10/01/unicamp-desenvolve-remedio-inedito-capaz-de-matar-celulas-do-cancer-de-bexiga.ghtml?fbclid=IwAR09UElj0eYKOYokJbwDJ319rS9GhZiXaHUyDf2RCd6mfbxC8kQT7eg2pSI

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  1. SCIENCE 
  2. RESEARCH
  3. HERE ARE ALL THE 2019 NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS 

Here Are All the 2019 Nobel Prize Winners

The 2019 Nobel Peace Prize Is Awarded to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy AhmedEthiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2019 in recognition of his efforts to end his country’s long-running border conflict with Eritrea.SharePlay VideoYOU MIGHT LIKELEBANON’S PRIME MINISTER SAAD HARIRI RESIGNS AMID ‘DEAD END’ IN RESOLVING ANTI-GOVERNMENT PROTESTS3 ECONOMISTS WIN NOBEL PRIZE FOR WORK ON ‘ALLEVIATING GLOBAL POVERTY’2019 NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS GOES TO 3 SCIENTISTS WHOSE WORK FURTHERS UNDERSTANDING OF ‘EARTH’S PLACE IN THE COSMOS’BY ALEX FITZPATRICK  UPDATED: OCTOBER 14, 2019 6:37 AM ET | ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED: OCTOBER 7, 2019

The 2019 Nobel Prize announcements are underway this week, with the first prize, in the category of physiology or medicine, going to a trio of scientists for their work on cells’ ability to sense and react to oxygen availability.

The Nobel Prize in physics, chemistry and literature have been announced and the prizes in peace and economic sciences will follow over the next few days. The awards are a recognition of work that advances each of the respective fields. Nobel winners are given a medal, a certificate and a cash award of about $900,000 (when multiple people win a single Nobel, they typically split the cash award.)

Here are the 2019 Nobel Prize winners (so far):

2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Nobel Prize in Medicine Awarded to 3 Scientists for Oxygen ResearchThe 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to scientists William G. Kaelin, Jr, Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza.SharePlay VideoYOU MIGHT LIKE3 SCIENTISTS SHARE NOBEL PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY FOR THEIR WORK WITH LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES3 ECONOMISTS WIN NOBEL PRIZE FOR WORK ON ‘ALLEVIATING GLOBAL POVERTY’

William G. Kaelin Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza won the 2019 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. The trio “identified molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen,” according to The Nobel Assembly. Their work, says the Assembly, has “paved the way for promising new strategies to fight anemia, cancer and many other diseases.”

2019 Nobel Prize in Physics

2019 Nobel Prize in Physics Goes to 3 Scientists Whose Work Furthers Understanding of ‘Earth’s Place in the Cosmos’Three scientists won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics on Tuesday for their work in understanding how the universe has evolved, and the Earth’s place in it.SharePlay VideoYOU MIGHT LIKE3 SCIENTISTS SHARE NOBEL PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY FOR THEIR WORK WITH LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES3 ECONOMISTS WIN NOBEL PRIZE FOR WORK ON ‘ALLEVIATING GLOBAL POVERTY’

James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz won the 2019 Nobel Prize in physics. Peebles, of Princeton University, received half of the award, per the Nobel Assembly, for work focused on “theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology,” while Mayor and Queloz, of the University of Geneva (and, for Queloz, Cambridge University) shared half the award “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.”

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“This year’s Laureates have transformed our ideas about the cosmos,” the Assembly wrote in a release accompanying the Prize’s announcement. “While James Peebles’ theoretical discoveries contributed to our understanding of how the universe evolved after the Big Bang, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz explored our cosmic neighborhoods on the hunt for unknown planets. Their discoveries have forever changed our conceptions of the world.”

2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

3 Scientists Share Nobel Prize in Chemistry For Their Work With Lithium-Ion BatteriesThree scientists on Wednesday were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their contributions to the development of lithium-ion batteries.SharePlay VideoYOU MIGHT LIKE2019 NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS GOES TO 3 SCIENTISTS WHOSE WORK FURTHERS UNDERSTANDING OF ‘EARTH’S PLACE IN THE COSMOS’3 ECONOMISTS WIN NOBEL PRIZE FOR WORK ON ‘ALLEVIATING GLOBAL POVERTY’

John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino won the 2019 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The three scientists have all worked to develop and advance lithium-ion batteries, now-ubiquitous technology which the Nobel Assembly said has “laid the foundation of a wireless, fossil fuel-free society.”

