The End of Aging – Harvard’s genetics genius says we can live past 120 with supplements and lifestyle tweaks. Prepare to meet your future descendants – by Chris Taylor @ Scientists Are Just Beginning to Understand Mysterious DNA Circles Common in Cancer Cells & Air Pollution Nanoparticles Linked To Brain Cancer For First Time @ Chinese scientists programme stem cells to ‘fight and destroy’ cancer & Q&A: Everything You Need to Know About the Future of CRISPR-Cas9 and other facts. ´´In humans, aging represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time, encompassing physical, psychological, and social changes. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. Aging is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases: of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes.´´ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageing

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  • – > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics´´My´´ Dissertation @ #Innovation #energy #life #health #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo´´My´´ Dissertation Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agein

http://www.twitter.com http://www.gmail.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.youtube.com http://www.harvard.edu http://www.mit.edu http://www.stanford.edu http://www.ucla.edu http://www.nobelprize.org http://www.nasa.org http://www.caltech.edu https://www.techexplorist.com/molecule-plays-vital-role-aging-processes/27779/

https://www.cnet.com/news/meet-zoltan-istvan-cyborg-running-against-donald-trump-for-president/?fbclid=IwAR1F6tI9SFeH67A4L3tPyMhklfX3eGAmeDrahZcJewLOwM7MJTorAg4wXxI

https://www.sciencetechniz.com/2019/11/new-dna-technology.html?fbclid=IwAR0cGHJcY0dmuhPSYb5GjBgmpz1iC7PRoTSmK94SvoUoD61cmlWfNPn1E9g

https://fortune.com/2019/11/07/ai-genomic-sequencing-detecting-cancer/?fbclid=IwAR0lS3aNn7gCNlNYjp2vv1YLVZwY53TzZrSJypSncBVlBgxC_VXvOZtsnjI

https://biotechworldindia.wordpress.com/2019/11/23/india-to-be-a-world-leader-in-biotechnology-global-bio-india-summit-2019/?fbclid=IwAR17tJ7z09WNyiT-oiHmM2R7CFtnIphXCUwJo3_ATjb28QMjVrZNLNYjong

https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-observe-epigenetic-memories-passed-down-for-14-generations-most-animal?fbclid=IwAR30v-8ZXbZhI37RX_pctLznxblH3tYvKNd5pHOO6CFDtylzjFHX1QOe5Rc

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-us-canada-50241255/the-people-with-voices-that-tech-needs-to-recognise?fbclid=IwAR1LRWxzYCPIIYldLlSrwWZSYh829tHIBN4nxRcBxR9RPG42OcwRomcqAds

http://www.linkedin.com https://www.newworldai.com/top-22-best-artificial-intelligence-and-machine-learning-books-of-all-time/?fbclid=IwAR2lIpu9wKInxTMzVYoUrlaya-4Wm0y3DYQjNwuUDNgBCKPCYH4pGfZants

http://www.google.com https://www.newworldai.com/top-22-best-artificial-intelligence-and-robotics-movies-of-all-time/?fbclid=IwAR3hgmNKIPF298XnRAO1m6PfAoRbiEgYz89VdSvgpwj4sQeooYH92MzjNhI

http://www.facebook.com https://www.genengnews.com/insights/a-roadmap-and-wish-list-for-synthetic-genomics/?fbclid=IwAR0M5mgqXb_836Y0oPUqA7iqjsbdYP1ZZWyO2sT5UfHqyzm_oIyBoJSs8P8

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9gsWVbGYWO04iYO2TMrP8Q

https://www.youtube.com/user/Harvard

Vídeo -> Gratidão: Estou muito grato porque fui convidado através de mensagem direta por meio da Internet para participar de 55 eventos muito importantes do mundo em 25 cidades em menos de 1 ano porque participei de ótimas pesquisas no Brasil. Informações sobre este assunto estão no ´´meu´´ blog.

Video – > Gratitude: I am very grateful because I was invited by Internet through direct messages to participate in 55 very important science events in the world in 25 cities in less than 1 year. I participated of very important researches in Brazil. Informations about it are in my blog http://www.science1984.wordpress.com

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6404/ab423a/pdf

https://www.phillymag.com/healthcare-news/2019/11/08/gene-editing-crispr-cas9/?fbclid=IwAR37byPJK7eXSJeZL59-QvFrrUbphVWUE5Ej-Vd66wreFJBpPYrbRLOXGlM

https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3038948/chinese-scientists-programme-stem-cells-fight-and-destroy-cancer?fbclid=IwAR1WTwKKewI7s-RR05NfnmdDiOhh1ztNfubE9oZQgrZm5URJnNhz2ZIs2xQ

https://www.pioneeringminds.com/air-pollution-nanoparticles-linked-brain-cancer-for-first-time/?fbclid=IwAR1O5jqt-9VZQ_XscXZJwdXce_xyuJ_xX7n6ZpbkUYp2foPjYB_YEaTVA3Q

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The End of Aging

Harvard’s genetics genius says we can live past 120 with supplements and lifestyle tweaks. Prepare to meet your future descendants.

by Chris Taylor


NOTE FOR 2019 READERS: This is the ninth in a series of open letters to the next century, now just 81 years away.  

Dear 22nd Century,

In my letters up to this point, I’d kind of assumed I was writing to distant descendants. The babies of this decade will be the eightysomethings of the early 2100s; most of the denizens of the next century are generations unborn at press time. And nearly all of the rest of us are just ghosts. Long gone. Food for worms. Pushing up daisies or blowing in the wind. Ashes to ashes and all that, right?

Not so fast. It turns out humanity’s understanding of its aging process (and how to stop it) is advancing more rapidly than anyone expected. So rapidly, in fact, that some of the planet’s top biologists believe we can hold back the tide of aging, starting now, with today’s drugs and supplements and diets and exercises, just as soon as the medical establishment starts to see aging as a treatable disease. And that means it’s distinctly possible that one of the people I’m writing to in the dawn of the 22nd century is … myself.

In which case, hello future me! First question: Just how wild did things get at our 127th birthday party?

You may recall that in 2019, the idea of anyone living to that age sounded absurd; doing so in good health even more so. We were still stuck in the mindset that the Bible-mandated threescore-and-ten was what constituted a long life. If you made it to 70 or 80 with your health intact, well, that was about the best you could hope for. The decline would start to kick in then, hastened by one of the diseases that become more likely as we age: Alzheimer’s, heart disease, the big C. With genetic luck, a good diet and reasonably deep pockets, you could make it to 90. With really good fortune you could become one of those grinning centenarians on the local evening news — gone a hundred rounds in the ring with the ravages of time, but happy to still be around to eat cake and wear silly hats, even if you had to wheel yourself away from the table for your medication and afternoon nap afterwards.

Once you passed 110, you almost shaded into myth. In 2019 the world’s oldest living person, Kane Tanaka of Japan, is 116. The current world record was set by Jeanne Calment, who died in 1997 at the age of 122 — and despite accusations from one gerontologist that Calment’s daughter had secretly taken her place during the chaos of World War II, 122 is still what scientists think of as the outer limit of human lifespan.

I have long been obsessed with seeing as much of the future as I possibly can. And yet the most optimistic wish I’d ever made for myself is that I might be lucky enough — and still in control of enough of my faculties — to see what the world has made of itself on my 100th birthday, in the far-off 2070s. Then in September 2019, a Harvard professor of genetics told me the following: “By the turn of the next century, a person who is 122 on the day of his or her death may be said to have lived a full, though not particularly long, life. We will look back with sadness on the time in our history in which it was not so.”

The professor, who is currently 50 but looks about 30, says he will hopefully live to see 2100 himself, at which point he will be 132. Instantly, that made me insanely competitive: If he can do it, at a more advanced age, so can I! “By the turn of the next century, a person who is 122 on the day of his or her death may be said to have lived a full, though not particularly long, life.”BIOLOGIST DAVID SINCLAIR

Sweet (One hundred and) Sixteen: Kane Tanaka, world’s oldest woman.

JIJI PRESS/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

The professor’s name is David Sinclair, award-winning scientist and author of the new book Lifespan: Why We Age and Why We Don’t Have To. Sinclair, who recently became a minor celebrity via one of our culture’s latest avenues to fame, a two-hour conversation on the Joe Rogan Experience, is hardly our culture’s first longevity guru. I’m old enough to remember 2004, when inventor Ray Kurzweil began touting the idea that we could live forever if we just held on until the mid 2020s, by which time advanced biotech (and the Singularity, the term Kurzweil popularized for the moment AI becomes smarter than us) would take over, somehow. 

Kurzweil soon became known in Silicon Valley for his giant ziploc baggies of vitamins and supplements, which he took several times a day in the hope of sticking around for the Singularity. He liked to quote longevity researcher Aubrey De Grey, who deals in a still hypothetical field called regenerative medicine, making this typically wild pronouncement: That by 2100, “life expectancy will be in the region of 5,000 years.”

Sinclair isn’t like that. A soft-spoken Australian (a rarity in itself) who chooses his words very carefully, he doesn’t claim we can live forever or see the year 7100 — just that large numbers of us should be able to push past the 122-year barrier, into uncharted territory, and that living until 150 is “not a silly thing to dream about.”

Unlike Kurzweil and de Grey, Sinclair has actually done the biological work. Most of his awards were for figuring out the aging mechanism in yeast, but he has also expanded the lives of laboratory mice. In one of his favorite experiments, a geriatric mouse ran nonstop for so long that it broke the lab treadmill, which wasn’t built to go more than 3 kilometers — an ultramarathon for rodents.

So when Sinclair says that “aging is easier to cure than cancer” — and that if we cure aging, we will minimize cancer’s harm — it’s worth sitting up and listening. He has the receipts. The first third of his book is a dense slog through the genetic science and his “information theory of aging,” which basically says that our cells break down because they make increasingly poor analog copies of themselves, like cassette tapes recording from cassette tapes. (22nd century kids, ask anyone over 110 what a cassette tape was.)

The DNA in each cell gets frayed. The cell walls get weak and begin to collapse. All our cells were once stem cells and are supposed to have settled down into one form — a heart cell, a skin cell, a brain cell. As we age, some start to climb back up the hill towards being a stem cell again, but they can’t get all the way there and simply jump the groove into being another kind of cell, like a needle skipping on a record player (ask anyone over 120 about record players).

That can cause tumors, collapsed capillaries, and other horrific cellular mistakes. “This loss of information is what leads each of us into a world of heart disease, cancer, pain, frailty and death,” says Sinclair. We can’t yet get our cells to make lossless digital copies of themselves. But we should be able to treat copying errors “like scratches on a CD,” Sinclair says, completing a trifecta of 20th century recording media analogies. (Anyone over 100 should be able to tell you what a CD was, and that scratches didn’t matter if you wiped it down.)

Old mice made new: Harvard genetics professor David Sinclair with his furry aging research assistant.

RICK FRIEDMAN/CORBIS VIA GETTY IMAGES

How do we do that? Well, what Sinclair confirmed with that treadmill mouse, and other experiments, was that enzymes called sirtuins can boost the strength of cells so much that they stop skipping the groove. And that you can activate sirtuins with a “helper molecule” called NAD. The senior citizen mouse had so much NAD in its system that its blood vessels were healthy and young, full of delicious oxygen, and it evidently felt like running forever.

There are many ways to make more NAD in the body. (This is probably grade school biology for you, but gramps just learned how it all works, so bear with me.) A lot of expensive drugs and supplements promise to boost it. But I was surprised to discover that the one Sinclair now favors, NMN — Nicotinamide mononucleotide, if you’re feeling formal — is just sitting there all over the internet, hiding among thousands of useless supplements in plain sight, like the Ark of the Covenant in the warehouse at the end of Raiders of the Lost Ark.

NMN, derived from the B vitamin niacin, is not the world’s cheapest supplement, but it’s hardly out of reach. I got a month’s supply for under $20. That’s at a dose of 250 mg a day; Sinclair himself takes a full gram of NMN every day, mixed into his yogurt, so to match him I’ll have to spend $20 a week. Still, that’s a decent investment if it saves me from having to shell out for massive doses of age-related disease-fighting drugs down the line. Besides, what price can you put on more life?

There’s been an explosion of research in the last few years showing that NMN (and its chemical cousin NR) may be a fountain of youth. But the stuff that sticks with me is the personal anecdotes. Sinclair started giving it to his father when his dad was 70, had just lost his wife, and was anticipating a slow decline; he’s now 80, going on dates and international flights and hiking such long distances that Sinclair can barely keep up. Sinclair also started giving NMN to his 10-year-old poodle crossbreed Charlie, who worked as a therapy dog in hospitals — but no more, because the invigorated pup now has too much energy to sit still for patients.

Even just taking NMN for a week, I started to feel the bracing effects — like a triple shot of espresso, but longer-lasting and less speedy. My wife has suffered from chronic fatigue for years, but NMN has started to pull her out of it. (This would be a good point to note that some people get a mild nausea reaction from NMN, but that neither NMN nor NR have that uncomfortable flushed face effect that raw niacin is known for.) 

NMN isn’t the only supplement Sinclair takes or recommends. There’s also resveratrol, a compound found in red wine. We’ve known for some years that resveratrol reduces blood pressure; turns out it also boosts NAD. (For a long time we thought resveratrol was beneficial because it was an antioxidant, but biologists like Sinclair have started to shy away from the oxidizing theory of aging.) And then there’s Metformin, one of the most widely-used diabetes drugs, which has also been shown to have anti-aging properties. 

Our general practitioners won’t currently prescribe it for aging, however, because they don’t see it as a disease, because a disease by definition is not something that affects the whole population. Sinclair believes they’ll catch on eventually, once the latest scientific literature filters down.

The Benjamin Button virus

There are other brand new drugs in the works, many of which Sinclair can’t talk about, that he says “will make what we have today look like doctors using leeches.” But he does predict that within the next few decades, doctors will start injecting us with a benign designer virus that can literally reprogram our genome to be young again. You’d take a course of injections around age 30, then when you start to feel the effects of aging in your mid-40s, a course of antibiotics will wake the virus up. 

That would turn on genes that would literally turn the clock back on your body — un-graying hair, removing wrinkles, even regenerating organs. “Like Benjamin Button, you would feel 35 again, then 30, then 25,” Sinclair writes. At that point, you take a second antibiotic to turn off the fountain of youth lest it reverse aging too far. 

“Does that sound like science fiction?” asks Sinclair. Why yes it does, to us. But very likely not to you. 

It’s not all drugs and futuristic therapies. There are two other ways to help fight aging that everyone in my era should be doing, and they know exactly what they are. You probably do too. Say it with me now: diet and exercise

 The exercise part is less onerous than most people think. Just half an hour of heartrate-raising activity on a regular basis has massively beneficial effects (maybe even more so than working out for an hour, possibly because you’re left with more energy to burn more calories). Sinclair himself only works out once or twice a week, going for a run and doing weight training with his son. He also exercises his body in the sense of exposing it to extreme temperatures — in his case, saunas, cold plunges, and T-shirt runs in the Boston snow — which have also been shown to increase lifespan in lab creatures. 

Much of the anti-aging process, it seems, involves putting just the right amount of stress on the organism, so the organism bounces back tougher than ever.”Just stop fucking eating so much”MIKE JONES, PENN AND TELLER’S PIANIST

It’s the diet part where most of my contemporaries will tap out. There are no two ways around it, I’m afraid: Study after study after study shows that restricting calories really leads to a longer life, not just one that feels longer. It doesn’t seem to matter whether you fast for several days a week, or for one week every few months, or only eat until you’re “80 percent full” like the Japanese, or meticulously stick to 1200 calories a day, or simply “forget” to eat one out of your three meals as Sinclair does. (The busy lifestyle of an international celebrity scientist helps him do that; he generally skips breakfast.) 

However you do it, restricting calories flips a starvation switch that turns your cells into little fortresses, protecting against all kinds of DNA damage. So much so that chemotherapy patients are now advised to fast as much as they can, and drink only water if possible. If they shut down their intake, their regular cells are strong enough to resist the chemo, which passes over them and hits the cancer cells like the angel of death.

I’m not brave enough to try Prolon, a five-day, $250 precision starvation diet originally developed for chemo patients that is all the rage in longevity-obsessed Silicon Valley this year. (Sample day: olives, herbal tea, a tiny nut bar, a packet of kale crackers.) But it just so happened that when I talked to Sinclair, my wife had insisted that we rein in our eating habits with one of our periodic Whole30 diets (a month where you only eat protein, vegetables, fruit, nuts and seeds, but can have as much as you like). Since the stuff I was eating was already of high nutritional value — and didn’t make me as hungry as my regular carb-rich diet — it was easier to eat less of it.

After I flipped the same mental switch as Sinclair — “treat hunger as a natural part of life,” he advises — it wasn’t nearly as bad as I feared. The hangry version of me failed to materialize, and the extra pounds I’d been carrying around my waist began to burn themselves off. I didn’t impose any more rules for my appetites to rebel against; I merely chose to consume smaller portions and was surprised at how little I really needed. 

This put me in mind of the most concise diet advice I ever heard, offered on an episode of Penn and Teller’s Bullshit! by the magicians’ piano player, who had recently shed 90 pounds: “Just stop fucking eating so much.” (His boss Penn Jillette later lost even more weight in similar fashion, but added the step of resetting his taste buds with a brief potato-only diet — again, I could never do that, but it may be the kind of thing that works for chronic big-eaters.) 

By your more enlightened era, I expect, some form of highly-nutritional calorie restriction will be baked deep in society. Fast food drones will deliver salads in portions that look tiny to our eyes, their ingredients tailored to your individual genome. You will look back on our time of gluttony and shudder, and not just because we ingested so many cows in the pre-Impossible era. The bombardment of billboards and TV ads with overstuffed pizzas and multi-layered burgers and giant sodas and ridiculous desserts will start to look like what they actually are: propaganda bordering on torture.

Squad goals, 2100 edition.

RAWPIXEL/ISTOCK

Once we’ve conquered our diets, instituted a regimen of exercise and saunas and cold plunges, doused ourselves in NMN and resveratrol and Metformin and benign viruses, quit smoking and cut down our drinking and remembered to wear our seatbelts, there’s one main obstacle remaining in the way of an extra-long and healthy life: our guilt.

Whether it’s hard-wired or a result of societal expectations, we tend to feel that old farts should not outstay their welcome. Leave some room for future generations, we grumble under our breath, out of earshot of elderly relatives. You’re already taking up too much of the housing stock, making it near-impossible for millennials to buy homes. You want to bankrupt Social Security and Medicare too?

Just last month, Ezekiel Emanuel, the chair of the University of Pennsylvania’s department of medical ethics (and a chief architect of Obamacare) confirmed that he stood by his controversial 2014 essay: “Why I hope to die at 75.” Despite the onslaught of anti-aging research, Emmannuel (now 62) said his main arguments still held water: That people in their 80s who were still vigorous were not doing “meaningful work;” that authors above 75 were not producing “brand-new books” but simply re-ploughing old furrows. 

Let’s leave aside the fact that’s a pretty weird metric to judge the worth of a life — sorry, grandma, time to go, you’re not doing meaningful work or writing new books! Emanuel’s argument ignores what biologists like Sinclair are telling us. The more we age in good health, the more useful we will be. 

Sinclair, as you might expect, could not disagree with Emanuel more. First of all, he says, let’s assume everyone stopped dying of age-related causes tomorrow — and they won’t, even under the most extreme anti-aging regimen. But if they do, that’s only 100,000 extra people per day sticking around. (Around 150,000 people die every day, roughly two-thirds of them from age-related causes.) 

Compare that to the world’s current growth rate. More than 350,000 babies arrive every 24 hours. Earth’s population is growing because of the size of the average family in the developing world, not because more people are living longer. The main way to bring it down is to educate more women and move more families into cities — where, by the way, we shouldn’t blame Baby Boomers for the lack of housing. We simply need to build more.

Total human population should level off at around 11 billion around the time your century dawns, whether or not the aged continue to die. And as for the threat of climate change — well, perhaps the older generation will start to pay more attention when they’re actually going to live with the effects themselves. Or when they have to look their great-great-grandchildren in the eyes and explain their inaction.

Secondly, a healthy longevity boom would actually take an enormous burden off the healthcare system. Reducing just one of the major killers like heart disease, even by 10 percent, could save trillions of dollars, money that can then be reinvested in medical research or just returned to patients in the form of lower costs. And that’s the whole point of treating aging as the ultimate disease, the one that effectively produces all the others. (For example, Sinclair writes, smoking makes lung cancer five times more likely, but just living from 20 to 70 increases your chances of getting the disease a thousandfold, even if you’ve never sucked on a cancer stick.)

“Aging is by far the biggest risk factor in any disease, by an order of magnitude,” Sinclair says; having volunteered in nursing homes with his wife, he knows whereof he speaks. “Don’t delude yourself: Getting old and getting sick is not fun, for you or for your family. So I believe we have an obligation to preserve our health for as long as possible.”

OK, but if they’re not clogging up our hospitals, what are all these healthy oldsters going to do all day — just play around with their ever-longer retirements while younger generations work ever more jobs just to fund their Social Security checks? Sinclair believes that we are going to have to touch the third rail of Social Security at some point, probably by raising the age at which it kicks in; it wasn’t built to handle average lifespans of 80, let alone 120.

Instead of banking checks, he thinks we should put all that elder wisdom, all that institutional memory in those healthy brains, back to work. He proposes a series of “skillbaticals” instead of retirement; take a few years off once a decade, travel, chill out, learn some new skills, come back to the workforce refreshed and ready. And if there aren’t enough jobs, there’s always room for more scientists and researchers. Sinclair’s own Harvard lab is growing fast and could grow faster. It might take a decade to reeducate yourself to be useful in the sciences. But what’s a decade when we have dozens of them?

In 2019, such reeducation would throw a senior into deep debt with student loans (in the U.S., at least; other countries are more enlightened about the importance of investing in low-cost college education). But with trillions of dollars freed up in healthcare by everyone living healthier for longer, hopefully more states will do the right thing, follow New Mexico’s example, and make college free for all. Longer life and lifelong education need to go hand in hand. 

So whatever you’ve done with your extra decades, future me, I hope you’ve been a productive member of a growing and warming world. I hope you’ve trained for three or four different careers, and written dozens of brand-new books in your 80s and beyond, just to stick it to Ezekiel Emanuel. And I hope our 127th birthday party in November 2100 was a blow-out to end all blow-outs, with as many of our old friends and family who came along for the 22nd century ride as possible. Maybe we even permitted ourself one very small low-calorie slice of cake.

Yours in good health,

2019Share this storyShareTweet

  • Written by Chris Taylor
  • Top illustration by Bob Al-Greene
  • Edited by Brittany Levine Beckman
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Air Pollution Nanoparticles Linked To Brain Cancer For First Time

Air Pollution Nanoparticles Linked To Brain Cancer For First Time

New research has linked air pollution nanoparticles to brain cancer for the first time. The ultra-fine particles (UFPs) are produced by fuel burning, particularly in diesel vehicles, and higher exposures significantly increase people’s chances of getting deadly cancer. Previous work has shown that nanoparticles can get into the brain and that they can carry carcinogenic chemicals.