2019 Nobel Prize in Literature

Nobel Prizes in Literature Awarded to Austria’s Peter Handke and Poland’s Olga TokarczukThe 2018 Nobel Prize in literature has been awarded to Polish author Olga Tokarczuk while the 2019 prize went to Austrian author Peter Handke.SharePlay VideoYOU MIGHT LIKENOBEL PRIZE IN MEDICINE AWARDED TO 3 SCIENTISTS FOR OXYGEN RESEARCH3 ECONOMISTS WIN NOBEL PRIZE FOR WORK ON ‘ALLEVIATING GLOBAL POVERTY’

Austrian novelist and playwright Peter Handke won the 2019 Nobel Prize in literature “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience,” according to the Nobel Assembly. Polish author Olga Tokarczuk won the 2018 Nobel Prize in literature “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life,” the Assembly said. The two awards were both given out this year because last year’s announcement was canceled in the midst of sexual assault allegations.

2019 Nobel Peace Prize

The 2019 Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed for his work to bring an end to a long-running border dispute between his country and neighboring Eritrea. The Norwegian Nobel Committee also cited Abiy’s internal reforms.

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“It was Abiy who jumpstarted the peace process in June 2018, just three months after taking office,” writes TIME’s Aryn Baker. “In a surprise move, he said he would hand a disputed border town over to Eritrea, in accordance with the terms of a long-neglected peace agreement from 2000. A few weeks later Abiy and Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki declared an end to the war between the two countries.”

Climate activist Greta Thunberg was a favorite to win the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize.

2019 Prize in Economic Sciences

3 Economists Win Nobel Prize for Work On ‘Alleviating Global Poverty’The 2019 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences has been awarded Monday to Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.”SharePlay VideoYOU MIGHT LIKE2019 NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS GOES TO 3 SCIENTISTS WHOSE WORK FURTHERS UNDERSTANDING OF ‘EARTH’S PLACE IN THE COSMOS’3 SCIENTISTS SHARE NOBEL PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY FOR THEIR WORK WITH LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

A trio of economists, Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer, received the 2019 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.”

“This year’s Laureates have introduced a new approach to obtaining reliable answers about the best ways to fight global poverty,” reads a statement from The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. “In brief, it involves dividing this issue into smaller, more manageable, questions — for example, the most effective interventions for improving educational outcomes or child health. They have shown that these smaller, more precise, questions are often best answered via carefully designed experiments among the people who are most affected.”

Duflo, a 46-year-old professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the youngest person to win the economics prize, the Associated Press reports. She’s also only the second-ever woman to receive the prize.

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Unicamp desenvolve remédio inédito capaz de matar células do câncer de bexiga

Medicamento é seis vezes mais potente do que o usual e pacientes desenganados apresentaram bons resultados. Estudo foi desenvolvido em Campinas.

Por EPTV 1

01/10/2018 13h25  Atualizado há um ano


00:00/03:04

Pesquisadores da Unicamp desenvolvem medicina inédita no combate do câncer de bexiga

Pesquisadores da Unicamp desenvolvem medicina inédita no combate do câncer de bexiga

Uma pesquisa da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp) desenvolveu um remédio inédito no Brasil capaz de matar células do câncer de bexiga. O tratamento é seis vezes mais potente do que o usual, e já apresentou resultados positivos na redução de tumores em pacientes desenganados.

No combate a esse tipo de câncer, é comum a retirada do tumor seguida por uma terapia com a vacina BCG, mas muitas pessoas sofrem com os efeitos colaterais e, eventualmente, chegam a enfrentar a falta dela na rede pública.

A expectativa é que a nova droga chegue ao mercado dentro de seis anos.

“Tem pacientes nesse grupo que estavam desenganados. Hoje a gente está acompanhando, felizmente, até agora, sem a doença. Isso nos deixa bastante esperançosos com essa nova droga”, explica João Carlos Alonso, urologista do Hospital Municipal de Paulínia (SP) , que integra o grupo de pesquisadores.

Pesquisa da Unicamp, em Campinas, descobre nova droga para tratar câncer de bexiga. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV
Pesquisa da Unicamp, em Campinas, descobre nova droga para tratar câncer de bexiga. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV

Pesquisa da Unicamp, em Campinas, descobre nova droga para tratar câncer de bexiga. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV

O estudo levou 12 anos para ser concluído, e foi testado em animais e seres humanos.

A droga é menos tóxica do que as habituais, porque é um nanofármaco. Tem alta efetividade e, por isso, é administrado nos pacientes em concentrações menores em relação aos quimioterápicos.

Funciona como uma imunoterapia, estimula a produção de proteínas de células de defesa e destrói os tumores. Proporciona uma melhora na qualidade de vida do paciente durante o tratamento.

“Produziu o que nós chamamos de interferon, e o interferon consegue matar as células tumorais de uma forma mais efetiva”, afirma Wagner Favaro, pesquisador da Unicamp.

Wagner Favaro, pesquisador da Unicamp no estudo sobre remédio inédito para tratamento do câncer de bexiga. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV
Wagner Favaro, pesquisador da Unicamp no estudo sobre remédio inédito para tratamento do câncer de bexiga. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV

Wagner Favaro, pesquisador da Unicamp no estudo sobre remédio inédito para tratamento do câncer de bexiga. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV

Redução de tumores

Há mais de um ano, a droga começou a ser testada em pacientes que apresentam metástase e já esgotaram todas as alternativas de tratamento. Os tumores tiveram redução de 40% a 50% no número e no tamanho. A expectativa de vida era de três meses e, com a descoberta, passa de um ano.

“Eu estou me sentido superfeliz, superguerreira, porque ele não deixa a gente acabada. […] Fico feliz, do jeito que eu saí, eu volto. Parece que não tomei nada”, conta a dona de casa Olívia José de Castro, idosa que descobriu a doença em estágio avançado e participa da pesquisa.

Com o bom resultado, a Comissão de Ética em Seres Humanos da Unicamp liberou o teste da medicação para pacientes com câncer de bexiga em qualquer estágio da doença.

Remédio para tratamento de câncer na bexiga desenvolvido pela Unicamp, em Campinas, tem resultados positivos na redução de tumores. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV
Remédio para tratamento de câncer na bexiga desenvolvido pela Unicamp, em Campinas, tem resultados positivos na redução de tumores. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV

Remédio para tratamento de câncer na bexiga desenvolvido pela Unicamp, em Campinas, tem resultados positivos na redução de tumores. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV

Esperança

Após passar por três cirurgias e não conseguir dar andamento ao tratamento tradicional, porque não conseguiu achar o remédio, o empresário Marcelo Santos decidiu participar dos testes. As seis doses que já tomou fizeram os pólipos malignos desaparecerem.

“Já fiz um primeiro exame, onde esses pólipos não voltaram. Então, por enquanto, estou bastante contente. Vamos torcer para que seja realmente bom, que dê certo, e atinja bastante gente da população”, diz o paciente.

Empresário Marcelo Santos já passou por cirurgias sem sucesso durante tratamento do câncer na bexiga. Ele participa da pesquisa da Unicamp. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV
Empresário Marcelo Santos já passou por cirurgias sem sucesso durante tratamento do câncer na bexiga. Ele participa da pesquisa da Unicamp. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV

Empresário Marcelo Santos já passou por cirurgias sem sucesso durante tratamento do câncer na bexiga. Ele participa da pesquisa da Unicamp. — Foto: Reprodução/EPTV

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HomeCerebrumRewiring the Brain: Zapping with Precision

Cerebrum Article

Rewiring the Brain: Zapping with Precision

Devices in and out of the brain that can stimulate the nervous system through electric current are now being used to treat depression, movement disorders, and chronic pain. Our author, a Stanford School of Medicine clinical associate professor who is senior scientific research director for Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System, provides insight on the many neuromodulation strategies now available to treat brain injury and the potential of further research to accomplish much more.

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Published: November 6, 2019
Author: Maheen Mausoof Adamson, Ph.D.

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cartoon of workers managing a brain

The 1982 science fiction film classic Blade Runner is a gritty detective story set in the dystopian future that raises questions about what it means to be human. In the film, Harrison Ford plays Rick Deckard, a police officer turned bounty hunter searching the streets of Los Angeles for a replicant (human-like androids) rebellion leader Roy Batty. Batty is presented as a technologically perfected being fitted with a human-template brain completely rewired to create an enemy to be deathly feared.

Fear of the perfect altered brain is prominent in science fiction—and may be particularly prevalent today, amid growing concerns about genetic editing and artificial intelligence. The prospect of a fully artificial human brain remains very distant. However, we are in the midst of a neuromodulation revolution that will increase our ability to treat disease and optimize human performance. We must, however, carefully consider the benefits and risks of these techniques in fully evaluating their potential for society as well as the individual.