The researchers analyzed the medical records and pollution exposure of 1.9 million adult Canadians from 1991 to 2016. Such large studies provide strong evidence, though not a causal link. The researcher said the correlation seen between brain cancer and nanoparticles was surprisingly consistent, but as this is the first study, it is important that other researchers replicate it.

The new study, published in the journal Epidemiology, found that a one-year increase in pollution exposure of 10,000 nanoparticles per cubic centimeter – the approximate difference between quiet and busy city streets – increased the risk of brain cancer by more than 10%.

Source: The Guardian

Name of Author: Damian CarringtonPREVIOUS ARTICLEEquilibration in Quantum SystemsNEXT ARTICLEChina Completes Crucial Landing Test For First Mars Mission In 2020

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Q&A: Everything You Need to Know About the Future of CRISPR-Cas9

Penn’s Kiran Musunuru talks to us about the technology that has been both praised and criticized for its ability to alter human DNA and potentially cure disease.by QUEEN MUSE· 11/8/2019, 4:20 p.m.

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Kiran Musunuru is an associate professor of medicine in genetics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. / Courtesy

CRISPR, the technology being used to edit genes in humans, remains polarizing. On one end, detractors argue that using the technology for certain purposes, like performing gene editing on embryos, is not only dangerous but unethical. On the other end, proponents say CRISPR has the potential to revolutionize human health, and early data shows they might be right. Despite a medical community that is still split on the issue, researchers in the U.S. are kicking tests of the technology into high gear. Several clinical trials have launched in the U.S. testing CRISPR’s ability to treat various diseases.

NextHealth PHL spoke with Kiran Musunuru, an associate professor of medicine in genetics at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania about the true potential of CRISPR technology and how we can expect it to evolve in the future.

NextHealth PHL: What exactly is CRISPR?
Musunru: CRISPR is sort of a catch-all term that covers a variety of technologies. If you’re saying CRISPR, you’re referring to a broad set of tools that may do it in different ways but are all intended to do a form of gene editing or genome editing.

How do basic CRISPR technologies work?
The simplest form of CRISPR, what I call version 1.0, is the original standard CRISPR that most laboratories and companies interested in developing new therapies use. It is a two-component system. There is a protein and an RNA molecule that’s about 100 bases in length. The protein and the RNA molecule come together to create what we’ll call a molecular machine and the purpose of this molecular machine is to scan across any DNA molecule it encounters. So if you put the CRISPR-Cas9 into the nucleus of a human cell, this molecular machine will scan the entire genome.

The machine has two key functions built into it; the first is a GPS function. When you change the first 20 bases in a DNA length (the first 20 bases is basically the address) to whatever address you want, the GPS function makes the machine go through the entire genome and find the sequence that matches the address. The second function of this machine is to protect the genome, like a search-and-destroy function. You put in the address, it goes to that matching place in the genome and then it makes a cut in the DNA.

Cutting the DNA is actually a bad thing but the cells have ways to try to fix that break, and the actual editing is a result of the cell trying to fix that break in the DNA, not from CRISPR itself, interestingly enough.

How does CRISPR turn a break in someone’s DNA into a good thing?
There are a few ways this can happen. The safest thing you can do is to break a gene or turn off a gene. The metaphor I like to use is to think of the whole genome as a book, and each chromosome in the genome is a chapter in the book, and each gene is a paragraph in the chapter. Together, it all has a meaning. But let’s say you had to turn off a gene, the equivalent of making that break in the DNA would be like tearing the page through that paragraph. So, the simplest thing the cell can do and will try to do is to simply tape that tear back up. But as you can imagine, sometimes you tape it back up and it’s fine, the paragraph is still legible and the meaning is still there, and it eventually heals and functions like it did before. But in this case, that’s actually not what you want. The outcome that you want with CRISPR is that you actually want to turn off the gene, not to rip it and make it the way it was before.

What has to happen is when you make the tear, the tear is so rough, you get those jagged edges and you try to tape it up but it doesn’t quite fit, the letters don’t quite match up. You tape it up as best as you can but its illegible, some letters are lost, and the meaning of the paragraph is lost. That’s exactly what happens with gene editing, the cell tries to repair that break in the DNA, doesn’t get it quite right, and loses some bases and that messes up the gene and turns it off.

However, in this scenario, you can’t really control what happens. All you can hope for is that that tear you make is going to mess up the gene and that’s okay if all you’re trying to do is turn it off. Most of the trials underway now are about turning off the gene, and they’re all taking advantage of the fact that it’s relatively easy to mess up genes and turn off genes. Just like tearing a page — it’s crude, but it’s effective.

There’s CRISPR 1.0, this first generation of the technology that’s not very precise and is a bit arduous. What are the newest forms of CRISPR and how are they better than earlier versions of the technology?
There is a newer form of the technology called base editing that keeps the GPS function intact but removes the cutting function. In place of the cutting function, it attaches another machine onto CRISPR and makes chemical modifications in certain areas. This version of CRISPR is more like a search and replace. CRISPR provides the search but then another machine attached to it is doing the replacing. With base editing you can make more precise changes, but only rarely will it make exactly the type of change you want.

The latest form of CRISPR is called prime editing, and we still don’t have a good sense of how well it works because it’s so new. What’s tantalizing is that it looks like it can turn CRISPR into a precise word processor or an eraser that allows you to erase a letter and put in a new letter. CRISPR is very much a wave of technology, and as it gets better, it’s going to allow us to do more and more powerful things.

There are some extreme ideas about what CRISPR can do. Some believe scientists can use the technology to alter hair or eye color or give patients superhuman athletic or intellectual abilities. Is any of this possible with CRISPR?
It depends on what traits you’re talking about changing. Since eye color and hair color are controlled by single genes, you could possibly make a single gene change with CRISPR. The problem is, how do you get CRISPR to go where it needs to go to change your hair or eye color? How do you get it into all your hair follicles or through all the cells in your eye? It might be a simpler change to make, but it might not be easy to do in a live adult. Scientists have now edited human embryos, resulting in live-born people. There’s been a lot of ethical debate about whether that’s a good thing. If you want to change something like hair color in a single cell embryo made through in-vitro fertilization, that’s a bit different and might not be as difficult.

There are some very complicated things, like intelligence or athletic ability, that are not going to be easy to change. You’d probably have to change hundreds of genes, and that’s not going to happen anytime soon. With CRISPR as it is now, maybe you can change one gene; maybe if you really work at it you can change two genes, but hundreds of genes? You’re not going to be able to do that with CRISPR anytime soon.

What has CRISPR been used to treat so far and what could it be used for in the future?
There are multiple trials underway to treat rare liver disorders. More recently CRISPR has been used in clinical trials at Penn where at least three patients have been dosed using CAR T immunotherapy. In this case, they’re trying to make patients’ cells more effective at fighting cancer. But again, that editing is being done outside the body.

There are some things that seem like they would be difficult to treat, but if it’s the right type of disease and you can get CRISPR to where you need it to go, it might work. One example is in sickle cell disease. The cells that you need to fix in sickle cell disease are in the bone marrow. Fortunately, bone marrow is relatively straight forward to work with. You take the cells out and edit them with some form of CRISPR outside of the body and then put them back in.

Something like cystic fibrosis would be much harder because it affects the entire surface of potentially multiple organs inside the body. It’s much harder to deliver CRISPR to all of those places in the body.

There are two other clinical trials that have started in the U.S. One is from a company called CRISPR Therapeutics to treat sickle cell disease and similar blood disorders. There’s another trial underway to treat a genetic form of blindness and this editing would actually happen inside the body.


Queen Muse @thequeenmuse1
 @thequeenmuse
 qmuse@phillymag.com


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NextHealth PHL covers the healthcare industry in Philadelphia and the work of scientists, doctors, and healthcare companies in Cellicon Valley. NextHealth PHL puts a special emphasis on healthcare news in the vibrant cell and gene therapies sector.

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Feynman’s different approach to electromagnetism

Roberto De Luca1, Marco Di Mauro1,2, Salvatore Esposito2 and Adele Naddeo2

Published 15 October 2019 • © 2019 European Physical Society
European Journal of PhysicsVolume 40Number 6

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Abstract

We discuss a previously unpublished description of electromagnetism outlined by Richard P Feynman in the 1960s in five handwritten pages, recently uncovered among his papers, and partly developed in later lectures. Though similar to the existing approaches deriving electromagnetism from special relativity, the present one extends a long way towards the derivation of Maxwell’s equations with minimal physical assumptions. In particular, without postulating Coulomb’s law, homogeneous Maxwell’s equations are written down by following a route different from the standard one, i.e. first introducing electromagnetic potentials in order to write down a relativistic invariant action, which is just the inverse approach to the usual one. Also, Feynman’s derivation of the Lorentz force exclusively follows from its linearity in the charge velocity and from relativistic invariance. Going further, i.e. adding the inhomogeneous Maxwell’s equations, requires some more physical input, and can be done by just following conventional lines, hence this task was not pursued here. Despite its incompleteness, this way of proceeding is of great historical and epistemological significance. We also comment about its possible relevance to didactics, as an interesting supplement to usual treatments.

‘One mans assumption is another mans conclusion‘ [1]

—R. P. Feynman.

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JournalsBooksPublishing SupportLoginPrimary searchSearchArticle LookupEuropean Journal of Physics

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Feynman’s different approach to electromagnetism

Roberto De Luca1, Marco Di Mauro1,2, Salvatore Esposito2 and Adele Naddeo2

Published 15 October 2019 • © 2019 European Physical Society
European Journal of PhysicsVolume 40Number 6DownloadArticle PDFReferencesDownload PDF

273 Total downloads

Article has an altmetric score of 1

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Abstract

We discuss a previously unpublished description of electromagnetism outlined by Richard P Feynman in the 1960s in five handwritten pages, recently uncovered among his papers, and partly developed in later lectures. Though similar to the existing approaches deriving electromagnetism from special relativity, the present one extends a long way towards the derivation of Maxwell’s equations with minimal physical assumptions. In particular, without postulating Coulomb’s law, homogeneous Maxwell’s equations are written down by following a route different from the standard one, i.e. first introducing electromagnetic potentials in order to write down a relativistic invariant action, which is just the inverse approach to the usual one. Also, Feynman’s derivation of the Lorentz force exclusively follows from its linearity in the charge velocity and from relativistic invariance. Going further, i.e. adding the inhomogeneous Maxwell’s equations, requires some more physical input, and can be done by just following conventional lines, hence this task was not pursued here. Despite its incompleteness, this way of proceeding is of great historical and epistemological significance. We also comment about its possible relevance to didactics, as an interesting supplement to usual treatments.

‘One mans assumption is another mans conclusion‘ [1]

—R. P. Feynman.

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1. Introduction

It is a well-known story that Richard P Feynman was not satisfied with his presentation of electricity and magnetism in his second year general physics lectures, which he gave at Caltech in 1961–63. In his preface to the published version [2] he wrote:

In the second year I was not so satisfied. In the first part of the course, dealing with electricity and magnetism, I couldnt think of any really unique or different way of doing it—or anyway that would be particularly more exciting than the usual way of presenting it. So I do not think I did very much in the lectures on electricity and magnetism.

As a matter of fact, indeed, the way of presenting electromagnetism in the second volume of Feynman’s lectures [2] is quite similar to many existing books on the subject at various level—for example the golden standard [3]—where a historical/experimental path starting with electrostatics is followed, then moving on to magnetostatics, Faraday’s law of induction, Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves and, finally, showing the consistency of Maxwell’s equations with the special theory of relativity (which is however introduced in the first volume of [2]).

Later on, in 1966, in an interview for the American Institute of Physics with Charles Weiner [4],3 Feynman said:

Now I think I know how to do it. […] I’ve now cooked up a much better way of presenting the electrodynamics, a much more original and much more powerful way than is in the book.

Unfortunately, however, no such presentation appears to have been published or used by Feynman.

Motivated by the natural curiosity aroused by such claims, M A Gottlieb sought for an answer in the Caltech archives, where he discovered five pages of handwritten notes, dating from 13 December 1963, in which Feynman sketched his ideas. Since it was natural for Gottlieb to assume that these notes are what Feynman was referring to, without hesitation we here assume this to be the case. The notes (both the originals and a transcript by Gottlieb himself) were made available online [6]. To the best of our knowledge, no attempt to explain the physics contained in those notes was made by Gottlieb or anyone else up to now, and thus, the aim of the present paper is to study and clarify these notes, in order to make their content usable. We believe that, besides the obvious historical interest, this work can be useful for teaching purposes, since it suggests an alternative view on at least part of the fundamentals of electromagnetism.

Feynman’s notes contain an outline of a possible course on electromagnetism, along with some reflections on possible disadvantages and advantages (interestingly, the disadvantages come first), and a sketch of a derivation of the Lorentz force law from the requirements of special relativity and of charge invariance, which is the first point in the outline.

The idea of deriving electromagnetism from relativity (rather than following the inverse, historical route) is not new, dating back at least to 1912 [7]. The idea is to start from Coulomb’s law and then derive Lorentz force from Lorentz transformations. While mentioned in most textbooks about electromagnetism, this viewpoint has been chosen as the true way to proceed in many other textbooks and papers, see e.g. [816] and references therein4 . Some of these references content themselves with the derivation of magnetostatics from electrostatic and relativity, while others try to get the full electrodynamics by extending to accelerated charges. Very interestingly, this same viewpoint has been adopted by Feynman in teaching Electromagnetism at the Hughes Aircraft company in 1967–68 [1], and some comment about it is also included in the chapter about magnetostatics in the second volume of the lectures.

While sharing with the above viewpoint the idea of deriving electromagnetism from relativity (rather than the opposite), Feynman’s approach sketched in his 1963 notes is radically different. Feynman, indeed, derives the form of the interaction (i.e. Lorentz force) just from the requirements of charge invariance (coming from experiments), relativity and linearity. Such a derivation, to the best of our knowledge, is absent in the literature, and was not even used by Feynman in later courses, including the Hughes lectures. This was probably due to the fact that he did not continue along this line of reasoning in the derivation of Maxwell’s equations and, more in general, of the full electrodynamics. Nevertheless, some material in the Hughes lectures, as we shall see, might be in line with Feynman’s ideas in these notes, since, after a long introduction about the least action principle (notoriously one of Feynman’s favorites), he described a relativistically invariant generalization of it where force is implemented by the addition of a 4-vector potential. Upon comparison of the resulting equations of motion with the Lorentz force—which may well have been derived using the approach sketched in the notes, Feynman was able to find the link between the electric and magnetic fields and the components of the 4-potential. These expressions, upon using well-known vector analysis identities, led to the homogeneous Maxwell equations. Moreover, by allowing different potentials while requiring the invariance of the classical equations of motions resulting from minimizing the action, Feynman was able to introduce gauge transformations from perspective different than the usual one. By combining Feynman’s approach to the Lorentz force with his derivation of the homogeneous Maxwell’s equations, it is then possible to go quite a long way towards the full derivation of electromagnetism, just with a minimal physical input5 . After that, it is possible to complete the construction of the theory by adding the inhomogeneous Maxwell’s equations in a more standard way.

2. Deriving the Lorentz force

In the first page of his notes, Feynman outlined a possible full course on electrodynamics, articulated in seven points as follows:

  • 1.  Get the Lorentz force equation from charge conservation6 and relativity, get the potentials or at least the homogeneous Maxwell equations.
  • 2.  Discuss the field idea, discuss the qualitative properties and shapes of the fields in some situations, differential operators, motion of electrons on given fields, induction, etc.
  • 3.  Get the inhomogeneous Maxwell’s equations, either by arriving at the wave equation for the potentials from relativity or from some other principle, or even through the experimental, usual route (Coulomb, Ampère, …).
  • 4.  Discuss the fields produced in several semi-static circumstances, e.g. condensers, inductances, etc.
  • 5.  Discuss the field in wave situations, e.g. radiation, waveguides, etc.
  • 6.  Energy and related problems, self-mass, Lienard–Wiechert potential, etc.
  • 7.  Fields in matter: DH, etc.

Points 1 and 3 are, of course, the crucial ones, as pointed out by Feynman himself, while the other ones only concern applications of electrodynamics, rather than the formulation of electromagnetic laws, so that it is very much plausible that he aimed to address them in a standard way, similar to the one adopted in the Caltech or Hughes lectures. Remarkably, however, in his notes Feynman only addressed the first part of point 1, relegating the second part just to a question (posed but not answered, at least not in the notes): ‘Can you find other ways?—Can you get potentials in?’. Point 3 is not addressed as well.

Feynman’s approach to electromagnetism can be traced back to the fundamental assumptions that matter has an atomic structure (a well-known citation shows that he considered this to be the single most important scientific fact, as stated at the very beginning of [2]), and electric current is due to the motion of electric charges in matter.

2.1. Linear dependence on the velocity

The starting point, as delineated in the fifth page of his notes, is that motion does not alter charge, i.e. electric charge is Lorentz invariant. The usual argument for this, followed by Feynman too, went as follows. Atoms are electrically neutral, but electrons in them move, even at very high speeds, this meaning that the electron charge is not affected by such motion. This is in contrast with what happens for mass-energy, which does depend on the velocity. Here Feynman referred properly to relativistic energy, which may be described in terms of a velocity-dependent ‘relativistic mass’, considered as a gravitational mass (i.e. weight) rather than inertial mass, though the two coincide due to the equivalence principle. For atoms, this is exemplified by the fact that an excited atom weights more than an atom in its ground state, and Feynman also referred to a possible experimental proof of this fact, while not explicitly mentioning it7 .

Having established Lorentz invariance for the electric charge, the next step was the observation that a conducting wire, where an electric current is present, is electrically neutral. If two such wires are placed next to each other, however, a net force between them is observed (and here probably Feynman planned a demonstration of this effect): this suggests that the force between electric charges depends not only on their position, but also on their velocity. Therefore, we conclude that a point charge q, moving anyhow in the presence of other charges, experiences a force F which is a function of its position and velocity:

Equation (1)
$\overline{{\bf{F}}({\bf{x}},{\bf{v}})}$

Charge invariance can be used again to observe that, a charge moving in such a way that its average velocity is zero (such as for example an electron in an atom), will feel an average force  acting on it because of the presence of other charges which must be equal to the force felt by a charge of equal magnitude at rest,8 i.e.

Equation (2)
$\overline{{\bf{v}}}=0$
${F}_{i}({\bf{x}},{\bf{v}})={a}_{i}+{b}_{{ij}}{v}_{j}$

This fact excludes the dependence of the force from any even power of the velocity9 . Moreover, since this must be true independently of the distribution of v, provided only that the condition  holds, but without requirements on higher moments, it necessarily implies that force depends linearly on velocity,10 that is , where aibij are coefficients which can be cast in the more expressive following form (making explicit the electric charge q):

Equation (3)
${\bf{v}}$

Ei and Bij are just coefficients depending on the other surrounding charges and on position, while the proportionality to q can be verified experimentally. It is worth commenting here that this line of reasoning seems to exclude damping terms which may depend on higher powers of , but with coefficients which go to zero very rapidly, i.e. with times much smaller than the time scales considered above. Since the above reasoning should be valid at least down to atomic scales, such damping terms would be anyway out of the range of validity of classical electromagnetism.

In hindsight, it is immediate to infer that Ei are the components of the electric field (or in other words, we can call electric the part of the force which does not depend on the velocity), but the identification of Bij with the magnetic induction (which is of course suggested by the notation) is not so obvious: as a matter of fact, it constitutes the main part of Feynman’s notes. Crucial for this passage is to bring relativity into play: the 3-vector in equation (3) must be related to the spatial components of a 4-force. By imposing that the Lorentz transformation under a boost of this 4-force is linear in the velocity, Feynman was able both to fix the functional form of the force in (3), thus recovering the Lorentz force, and to derive the behavior of the coefficients Ei and Bij under the boost. And, not surprisingly, such transformation laws turn out to be the correct ones for the electric and magnetic fields.

${\bf{F}}\to q{\bf{F}}$

The reasoning can be sketched as follows. For simplicity we set q = 1; it is only a pre-factor that can be reinserted in any moment (i.e. ). Also, we set c = 1, since it will always be possible to reinsert it by dimensional analysis.

The 4-force associated with the 3-force in (3) is constructed using the well-known formulae from relativistic mechanics, that is

Equation (4)
centerdot
$\gamma =1/\sqrt{1-{v}^{2}}$

where Ft = F  v and . Let us perform a boost with velocity u, for simplicity assumed directed along the x-axis:

Equation (5)
${\gamma }_{u}=1/\sqrt{1-{u}^{2}}$

where  is the gamma factor associated with the boost velocity u. Under such a boost, the component x of the 4-vector (4) transforms in the usual way, that is

Equation (6)

By inserting the explicit expressions for Fx and Ft, and expressing the result in terms of only the primed velocity components, after some algebra11 we arrive at

Equation (7)
${F}_{x}^{{\prime} }$

We have now to require that  must have the same form as Fx, that is

Equation (8)
${\bf{v}}^{\prime} $

Since the argument requiring linearity in the velocity should be valid in any inertial frame, this implies that all the terms of (7) that are quadratic in the velocity components should vanish; the same applies to the term in (7) with no component of  in the numerator. Then, the B coefficients have to satisfy the following relations:

Equation (9)
${B}_{{ij}}=-{B}_{{ji}}$
${B}_{i}=\tfrac{1}{2}{\epsilon }_{{ijk}}{B}_{{jk}}$

Such conditions (9) imply that the B coefficients are antisymmetric, i.e. . It is customary to rearrange the three independent components of an antisymmetric matrix in the form of a 3-component vector, defined in the present case by , or Bx = ByzBy = BzxBz = Bxy. This allows us to write the force (3) in the familiar form (where we restore the q dependence):

Equation (10)

which is the usual expression for the Lorentz force acting on the charge qprovided we identify the coefficients E and B with the electric and magnetic fields respectively.

2.2. Relativistic invariance and the E, B fields

Such identification requires that those quantities transform correctly under Lorentz boosts, and Feynman’s proof proceeds as follows. First of all, by comparing the non-vanishing terms in (7) (after imposing conditions (9)) with the analogous terms in (8), we can infer the behavior of some of the EB coefficients under a boost, i.e.