A large number of patients suffering from neurological or psychiatric disorders—depressionpain, and post-traumatic stress disorder among them—are resistant to or can develop resistance to standard medication and psychotherapy, suggesting the need for new approaches. Neuromodulation may possibly be such an approach. The term (aka neurostimulation) refers to direct stimulation and modification of the nervous system through the use of electrical, chemical, or mechanical signals. Neuromodulation therapy is already used to treat many brain disorders, most commonly movement disorders, chronic pain, and depression.

There are two major categories of neuromodulation: Invasive and noninvasive. Invasive modalities are used for the most severe cases and involve surgery: they include deep brain stimulation (DBS), vagal nerve stimulation, and epidural prefrontal cortical stimulation. Noninvasive treatments include electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), theta burst stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The neuromodulation therapies currently in use for psychiatric illnesses and traumatic brain injuries include tDCS, repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation, focused ultrasound, and DBS. Each technique can be precisely individualized based on the needs of the patient and severity of the disease.

The Origins of DBS

Deep brain stimulation has a relatively short history. Its development is mostly attributed to Alim Benabid, who, in the 1980s, discovered that electrically stimulating the basal ganglia could reduce symptoms of Parkinson’s movement disorder. Although this technique has dark episodes in its history, it holds, in the words of UC Davis Neurorobotics Laboratory Director Karen Moxon, “the promise of improving the quality of life for everyone on the planet in unimaginable ways.”

Recently, the sustained clinical benefits of continuous DBS applied to the subgenual cingulate for treatment resistant depression have created excitement around the potential of this innovative treatment strategy. However, while the effects of DBS for Parkinson’s, essential tremor, and dystonia remain impressive, the results for treatment resistant depression and other disorders are in fact mixed. That said, visible improvement in patients with severe neurological impairments and brain injuries, documented by numerous videos found online, provide persuasive testimony that this technique holds great promise.

Non-invasive Techniques Emerge

Repetitive TMS (rTMS) can modify neuronal activity locally and at distant sites by creating a strong magnetic field near the skull, which can then pass through the skull when delivered in a series of pulses. I first encountered the principle behind this technique in the 1980s in Pakistan, along with my middle school classmates, when I constructed a small electromagnet with a nail and coil and observed its effects on small metal objects. rTMS makes use of the same concept, but instead of moving metal jewelry on my armoire, I can induce plasticity between neurons in that sacred space called the synaptic cleft.

Although rTMS is already used widely to treat a number of neurological diseases and mental illnesses, its clinical benefits and risks are still being actively researched in a number of current studies. The results of past studies have been mixed, but more recent reviews have concluded that there is convincing evidence of the efficacy and safety of the technique for improving the symptoms of acute depression in treatment-resistant patients, usually through the daily stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There are also many studies underway investigating the efficacy of rTMS for Post-Traumatic Stress Syndromeanxiety, dementia, and traumatic brain injury. Clinical guidelines for this noninvasive technique have been formulated but are undergoing revision as the technique is perfected.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), another non-invasive technique, passes direct current through the cortex, the brain’s outer layer. This differs from rTMS in that instead of inducing action potentials, which are a rapid rise and then fall in the electrical potential across the membrane of particular neurons, tDCS modulates spontaneous cortical activity, bursts of action potentials that emerge from clusters of neurons. In other words, while rTMS directly induces the firing of the specific neurons that it stimulates, tDCS changes preexisting patterns of spontaneous action potentials across a range of cells.

Although initial studies focused on immediate responses to stimulation of the motor cortex, more recent studies have explored effects on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is also a frequent target of rTMS. As with rTMS, results have been mixed, with some studies finding that tDCS can alleviate cognitive impairments (such as the memory problems that begin to appear in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease), and others finding no effects. More research needs to be conducted, especially in fibromyalgia, depression, addiction-related craving, and traumatic brain injury, areas in which tDCS holds much promise.

Findings in neuromodulation studies remain largely based on self-report data, which are often difficult to interpret because participants tend to be influenced by such extraneous factors as social expectationsstigma, and their own past responses. This makes it especially important to identify valid and reliable biomarkers (biological indicators of treatment effect, such as stress hormones in the blood), whenever possible, to provide objective and repeatable means of measuring treatment response and identifying future targets for treatment, such as effective TMS targets.