Equation (11)
$\gamma ^{\prime} {F}_{t}^{{\prime} }={\gamma }_{u}\gamma ({F}_{t}-{{uF}}_{x})$
centerdot

We recognize here just the usual transformation laws of some of the components of the electric and magnetic field under a boost with velocity u directed along the positive x-axis: in the present framework, they directly follow from the linearity in the velocity and relativistic mechanics. However, we are not done yet, since the transformation rules for EyEz and Bx still lack. The first two come from requiring that the fourth component of the 4-vector (4) transform in the usual way, i.e. . By exploiting the conditions (9) and (11) and the Lorentz transformation laws of the fields we have just derived, as well as the fact that, because of (10), Ft = E  v (q = 1), along the same lines as above we obtain

Equation (12)
${F}_{t}^{{\prime} }={\bf{F}}^{\prime} \cdot {\bf{v}}^{\prime} ={\bf{E}}^{\prime} \cdot {\bf{v}}^{\prime} $

And, by imposing that , the following transformation rules follow

Equation (13)
$\gamma ^{\prime} {F}_{y}^{{\prime} }=\gamma {F}_{y}$

which again are the expected ones. The last transformation rule for Bx can be obtained by considering the third or fourth component of the 4-vector (4). For the boost considered here, such components must be invariant, they being orthogonal to the boost velocity, so that . By proceeding as above, we get

Equation (14)

or, by using the inverse transformation laws of Ey and Bz,12

Equation (15)
${F}_{y}^{{\prime} }={E}_{y}^{{\prime} }-{v}_{x}^{{\prime} }{B}_{z}^{{\prime} }+{v}_{z}^{{\prime} }{B}_{x}$
${F}_{y}^{{\prime} }={E}_{y}^{{\prime} }-{v}_{x}^{{\prime} }{B}_{z}^{{\prime} }+{v}_{z}^{{\prime} }{B}_{x}^{{\prime} }$

Upon simple manipulation, this reduces to , so that by imposing this to be of the form , we finally get the last transformation law

Equation (16)

as expected.

3. Least action principle

${ \mathcal V }$

A possible way to address the second part of Feynman’s point 1 above—i.e. introduce the homogeneous Maxwell equations—can be traced in his Hughes lectures [1], where the vector potential was there introduced in order to write down a relativistically invariant least action principle for a particle in a given potential energy . It is conceivable that Feynman had something like this in mind in 1963, when he wrote his notes, but it is as well possible that he thought about this way of proceeding sometime between 1963 and 1967. Part of this discussion is already present in chapter 19 of volume II of the Lectures [2], though in a much less detail; similar reasoning is also taken up e.g. by Susskind in his Theoretical Minimum [16]. As is well known, Feynman was convinced that potentials had the same level of reality as the fields. Quite illuminating, in this respect, is what quoted in [24]:

${\bf{A}}$
${\bf{A}}$
${\bf{B}}$

Yet, the Schrödinger equation can only be written neatly with  and V explicitly there and it was pointed out by Bohm and Aharonov (or something like that), that this means that the vector potential has a reality and that in quantum mechanical interference experiments there can be situations in which classically there would be no expected influence whatever. But nevertheless there is an influence. Is it action at a distance? No,  is as real as -realer, whatever that means.

3.1. Homogeneous Maxwell equations

${m}_{0}\dot{{\bf{x}}}/\sqrt{1-{v}^{2}}$

The starting point is the generalization of the least action principle in classical mechanics to the relativistic case. Since in relativistic mechanics the momentum of a particle of mass m0 is given by , as a first naive guess we may seek for an action S from which the equations of motion

Equation (17)

can be obtained. Such an action may be identified as

Equation (18)
${\rm{d}}s=\sqrt{1-{v}^{2}}\,{\rm{d}}t$
${ \mathcal X }(x,y,z,t)\,{\rm{d}}s$

(), since it can be easily checked that, indeed, equation (17) just follows from requiring the expression in (18) to be an extremum. The point here, however, is the relativistic invariance of the action or, in Feynman’s words, to establish if the action keeps its extremum in any inertial reference frame. Since the potential energy term is evidently non invariant, it must be modified. The obvious choice would be an invariant scalar potential term  but, as quickly stated by Feynman, such a term does not lead to any known law of nature. A more elaborate discussion on scalar field forces can be found in [23] and [25], where Feynman notices that such fields would require sources which—unlike the electric charge—decrease with the velocity. As the next simplest possibility, Feynman then suggested the use of a 4-potential Aμ(xyzt), in order for the action to assume the form13

Equation (19)
phgr

In the following we shall set At = , thus matching the usual notation. The next step is, of course, to vary this action in order to see what equations of motion result; this is done in appendix C, and the result is the equation

Equation (20)
${\bf{F}}$

with the force  given by

Equation (21)
${{qA}}_{\mu }{\rm{d}}{x}^{\mu }$
${A}_{\mu }{\rm{d}}{x}^{\mu }$

Such expression looks just like that of the Lorentz force (provided we restore q in front of it, amounting to use  in place of  in the action), when we identify

Equation (22)
${\rm{\nabla }}\cdot ({\rm{\nabla }}\times {\bf{V}})=0$
${\rm{\nabla }}\times ({\rm{\nabla }}f)=0$
${\bf{V}}$

Using well-known vector analysis formulae, namely  and , valid for any vector field  and any scalar function f, we can then write down the homogeneous Maxwell equations:

Equation (23)

3.2. Gauge transformations

In the Hughes lectures, Feynman deepened his discussion of the least action principle by discussing the gauge transformations of the potentials. Starting again from the action (19), which is now rewritten as

Equation (24)
$\phi ^{\prime} $
${\bf{A}}^{\prime} $

we can ask whether we could use a different set of potentials ,  and still get the same physical trajectory, i.e. the same minimum of the action. This evidently happens if the difference of the action written in terms of the first set of potentials and the action written in terms of the second set of potentials is independent of the path. Such difference

Equation (25)
$\varphi =\phi -\phi ^{\prime} $
${\bf{a}}={\bf{A}}-{\bf{A}}^{\prime} $
$\varphi -{\bf{a}}\cdot {\bf{v}}={\rm{d}}\chi (x,y,z,t)/{\rm{d}}t$

(, ) is independent of the integration path if the integrand is a perfect differential, i.e. , so that

Equation (26)
$\varphi =\partial \chi /\partial t$
${\bf{a}}=-{\rm{\nabla }}\chi $
$S^{\prime} $

Comparing (25) with (26) we see that such condition is satisfied if  and , so that the two actions S and  lead to the same equations of motion if the potentials are related by the gauge transformations

Equation (27)

The fact that the equations of motion do not change under such transformations is also evident from the fact that the electric and magnetic fields defined in (22), which are just the quantities appearing in the equations of motion, are left unchanged. Quite noticeable is this reversed line of reasoning with respect to the standard presentation; the latter was indeed followed by Feynman, in particular, in his Caltech lectures.

4. Discussion and conclusions

We have discussed and partially developed a previously unpublished description of electromagnetism outlined by Richard Feynman. Notwithstanding the fact that such description was left incomplete, the key epistemological interest in the exploration of alternative formulations of classical electrodynamics is evident by itself. How much can we deduce from charge conservation alone, or from special relativity, or from the more elusive assumptions of Lagrangian field theory? Much genuine physical insight can be derived from such questions.

Motivated by his involvement in undergraduate physics teaching at Caltech in 1961–63, Feynman obtained what we described above only in late 1963, when this involvement was already over, so that it was definitively not published. The approach adopted was similar to the existing ones deriving electromagnetism from special relativity, but manages to go a long way towards obtaining Maxwell’s equations with minimal physical assumptions, in particular without postulating Coulomb’s law. We do not know why Feynman thought Coulomb’s law was—in a sense—so wicked, but we may argue that his foundation of electrodynamics upon forces between two (electrically neutral) current-carrying wires, instead of forces between two charged particles, was favored by the certainly simpler experimental definition of currents compared to that of pointlike charges, irrespective of his simpler conceptual atomic vision of electric currents as due to the motion of electric charges in matter, which evidently is more abstract in nature. To the best of our knowledge, after sketching such an approach, Feynman never used it, even when he taught electromagnetism again, at the Hughes Aircraft Company in 1967. In the latter lectures, however, he adopted an approach which was closer in spirit to the one described here.

As evident from what reported in the previous sections, Feynman’s description of electromagnetism was left incomplete, the part remaining in classical electrodynamics discussing the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations: this would require to go well beyond what has been done so far. Indeed, electric and magnetic fields have been considered merely with respect to their effects on charged particles, this allowing to go quite far, up to the homogeneous Maxwell equations and the related gauge transformations, but this is only half of the story. As a matter of fact, it is as well necessary to consider the effect of charges on the fields, i.e. what kind of electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, and this is evidently the content of inhomogeneous Maxwell’s equations. Feynman was of course aware that some new input was necessary at this stage, so that in point 3 of the outline above he proposed to follow the usual experimental route going through Coulomb’s inverse square law and Ampère’s law for the force between currents. He also suggested that it may be possible to arrive at the wave equation for the potentials (but how?). We do not know whether Feynman thought about this point, but it would certainly be of interest to try to develop it, even though we may never know if and how the result will be close to Feynman’s ideas. De facto, in the derivation above we have not used any experimental input about the electric and magnetic forces, except the fact that they exist and depend on charge and velocity. In all attempts in the literature to deduce magnetostatics or even full electrodynamics from relativity, one always starts from the experimental Coulomb law, or at least, as in [15], from the additional requirement (which again comes from experiment) that the superposition principle holds, which, together with covariance, forces the action for the electromagnetic field to be linear.

Bringing to light this approach is of obvious historical significance, adding a further piece to the already variegated Feynman jigsaw. However, in view of its originality, it is not inconceivable that this work can have some interest from the point of view of physics teaching. While this approach is clearly not suitable for a first course, it provides a novel way to develop part of the foundations of electromagnetism, which might fruitfully supplement a more conventional treatment. The most original points are, in our view, the derivation of the Lorentz force and the inverse route in the derivation of the homogeneous Maxwell’s equation, i.e. first introducing electromagnetic potentials in order to write down a relativistically invariant action. A very interesting development of this work would then involve putting these ideas to test in the classroom. For example, some bits of an advanced undergraduate course in electromagnetism and special relativity could be devoted to an exposition of the matter following the lines discussed in the present paper, and monitoring the response of the students to it.

It is certainly highly desirable that other pieces of Feynman ‘magic’ come to light in the near future, especially concerning the completion of this picture. In particular, from [123], and [25], as remarked above, we found evidence that an approach to gravity which is analogous to the one discussed here for electrodynamics was in Feynman’s thoughts. The development of such an approach will be the subject of a forthcoming publication [26].

Appendix A.: Useful formulae

${\bf{u}}$
$x-$

Consider a boost with velocity  in the positive  direction

Equation (A.1)
${\gamma }_{u}={\left(1-{u}^{2}\right)}^{-1/2}$
${\bf{u}}$
${\bf{v}}$

where  is the gamma factor associated with the boost velocity . Then the components of the velocity  of a particle transform in the well-known way:

Equation (A.2)

Using these relations, it is straightforward to prove the following relations:

Equation (A.3)
Equation (A.4)
${\bf{v}}$

These relations will be useful in the calculations performed in the main text. For convenience, we also write down the inverses of (A.2) and (A.3), which can be obtained simply by exchanging primed and unprimed components of  and inverting u → −u:

Equation (A.5)
Equation (A.6)

Appendix B.: Some details on the derivation of (7)

The explicit expressions for FxFyFz and Ft are respectively (we put q = 1):

Equation (B.1)
Equation (B.2)
Equation (B.3)

and

Equation (B.4)

Therefore, substituting in (6), we get

Equation (B.5)

Using now (A.5) and (A.6) we can put everything in terms of the primed velocity components. After some straightforward algebra we arrive at (7).

Appendix C.: Variational calculations

By following [1], we here find the Euler–Lagrange equations for the action (19), which we rewrite here as follows:

Equation (C.1)

We have to vary the path (x(t), y(t), z(t)) by infinitesimal quantities (ξ(t), η(t), ζ(t))

Equation (C.2)
$S\to S+\delta S$

with the constraint that the variations vanish at the endpoints titf, and keep only first order terms in ξη and ζ and their time derivatives. This induces the action S to vary as well by  and, by requiring it to be stationary, the equations of motion for all three coordinates xy and z follow. This procedure, however, would involve a lot of terms, so that, by following Feynman, we choose to vary only one coordinate at a time, in order to get only one component of the equation of motion: since calculations are very similar in the three cases, we here perform it only for the x case, leaving the other two to the reader. We have

Equation (C.3)

By Taylor expanding at first order the integrand, we have

so that

Equation (C.4)

The first integral build up again the action S we started with, while the second one can be integrated by parts to give

Equation (C.5)
$\xi ({t}_{i})=\xi ({t}_{f})=0$

where the first term vanishes since we assumed that at the endpoints . Therefore we get

Equation (C.6)
${\dot{A}}_{x}$

Here,  is a total derivative, i.e.

Equation (C.7)

By requiring δ S = 0, since the variation of ξ is arbitrary, the equation of motion follows:

Equation (C.8)

Similarly, by requiring the action to be stationary when varying y(t) and z(t), we arrive at the other two equations of motion:

Equation (C.9)
Equation (C.10)

In vector form, these three equations of motion rewrite as

Equation (C.11)
${\bf{F}}=-{\rm{\nabla }}\phi -\tfrac{\partial }{\partial t}{\bf{A}}+{\bf{v}}\times ({\rm{\nabla }}\times {\bf{A}})$

with , as in equation (21).

Footnotes

  • 3 The relevant part of that interview is also reported in [5].
  • 4 Such an approach, in order to be logically consistent, would of course require the introduction of special relativity independently of electromagnetism, which is indeed possible. For example, it was used by Feynman himself in the first volume of his lectures, or in many of the references cited in the main text. Moreover, it was explored in many other references about special relativity, such as [17], where special relativity is developed from the idea that any interaction should have a limiting speed, only later to be identified with the speed of light, and [18], where the relativistic law of addition of parallel velocities is derived only from the first of Einstein’s postulates, while not invoking the second one.
  • 5 Interesting enough, this was not the only time Feynman entertained himself with original presentations of electromagnetism. As reported by Freeman Dyson (quoted in [19]), in 1948 he was able to derive the homogeneous Maxwell’s equations solely from Newton’s law and from the canonical Poisson brackets (or even canonical commutation relations) for a non-relativistic particle; such a derivation was much later published by Dyson himself [20], and was soon recognized as a particular case of inverse variational problem (see e.g. [21] and references therein). Notice that Feynman’s proof of 1948 is given in a Galilei invariant context, while the proof we are studying here is given in a Lorentz invariant context. However, there is no contradiction since both proofs concern only the Lorentz force and the homogeneous Maxwell equations, which are invariant under both groups (the deep origin of this is that the homogeneous Maxwell equations are topological in nature, since they do not depend on the metric, see e.g. [22]).
  • 6 Actually, from what follows it is clear that here Feynman really means relativistic invariance of the charge, rather than charge conservation, as in the usual sense.
  • 7 It is worth noting that this same line of reasoning was followed by Feynman in [23], in order to argue that gravitation must be mediated by a spin-2 field rather than a spin-0 field, whose charge would decrease with velocity, instead of increasing.
  • 8 Notice that we are considering a charge moving in the presence of other charges, but the motion is not considered to be the consequence of the force exerted by these other charges, rather of some other unspecified external force.
  • 9 As an example, let us show that for a quadratic force the condition (2) is easily violated. Consider a force of the form , where k is a constant and, as said, the charge q does not depend on the velocity. Suppose that the charge undergoes a periodic motion, for example . Then we clearly have  over a period, but , hence , which contradicts the condition (2). In a similar way all even powers of v can be excluded.
  • 10 The fact that the Lorentz force is linear in the velocity was also emphasized by Feynman in chapter 12 of volume I of his Lectures [2], although there he then derived the complete expression from experiment.
  • 11 Useful relations, which may be employed in order to reduce calculations, are the following:where .
  • 12 That is: , .
  • 13 Feynman briefly goes on suggesting a 10-potential term of the form , mentioning that such term allows to derive the force of gravity. It is interesting to note that in [25] Feynman also gives some references to an approach to gravity which mimics the one given here for electrodynamics, in particular suggesting that in the case of gravity equation (3) should be replaced by a quadratic expression.

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HomeInsights  A Roadmap and Wish List for Synthetic Genomics

Rainbow DNA

A Roadmap and Wish List for Synthetic Genomics

Making the technology as much of science as gene sequencingBy Dan Samorodnitsky -November 5, 20190

Source: iStock/DeoSum Share

We are already living in a synthetic biology world. Within that huge world is an enormous variety of ideas and approaches, like custom-made proteins, CAR-T medicines, genetically engineered crops, and more. One sector still in its infancy is synthetic genomics, where instead of one protein or gene, entire genomes are designed, synthesized, and implemented.

To make synthetic genomics bloom, it needs new innovations and support, concludes a new report by a consortium of scientists from academia and industry, published recently in Science. Nili Ostrov, PhD, (Harvard Medical School, HMS) and colleagues advocate for advances in four areas they believe are critical for making synthetic genomics as much a part of science as gene sequencing is today.

These are 1) improving the ability to synthesize DNA, 2) the ability to precisely and accurately edit DNA using tools such as CRISPR-Cas9, 3) the design of genomes, and 4) the ability to string together pieces of DNA and construct entire chromosomes.

The manifesto “is focused on what we think are the… major technological challenges and milestones we would like to achieve,” said Ostrov, a postdoc in George Church’s lab at HMS.

The authors are part of a working group at Genome Project-write (GP-write), a “not for profit organization that seeks to promote the development of technology for genome writing,” says Jef Boeke, PhD, professor and founding director of the Institute for Systems Genetics at Langone Medical Center. GP-write “tries to bring together all of the groups that want to make that process easier to deploy, to solve a wide variety of biological challenges and problems both on the academic side as well as on the industrial side.”

Synthesize this

A major priority of the group and the Science paper is the current limitations on DNA synthesis. Economical commercial DNA synthesis (used for everything from PCR primers to whole chromosomes) relies on chemical synthesis. For decades this was laborious and prone to mutation until the invention of phosphoramitide chemistry. Despite this breakthrough back in the early 1980s, chemical DNA synthesis is limited to the several hundred-base-pair range–not nearly enough to string together a genome even with modern assembly techniques.

The authors suggest that future technology will boost enzymatic DNA synthesis beyond those lengths, powered by the high-processivity and accuracy of naturally occurring DNA polymerases. Since those polymerases need a template, research has turned towards terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), a DNA end modifying enzyme. TdT has been used since the 1970s to label double-stranded DNA, but turning it into a bona fide and economical polymerase has only come into focus in recent years.

“I’m very bullish on the need and opportunity for synthetic genomics… I think [the goals listed in the paper] are achievable,” said Emily Leproust, PhD, CEO of Twist Bioscience, one of the largest suppliers of synthetic DNA. However, Leproust expressed confidence that current chemical synthesis technologies were capable of synthesizing entire chromosomes. “In the last 12 months, we’ve shipped 8 billion bases of DNA — that’s almost three entire human genomes… We can do it at scale. If you want us to do the genome for you, we totally can do it today.”

Within each overarching goal are various sub-goals. From the base of the “DNA synthesis” target, more specific goals include synthesizing particularly difficult sequences (high GC-content, repetitive sequences, and centromeres) and direct synthesis of long (1000+ base pair) sequences, bypassing the need for assembling multiple shorter sequences. The longest commercially available oligos fall well short of this; Twist Bioscience’s longest available is 300 bp, while Integrated DNA Technologies offers 200 bp.

Finally, simply decreasing the cost–aiming for a $1,000 human genome within 10 years, or maybe even for significantly less money. This goal mirrors the long-standing goal in DNA sequencing to get the cost of sequencing a complete genome under $1,000. It currently stands at about $1,300.

Shots on goal

The authors recommend a public/private partnership similar to the Human Genome Project to enable the goals of GP-write. “Since genome construction projects are highly interdisciplinary efforts, a combination of different players will best drive this field forward. Some technologies, for example DNA editing, have been quickly adopted through academia and commercialized by startups. Lowering costs of chemical DNA synthesis has been driven by industry, and startups are pursuing enzymatic approaches” says Ostrov.

Other goals are focused on the design and function of the genomes themselves. As Boeke explained, “function” is key, as synthetic genomics can achieve results on a scale that related fields like protein engineering cannot. “It just enables you to work with a much larger canvas.” For example, “design a virus-proof mammalian chromosome” is a goal with a three-year timeframe. Boeke says the goal was to “design” the chromosome, not necessarily implement it. But synthetic genomics has already made strides in this area, such as reassigning the UAG stop codon across the entire Escherichia coli genome resulted in strong resistance to T7 bacteriophage.

The final set of goals concerns chromosome construction and delivery. Today the gold standard for cells using synthetic genomes is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. “The efficiency of DNA assembly in S. cerevisiae has not been found in other genetically tractable organisms,” the authors say. Once a chromosome or genome is constructed, how do you get it into a cell at all? That is one of the primary bottlenecks for biotechnology. Many see plant bioengineering as crucial for addressing climate change and agricultural problems, but it is hindered by relatively crude and labor intensive DNA delivery methods.

Boeke strikes an optimistic note. Citing research that showed that a DNA sequence on its own can direct its own expression, he said, “What about all the epigenetics and all the modifications of histones and DNA methylation and all that stuff that isn’t there on the naked DNA? Does that all really just work when you put it into a stem cell and then differentiate that into a mouse? The answer is apparently, yes, it does work.”

GP-Write will hold its next meeting in New York, November 11-14, 2019. SharePrevious articleAllogene, Notch Partner to Develop iPSC-Derived Blood Cancer TherapiesNext articleOverstressed and Underslept? Study Shows How Deep Sleep Can Reset Anxious Brain

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New World : Artificial Intelligence

New World : Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning, Machine Learning, Brain, Brain Diseases, AI Lectures, AI Conferences, AI TED Talks, Mind and Brain, AI Movies, AI Books in English and Turkish

Artificial IntelligenceArtificial Intelligence MoviesNovember 22, 2019

Top 22 Best Artificial Intelligence And Robotics Movies Of All Time

 0 CommentAI Movies

We feel the effects of artificial intelligence technology on our smartphones, computers, industry and healthcare sectors. In this list, we will remember the reflections of the artificial intelligence that directs our lives and the technology world in the cinema sector. 22 films that have been able to impressively reflect artificial intelligence technology.

Recently, we have started to hear the concept of artificial intelligence as often as we have never met. This technology, which is no longer a fantastic science fiction element but is included in our lives, is ranked first among the technology trends that will shape the years to come.

Artificial intelligence, which can be explained by the fact that computers can make use of human thinking, reasoning, perception, comprehension, judgment and inference abilities, is the understanding of information about the environment of a machine in practice.

In this way, an artificial intelligence system optimizes the acquired data and becomes usable in daily life. We can say that many studies have been done about artificial intelligence from past to present, some of them being shelved and some of them pioneering today’s technology.

EX_MACHINA

Ex Machina is a 2015 British science fiction psychological thriller film written and directed by Alex Garland in his directing debut. It stars Domhnall Gleeson, Alicia Vikander and Oscar Isaac. Ex Machina tells the story of programmer Caleb Smith (Gleeson) who is invited by his employer, the eccentric billionaire Nathan Bateman (Isaac), to administer the Turing test to an android with artificial intelligence.