A final non-invasive technique is low intensity focused ultrasound pulsation. Although ultrasound has been used in a variety of medical applications for at least 50 years, its use for neuromodulation is a recently developed technique (the first published clinical application appeared in 2016, when it was employed to “wake up” vegetative patients). This technique focuses low energy sound waves   through the skin and skull without surgery, precisely targeting deep structures in the brain to modify neural activity and alleviate disease symptoms.

In a recent review article, authors summarized the  focused ultrasound neuromodulation studies that have been carried out in animal models and humans. Most research to date has been aimed at      the treatment of various psychiatric and neurological disorders, and the development of preliminary brain mapping techniques. Because this technique is new, it is important to determine which parameters (e.g., dose, duration, and frequency) are most effective for neuromodulation. One important advantage of focused ultrasound pulsation is its ability to reach deep cortical areas inaccessible to other noninvasive methods. Because patients cannot perceive whether the device is turned on or not, there is no difficulty with creating a sham or placebo condition.

Every field begins, to put it a little bluntly, in retrospect. You use what you have to locate the area in the brain you want to stimulate, modify, treat, or improve. Thanks to recent advances in neuroscience, Magnetic Resonance Imaging in particular, we are able to locate appropriate stimulation sites not only structurally but functionally. In addition, with respect to the disease in question, we can specifically target the area of stimulation to enhance or decrease neuronal activity (e.g., when TMS is used to treat depression, specific areas in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are targeted). While the potential of these methods may sound a bit God-like (to someone of my generation, at least), if one assesses the effort and the intense level of inquiry needed to perfect them, the sense of power can quickly fade. We have lots of work to do, as has always been the case when we attempt to expand the sphere of human potential.

A Look to the Future

As neuromodulation research goes forward, important concerns include increased accessibility, reduced cost, and shorter duration. Theta burst stimulation—a newer form of rTMS characterized by short bursts of stimulation at high frequencies, applied five times per second—has shown great promise for the enhancement of TMS in all three areas. Single pulse TMS devices that deliver a very brief pre-set magnetic pulse against the back of the head for less than a second are already on the market and may empower at-home treatment of migraine. (Unlike rTMS, which carries a small risk of seizure, at-home single pulse devices are highly unlikely to produce any adverse outcomes).

Precise targeting is another important area for development. Most importantly, the integration of data obtained from a patient’s wearable (such as a Fitbit, Apple watches, or other monitoring devices) with noninvasive neuromodulatory devices is where we close the gap between precise location and accurate stimulus delivery. What I foresee is this: a patient will give a blood sample, have a neurological and physical exam, and provide demographic information that the physician will integrate with massive amounts of data downloaded from the patient’s wearable. Based on such copious information, the patient will be prescribed a device that targets the specific brain area that needs “fixing,” calibrated to the right dose as predicted by an algorithm and positioned by a robotic arm.

This will be true precision medicine.

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The Jackson Laboratory, founded in 1929, is an independent, 501(c)3 nonprofit biomedical research institution based in Bar Harbor, Maine, with a National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center, a genomic medicine institute in Farmington, Conn., and facilities in Augusta and Ellsworth, Maine, in Sacramento, Calif., and in Shanghai, China. It employs more than 2,200 staff, and its mission is to discover precise genomic solutions for disease and empower the global biomedical community in the shared quest to improve human health.

Annual Report

Areas of discovery

JAX researchers combine extensive experience in mammalian genetics and human genomics to shape a unique and integrated approach to personalized medicine. Scientists work collaboratively across disciplines to interrogate disease from all angles, leveraging diverse expertise in cancer, immunology (including diabetes), neurogenetics (including Alzheimer’s disease), life-cycle biology (including development, stem cells, aging and regenerative medicine), the microbiome and computational biology.

  • More than 400 staff members hold Ph.D., M.D., D.V.M. or D.Sc. advanced degrees.
  • JAX currently supports more than 70 research teams; that number is projected to expand to 75 teams by 2022.
  • Faculty members have 534 active sponsored research collaboration agreements with 574 academic research and clinical institutions.
  • Multiple JAX Centers coordinate expertise around critical research areas including cancer, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, addiction biology, precision genetics and 3D genomics. Since 1983, JAX has had a National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center, one of only seven institutes in the United States that has received this designation for its contributions to basic cancer research.