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A.I. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

A.I. Artificial Intelligence, also known as A.I., is a 2001 American science fiction drama film directed by Steven Spielberg. A.I. tells the story a robot, a childlike android uniquely programmed with the ability to love. A robot boy programmed to experience human emotions embarks on a journey of self-discovery.

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TRANSCENDENCE

Transcendence is a science fiction film costing $100 million to produce. Johnny Depp, Rebecca Hall, Paul Bettany, Kate Mara, Cillian Murphy, Cole Hauser, and Morgan Freeman are acting in this film. It was directed by Wally Pfister in 2014. This movie asks the question, “Will an artificial super-intelligence be created soon? If it is, are they able to upload consciousness into a computer? ”

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I, ROBOT

I, Robot is a 2004 American neo-noir dystopian science fiction action film. Will Smith stars as Detective Del Spooner, who lives in the year 2035 when robots do everything.

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WESTWORLD

Did you know that Westworld, a new television series from HBO, based on the Westworld (film) dated in 1973? At that time, Westworld was the first feature film to use digital image processing, to pixellate photography to simulate an android point of view.

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MATRIX

The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis, starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Joe Pantoliano, and Hugo Weaving. The film received four Academy Awards in the technical categories. The film describes a future in which reality perceived by humans is actually the Matrix, a simulated reality created by sentient machines in order to pacify and subdue the human population while their bodies’ heat and electrical activity are used as an energy source.  A computer hacker learns from mysterious rebels about the true nature of his reality and his role in the war against its controllers.

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UNCANNY

Uncanny is a 2015 American science fiction film directed by Matthew Leutwyler and based on a screenplay by Shahin Chandrasoma. It is about the world’s first “perfect” artificial intelligence (David Clayton Rogers) that begins to exhibit startling and unnerving emergent behavior when a reporter (Lucy Griffiths) begins a relationship with the scientist (Mark Webber) who created it.

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CHAPPIE

If you have watched “Transcendence” before, when you watch “Chappie”, you will notice that both movies use the same concept. Visual effects are great and fantastic in this movie… The film has unbelievable special effects. It might even be worth watching just to see how impressive these special effects are.

The desire for immortality is quite fundamental to human nature. But seeing this desire on the robot with conscious is surprising in this movie…The new film “Chappie” features an artificially intelligent robot that becomes sentient and must learn to navigate the competing forces of kindness and corruption in the human world.

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HER

“Her” is one of the top 20 artificial intelligence films – in pictures for The Guardian. According to Christopher Orr from The Atlantic, “Her” is the Best Film of the Year (2013). He says that “Thoughtful, elegant, and moving, Spike Jonze’s film about a man in love with his operating system is a work of sincere and forceful humanism”.

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SINGULARITY

Singularity is a 2017 American science fiction film written and directed by Robert Kouba, based on a story by Sebastian Cepeda. It stars John Cusack, Carmen Argenziano, Julian Schaffner, and Jeannine Wacker.

In 2020, Elias van Dorne (John Cusack), CEO of VA Industries, the world’s largest robotics company, introduces his most powerful invention–Kronos, a supercomputer designed to end all wars. When Kronos goes online, it quickly determines that mankind, itself, is the biggest threat to world peace and launches a worldwide robot attack to rid the world of the “infection” of man.

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PASSENGERS

Passengers is a 2016 American science fiction film directed by Morten Tyldum and written by Jon Spaihts. It stars Jennifer Lawrence, Chris Pratt, Michael Sheen, and Laurence Fishburne. “Passengers” is the latest space adventure movie to hit theaters. It makes heavy use of robots and artificial intelligence to tell its story. While Passengers is set in the future, it shows us the robotics challenges that innovators and businesses face today.

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GHOST IN THE SHELL

Ghost in the Shell is an American science fiction crime drama film directed by Rupert Sanders and written by Jamie Moss, William Wheeler, and Ehren Kruger, based on the Japanese manga of the same name by Masamune Shirow. The film stars Scarlett Johansson, Takeshi Kitano, Michael Pitt, Pilou Asbæk, Chin Han and Juliette Binoche. 

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2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY

2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 science-fiction film. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous and often surreal imagery, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue. In 1991, it was deemed “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant” by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in their National Film Registry.

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MORGAN

Morgan is a fantastic science fiction thriller material, great cinematography, acting, and great Artificial Intelligence Movie. Highly recommended. Morgan is different from the other AI movies. Here is the difference among the other Artificial Intelligence Movies; Morgan is the first-ever movie trailer made by artificial intelligence and so creepy. Scientists at IBM Research have collaborated with 20th Century Fox to create the first-ever cognitive movie trailer for the movie Morgan.

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TOMORROWLAND

Tomorrowland is a 2015 American science-fiction mystery adventure film directed and co-written by Brad Bird. Bird co-wrote the film’s screenplay with Damon Lindelof, from an original story treatment by Bird, Lindelof and Jeff Jensen. The film stars George Clooney, Hugh Laurie, Britt Robertson, Raffey Cassidy, Tim McGraw, Kathryn Hahn, and Keegan-Michael Key. In the film, a disillusioned genius inventor and a teenage science enthusiast embark to an ambiguous alternate dimension known as “Tomorrowland” where their actions directly affect the world and themselves.

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WALL-E

WALL-E is one of the last remaining robots, who develops a form of human-like intelligence toward the end of the 700 years spent on Earth. The film explores WALL-E’s love for a second robot named EVA. It is yet another examination of a scenario where artificial intelligence “evolves” into human-like form – complete with fears, anger, and of course love. This heartwarming story takes place in the distant future – 2805. Earth is nothing more than a massive garbage-heap, and Earth’s population has escaped the planet to live in starships, while the robots remain on Earth in order to clean up the planet.

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THE MACHINE

The Machine is a 2013 British science fiction thriller film directed and written by Caradog W. James. It stars Caity Lotz and Toby Stephens as computer scientists who create artificial intelligence for the military. In efforts to construct perfect android killing machines in a war against China, UK scientists exceed their goal and create a sentient robot.

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ANNIHILATION

Annihilation is a science fantasy action horror film written for the screen and directed by Alex Garland based on the novel of the same name by Jeff VanderMeer. The film stars Natalie Portman, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Gina Rodriguez, Tessa Thompson, Tuva Novotny, and Oscar Isaac.

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BICENTENNIAL MAN

This movie starring Robin Williams is a drama about artificial life which strives to become human. In the early moments of the movie, a cyborg is being used as a butler for a wealthy family. This cyborg has a unique personality from the beginning. The youngest member of the family grows very close to the cyborg and grows up in his companionship. As time goes on, the little girl grows up and has a child of her own. The cyborg starts to go beyond the boundaries of artificial intelligence and begins to experience human emotions.

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BLADE RUNNER

Blade Runner: 2049’s upcoming release is quickly approaching us. We will have to hold out two more months to learn what those mysteries maybe when the film hits theaters in Oct 2017. When we look at the new trailer dropped on Youtube, We see that the trailer is filled with action, aesthetic, and intrigue set 32 years in the future and Harrison Ford and Ryan Gosling are featuring stars and Denis Villeneuve directed this film. (He also directed Prisoners and Arrival). It seems that the Movie of November 2017 would be Blade Runner: 2049..

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ROBOT AND FRANK

Robot & Frank is a 2012 American science fiction comedy-drama film directed by Jake Schreier and written by Christopher Ford. Perhaps most interesting for the way in which the film suggests that its protagonist finds a relative degree of peace through a friendship with a robot, at the same time that it rejects the notion that the robot possesses any kind of consciousness. A fascinating film that uses the idea of the robotic as a tool for reflection on the self, rather than on the mystery of the mechanical other.

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METROPLIS

METROPOLIS…Artificial intelligence is nothing new, however. Screenwriters have been tinkering with the concept for nearly a century with varying degrees of success. While many credit Kubrick with popularizing AI in 2001: A Space Odyssey, the first known instance can be traced all the way back to Fritz Lang’s Metropolis from 1927

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Introduction to Deep Learning and Self-Driving Cars from MITTop 22 Best Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Books of All Time

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Transcendence

 September 29, 20170

Ex Machina

 September 27, 20170

I, Robot

 January 1, 20180

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We feel the effects of artificial intelligence technology on our smartphones, computers, industry and healthcare sectors. In this list, we will remember the reflections

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Artificial Intelligence BooksArtificial Intelligence NewsNovember 22, 2019

Top 22 Best Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Books Of All Time

 0 CommentAI Booksdeep learning booksmachine learning books

The recent explosion of interest in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning has been mirrored by an explosion in book titles on these same topics. One of the best ways to decide which books could be useful for your career is to look at which books others are reading.

If you are searching for some best books to become more acquainted with the essentials of AI and Machine Learning, Here are some books to help you to discover the best Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning books of all time.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: A MODERN APPROACH

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (AIMA) is a university textbook on artificial intelligence, written by Stuart J. Russell and Peter Norvig. The third edition of the book was released on 11 December 2009. It is used in over 1100 universities worldwide and has been called “the most popular artificial intelligence textbook in the world”.

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GODEL, ESCHER, BACH

GODEL, ESCHER, BACH

Besides being a profound and entertaining meditation on human thought and creativity, this book looks at the surprising points of contact between the music of Bach, the artwork of Escher, and the mathematics of Gödel. It also looks at the prospects for computers and Artificial Intelligence (AI) for mimicking human thought.

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TO BE A MACHINE

To be a Machine by Mark O’Connell

To Be a Machine: Adventures Among Cyborgs, Utopians, Hackers, and the Futurists Solving the Modest Problem of Death (Mark O’Connell). “Flesh is a dead format,” writes Mark O’Connell in To Be a Machine, his new nonfiction book about the contemporary transhumanist movement. It’s an alarming statement, but don’t kill the messenger: As he’s eager to explain early in the book, the author is not a transhumanist himself. Instead, he’s used To Be a Machine as a vehicle to dive into this loosely knit movement, which he sums up as “a rebellion against human existence as it has been given.” In other words, transhumanists believe that technology — specifically, a direct interface between humans and machines — is the only way our species can progress from its current, far-than-ideal state. Evolution is now in our hands, they claim, and if that means shedding the evolutionary training wheels of the flesh itself, so be it

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HOW TO CREATE A MIND

How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed

How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed” is a non-fiction book about brains, both human and artificial, by the inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil. First published in hardcover on November 13, 2012, “How to Create a Mind” became a New York Times Best Seller.

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DEEP LEARNING

Deep Learning by Ian Goodfellow and Yoshua Bengio and Aaron Courville

Deep learning: Ian Goodfellow and Yoshua Bengio and Aaron Courville. Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human-computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning.

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SINGULARITY IS NEAR

The Singularity Is Near

The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology is a 2006 non-fiction book about artificial intelligence and the future of humanity by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil.

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SURVIVING AI 

Surviving AI

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence. A good book for the curious about Artificial Intelligence. Calum Chace did a good job of providing an overview of the history of AI, how we got to where we are and some possibilities of what is to come. A fascinating look into our future.

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OUR FINAL INVENTION

OUR FINAL INVENTION

Through profiles of tech visionaries, industry watchdogs, and groundbreaking AI systems, James Barrat’s Our Final Invention explores the perils of the heedless pursuit of advanced AI. Until now, human intelligence has had no rival. Can we coexist with beings whose intelligence dwarfs our own? And will they allow us to?

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HUMANS NEED NOT APPLY

Humans Need Not Apply

Jerry Kaplan’s latest book is “Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence”. Selected as one of the 10 best science and technology books of 2015 by The Economist, Humans Need Not Apply is a call to arms for the age of artificially intelligent machines. The robots are coming, but whether they will be working on behalf of a society or a small cadre of the super-rich is very much in doubt.