Major contributions to medical science

To date, 26 Nobel prizes are associated with Jackson Laboratory research, education programs and resources.  JAX professor George Snell, Ph.D. won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for providing an in-depth understanding of the immune system’s major histocompatibility complex, making organ transplants possible. Three graduates of the JAX Summer Student Program have gone on to win the Nobel Prize, and another two dozen Nobel Prizes have been awarded for research conducted using JAX® Mice.  JAX research breakthroughs that have impacted today’s medical treatments include:

  • Studies by Douglas Coleman led to the discovery of leptin, central to obesity and diabetes research.
  • Elizabeth Russell’s work yielded new treatments for blood and immunological diseases, including performing the first bone marrow transplants in a mammal.
  • Investigations by Leroy Stevens into the mechanisms in cells that allow them to develop into different tissues led to modern stem cell research.
  • John Eppig and Larry Mobraaten conducted foundational research in in vitro fertilization and sperm cryopreservation, techniques now widely used in fertility treatments.
  • David Harrison demonstrated rapamycin as the first pharmaceutical intervention proven to extend the lifespan of a mammal.
  • Work by Cat Lutz resulted in the development of Spinraza®, the first medication used to treat Spinal Muscular Atrophy — a rare and fatal disease that causes spinal cord degeneration in infants. Similar methods are now being used to pursue therapeutics for more common diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Education Programs

The Jackson Laboratory offers educational programs for scientists throughout their careers — from STEM education for high school students and training for science and math teachers to courses and conferences for experienced researchers defining the cutting edge of genomics research and specialized training for physicians interested in incorporating genetics and genomics into their practices.

  • STEM and Undergraduate Education offers student research internships, professional development programs for high school educators, and a 90-year-old, highly successful Summer Student Program. STEM is a primary sponsor of the Maine State Science Fair.
  • Courses, Conferences and Workshops provides in-person education for over 1200 internal and external graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and established professionals annually, including the 60-year-old McKusick Short Course in Human and Mammalian Genetics and Genomics. More than 1,000 students, researchers, and physicians attend Laboratory courses, conferences and workshops each year.
  • JAX maintains cooperative Ph.D. programs with Tufts University, University of Maine and a both a Ph.D. and M.D.-Ph.D. program with UConn Health. JAX’s Postdoctoral Program prepares Ph.D., M.D., D.V.M., and M.D.-Ph.D. scientists for independent scientific careers.
  • The Clinical and Continuing Education Program offers point-of-care resources, case-based online programs and in-person workshops that help health-care professionals integrate genomics into their clinical practice.  
  • Online and Digital Education’s webcast program and online course offerings enable learners to participate in JAX genetics and genomics education programs regardless of geography. 

Tools & Resources

JAX empowers the global biomedical community through curation of data and provision of critical research models and services. 

  • JAX is the world’s source for more than 11,000 strains of genetically defined mice. JAX® Mice, Clinical and Research Services distributes about 3 million JAX Mice to more than 1,900 organizations in 75 countries.
  • JAX hosts the Mouse Genome Informatics databases, the world’s source for information on mouse genetics and biology.
  • JAX’s Clinical Knowledge Database (CKB) is a dynamic, digital encyclopedia with sophisticated search capabilities that allow both researchers and clinicians to interpret complex cancer genomic profiles. 
  • JAX provides in vivo drug efficacy testing, reproductive services and husbandry in a wide range of therapeutic areas for biomedical researchers. 

A growing footprint, one JAX.

JAX employs more than 2,200 staff in multiple locations in the United States and abroad:  

Researchers at the Laboratory’s headquarters and mammalian genetics campus in Bar Harbor, Mainestudy the fundamental genetics underlying cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s and many other diseases. Additionally, JAX’s extensive and unique mouse models, database resources, educational programs and clinical research services empower and enable the work of scientists all across the globe.

JAX staff in Augusta, Maine manage the activities of The Maine Cancer Genomics Initiative (MCGI), a special alliance of cancer experts, clinicians and researchers from The Jackson Laboratory who are focused on improving outcomes for cancer patients across Maine. This facility is located on the campus of the MaineGeneral Medical Center’s Harold Alfond Center for Cancer Care.

The Charles E. Hewett Center in Ellsworth, Maine, is a state-of-the-art mouse vivarium that enables wider access to vital JAX® Mice resources for the worldwide biomedical research community.

Researchers at The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine in Farmington, Connecticutseek human genomic solutions to disease through a variety of areas, including computational biology, immunology, the microbiome, and cancer. Located on the campus of UConn Health Center, JAX Genomic Medicine integrates research with the clinic, and provides the human complement to our mammalian studies in Maine.

JAX professionals in Sacramento, California provide genetically unique mouse models, scientific testing, and data analysis services to pharmaceutical, life sciences and medical research communities.

Technical and customer support staff in Shanghai, China facilitate access to premium quality JAX® Mice, researcher support and knowledge sharing for the Chinese scientific community

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NOVEMBER 14, 2019

New material breaks world record for turning heat into electricity

by Vienna University of Technology

New material breaks world record turning heat into electricity
Prof. Ernst Bauer in the lab. Credit: TU Wien

A new type of material generates electrical current very efficiently from temperature differences. This allows sensors and small processors to supply themselves with energy wirelessly.

Thermoelectric materials can convert heat into electrical energy. This is due to the so-called Seebeck effect: If there is a temperature difference between the two ends of such a material, electrical voltage can be generated and current can start to flow. The amount of electrical energy that can be generated at a given temperature difference is measured by the so-called ZT value: The higher the ZT value of a material, the better its thermoelectric properties.

The best thermoelectrics to date were measured at ZT values of around 2.5 to 2.8. Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) have now succeeded in developing a completely new material with a ZT value of 5 to 6. It is a thin layer of iron, vanadium, tungsten and aluminum applied to a silicon crystal.

The new material is so effective that it could be used to provide energy for sensors or even small computer processors. Instead of connecting small electrical devices to cables, they could generate their own electricity from temperature differences. The new material has now been presented in the journal Nature.

Electricity and Temperature

“A good thermoelectric material must show a strong Seebeck effect, and it has to meet two important requirements that are difficult to reconcile,” says Prof. Ernst Bauer from the Institute of Solid State Physics at TU Wien. “On the one hand, it should conduct electricity as well as possible; on the other hand, it should transport heat as poorly as possible. This is a challenge because electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity are usually closely related.”

At the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Thermoelectricity, which Ernst Bauer established at TU Wien in 2013, different thermoelectric materials for different applications have been studied over the last few years. This research has now led to the discovery of a particularly remarkable material—a combination of iron, vanadium, tungsten and aluminium.

“The atoms in this material are usually arranged in a strictly regular pattern in a so-called face-centered cubic lattice,” says Ernst Bauer. “The distance between two iron atoms is always the same, and the same is true for the other types of atoms. The whole crystal is therefore completely regular.”

However, when a thin layer of the material is applied to silicon, something amazing happens: the structure changes radically. Although the atoms still form a cubic pattern, they are now arranged in a space-centered structure, and the distribution of the different types of atoms becomes completely random. “Two iron atoms may sit next to each other, the places next to them may be occupied by vanadium or aluminum, and there is no longer any rule that dictates where the next iron atom is to be found in the crystal,” explains Bauer.

This mixture of regularity and irregularity of the atomic arrangement also changes the electronic structure, which determines how electrons move in the solid. “The electrical charge moves through the material in a special way, so that it is protected from scattering processes. The portions of charge traveling through the material are referred to as Weyl Fermions,” says Ernst Bauer. In this way, a very low electrical resistance is achieved.

Lattice vibrations, on the other hand, which transport heat from places of high temperature to places of low temperature, are inhibited by the irregularities in the crystal structure. Therefore, thermal conductivity decreases. This is important if electrical energy is to be generated permanently from a temperature difference—because if temperature differences could equilibrate very quickly and the entire material would soon have the same temperature everywhere, the thermoelectric effect would come to a standstill.

Electricity for the Internet of Things

“Of course, such a thin layer cannot generate a particularly large amount of energy, but it has the advantage of being extremely compact and adaptable,” says Ernst Bauer. “We want to use it to provide energy for sensors and small electronic applications.” The demand for such small-scale generators is growing quickly: In the “Internet of Things,” more and more devices are linked together online so that they automatically coordinate their behavior with each other. This is particularly promising for future production plants, where one machine has to react dynamically to another.

“If you need a large number of sensors in a factory, you can’t wire all of them together. It’s much smarter for the sensors to be able to generate their own power using a small thermoelectric device,” says Bauer.


Explore furtherHow to freeze heat conduction


More information: B. Hinterleitner et al. Thermoelectric performance of a metastable thin-film Heusler alloy, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1751-9Journal information:NatureProvided by Vienna University of Technology12430 shares

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