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MACHINE LEARNING WITH TensorFlow

Machine Learning with TensorFlow

Machine Learning with TensorFlow” gives readers a solid foundation in machine-learning concepts plus hands-on experience coding TensorFlow with Python. You’ll learn the basics by working with classic prediction, classification, and clustering algorithms. Then, you’ll move on to the money chapters: an exploration of deep-learning concepts like autoencoders, recurrent neural networks, and reinforcement learning. Digest this book and you will be ready to use TensorFlow for machine-learning and deep-learning applications of your own.

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BEYOND GENUINE STUPIDITY

Beyond Genuine Stupidity

The first book in the Fast Future series, Beyond Genuine Stupidity: Ensuring AI Serves Humanity, explores critical emerging issues arising from the rapid pace of development in artificial intelligence (AI). The authors argue for a forward-looking and conscious approach to the development and deployment of AI to ensure that it genuinely serves humanity’s best interest. Through a series of articles, they present a compelling case to get beyond the genuine stupidity of narrow, short-term and alarmist thinking and look at AI from a long-term holistic perspective.

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ORIGIN

Origin

Origin is a 2017 science fiction mystery thriller novel by American author Dan Brown. and the fifth installment in his Robert Langdon series, following Angels & Demons, The Da Vinci Code, The Lost Symbol, and Inferno. The book was released on October 3, 2017, by Doubleday.

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LIFE 3.0

Life 3.0

How will artificial intelligence affect crime, war, justice, jobs, society, and our very sense of being human? The rise of AI has the potential to transform our future more than any other technology – and there’s nobody better qualified or situated to explore that future than Max Tegmark, an MIT professor who’s helped mainstream research on how to keep AI beneficial.

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ON INTELLIGENCE

On Intelligence

On Intelligence: How a New Understanding of the Brain Will Lead to the Creation of Truly Intelligent Machines by Jeff Hawkins and Sandra Blakeslee.  From the inventor of the PalmPilot comes a new and compelling theory of intelligence, brain function, and the future of intelligent machines.

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THE MASTER ALGORITHM

The Master Algorithm

Domingos’s book “The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World” is one of the books which Bill Gates recommends in order to understand Artificial Intelligence.

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THINKING MACHINES

Thinking Machines

Thinking Machines: The Quest for Artificial Intelligence–and Where It’s Taking Us Next by Luke Dormehl. A fascinating look at Artificial Intelligence, from its humble Cold War beginnings to the dazzling future that is just around the corner. When most of us think about Artificial Intelligence, our minds go straight to cyborgs, robots, and sci-fi thrillers where machines take over the world. But the truth is that Artificial Intelligence is already among us. It exists in our smartphones, fitness trackers, and refrigerators that tell us when the milk will expire. In some ways, the future people dreamed of at the World’s Fair in the 1960s is already here. We’re teaching our machines how to think like humans, and they’re learning at an incredible rate.

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WHAT TO DO WHEN MACHINES DO EVERYTHING

What to Do When Machines Do Everything

What to Do When Machines Do Everything is a guidebook to succeeding in the next generation of the digital economy. When systems running on artificial intelligence can drive our cars, diagnose medical patients, and manage our finances more effectively than humans, it raises profound questions on the future of work and how companies compete. Illustrated with real-world cases, data, and insight, the authors provide clear strategic guidance and actionable steps to help you and your organization move ahead in a world where exponentially developing new technologies are changing how value is created.

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DEEP THINKING

What to Do When Machines Do Everything

Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins. One of the greatest chess players in history, Garry Kasparov lost a memorable match to IBM supercomputer Deep Blue in 1997. This match was One Big Loss for a Man, One Giant Win for Mankind. This defeat was seen as a major milestone for Artificial Intelligence.

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THE MAN WHO KNEW TOO MUCH

What to Do When Machines Do Everything

The Man Who Knew Too Much: Alan Turing and the Invention of the Computer: David Leavitt. A “skillful and literate” (New York Times Book Review) biography of the persecuted genius who helped create the modern computer. To solve one of the great mathematical problems of his day, Alan Turing proposed an imaginary computer. Then, attempting to break a Nazi code during World War II, he successfully designed and built one, thus ensuring the Allied victory. Turing became a champion of artificial intelligence, but his work was cut short. As an openly gay man at a time when homosexuality was illegal in England, he was convicted and forced to undergo a humiliating “treatment” that may have led to his suicide.

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HANDS-ON MACHINE LEARNING WITH SCIKIT-LEARN

Hands-On Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn and TensorFlow

Hands-On Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn and TensorFlow: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques to Build Intelligent Systems: Aurélien Géron. Through a series of recent breakthroughs, deep learning has boosted the entire field of machine learning. Now, even programmers who know close to nothing about this technology can use simple, efficient tools to implement programs capable of learning from data. This practical book shows you how.

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SUPERINTELLIGENCE

Superintelligence

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick Bostrom. Superintelligence asks the questions: What happens when machines surpass humans in general intelligence? Will artificial agents save or destroy us? Nick Bostrom lays the foundation for understanding the future of humanity and intelligent life.

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HEARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Heartificial Intelligence, by John C. Havens

Heartificial Intelligence, by John C. Havens.. In Heartificial Intelligence, author John C. Havens introduces a realm of algorithms and smart machines well beyond anything you might know about. How do we navigate a world in which software is intelligent enough to learn from our behaviors and manipulate us to click and consume? What happens when that software is the soul of a robot caring for the elderly? Figure this stuff out now or pay the price later when every bit of your life is a datapoint owned by tech giants, Havens suggests.

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Top 22 Best Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Movies of All TimeElephants Never Forget!

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Ideas

Our home for bold arguments and big thinkers.

This 4×4 millimeter brain chip could allow patients to send computer commands, essentially by thinking about them.

THIS IS YOUR BRAIN ON AI

The brain is the final frontier of our privacy, and AI is about to breach it

By Lucas Bento & Thiago BentoNovember 19, 2019

As most people know at this point, connecting our brains to machines is no longer theoretical science fiction.

In fact, it could be transforming how we communicate as a species. It could even usher in the age of telepathy: Recent developments in brain-machine interfacing highlight its benefits, from treating mental health conditions to controlling objects with the mind, such as wheelchairs and robotic prosthetics.

With devices supercharged with artificial intelligence and, potentially, the computational power of quantum computers, technology could cognitively emancipate millions, if not billions, of people around the world.

AI-powered brain-interface technologies could make people smarter by helping them make better decisions, improve working memory, and process more information more efficiently.

An AI-infused brain would truly revolutionize how, and how quickly, we learn by making it possible to upload knowledge of a number of domains directly to our brains, including in high- skill fields such as engineering, law, medicine, and science.

It could marriage human creativity with the processing power of AI, thus bringing cognitive superpowers to every person on the planet and unleashing a new era in human productivity.

How smart is too smart?

But what happens when everyone is equally as smart as everyone else? How do we value skilled labor that is potentially readily available for anyone, anywhere?

According to the market theory of wages, how much someone gets paid is in part determined by the number of workers available and the number of workers needed for a job. Meaning AI-powered brain-interfaces could upend the fundamentals of market economics.How do we value skilled labor that is potentially readily available for anyone, anywhere?

Lawyers and doctors are typically paid more than manual laborers because of the relative shorter supply of lawyers and doctors, which is in part due to the number of years of training required to enter those professions and the corresponding value society attributes to those skills. But what will happen to their wages once the market is faced with an abundance of skilled labor? If anyone is able to upload legal or medical know-how to their brain and know just as much as the professionals in those fields, why pay a professional a higher wage?

Of course, certain skills, such as strategic judgment and contextual understanding, may be difficult, if not impossible, to digitize. But even the games of chess and Go, both complex games that require strategic decision-making and foresight, have now been conquered by AIs that taught themselves how to play—and beat—some of the best human players.

The technology’s potential for emancipation and human advancement is immense. But we—entrepreneurs, researchers, professionals, policymakers, and industry—must not lose sight of the social risks.

Cyborg security

The biggest issues facing the nascent brain-interface industry are security, surveillance, and privacy. How to protect the brain from corruption, viruses, and remote control will redefine cybersecurity as a whole as it morphs into the cyborg-security needed to shield the brain from foreign invasion.

Instead of hacking into our computer mainframes, malicious actors would be able to manipulate people for financial, political, or even romantic advantage. Fake thoughts or fake memories may cause people to act in ways they otherwise wouldn’t.

The brain, as the final frontier of one’s privacy, will undoubtedly come under attack. Mental data collection efforts—or methods to collect data from one’s thoughts—will be able to mine our minds for our deepest desires, whether conscious or unconscious. Regulation—of access, quality, and security—will therefore play a central role in how we develop, deploy, and protect these technologies, without stifling innovation.

Transparency will be another major issue. It seems logical that people should disclose when they use these AI-powered brain-interfaces. You may have to ask your doctor whether the advice she gives is based on her human knowledge and experience, or some type of human-AI mix. Again, the question arises of how to ensure regulation without censorship. Where to draw the line and how to divorce the human from the artificial may become increasingly difficult to determine, as technological permeation accelerates into the human mind.

Breeding futuristic know-it-alls will also impact our perception of status and power in society. If you can do any job you’d like, and know anything about everything at the tap of your temple, our perceptions of job hierarchy and social status, especially in knowledge fields, will likely shift more decisively from what one knows to what one does with that knowledge.

Education, and educational institutions, would need to adapt accordingly. If knowledge can be uploaded overnight, what will the students of the future do in school? How will universities cope with this influx of already knowledgeable students? How would they be tested?

The knowledge-based economy may give way to one that values creativity and interpersonal skills over everything else, freeing people to make new connections and discoveries to resolve human, social, scientific, and commercial problems, and to discover new fields of inquiry that are currently invisible to our biological minds.

Biased data fed directly into the minds of thousands of people could also amplify structural inequalities across society by creating psychological bubbles that reinforce, or exacerbate, existing biases or create new ones. Who will be the gatekeepers and curators—the cognitive publishers, the knowledge suppliers—of these mental feeds? And how will trust be brokered?

This could easily lead to new social barriers, unless robust legislative and ethical frameworks can be implemented to protect against these risks.

A super class

As with any new technology, the of cost of cutting-edge AI-powered products are likely to be prohibitively high.

This runs the risk of creating a new super-class of people who can forever change the structure of a meritocratic society.

To prevent this from happening, industry leaders need to find a way to provide technology that is affordable and accessible so that cost is not a discriminatory barrier.

As the technology we use—and how we use it—changes, entrepreneurs need to proactively lead the debate by proposing innovative solutions in anticipation of some of these problems. At the very least, industry, government, and civil society should develop an ethical framework to guide the development and use of AI-powered brain-machine interfaces.

Ultimately, these new technologies force us to think more deeply about the nature of the human condition. They may mark the evolution of a species that has survived precisely because of technological innovation and adaptation. Or, they may mark a more sinister turning point, where social and cultural norms were disrupted to the detriment of social equality.

As with all technology, the devil lies in how we—humans—decide to use it.

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Scientists Have Observed Epigenetic Memories Being Passed Down For 14 Generations

SIGNE DEAN27 APR 2018

The most important set of genetic instructions we all get comes from our DNA, passed down through generations. But the environment we live in can make genetic changes, too.

Last year, researchers discovered that these kinds of environmental genetic changes can be passed down for a whopping 14 generations in an animal – the largest span ever observed in a creature, in this case being a dynasty of C. elegans nematodes (roundworms).

To study how long the environment can leave a mark on genetic expression, a team led by scientists from the European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO) in Spain took genetically engineered nematode worms that carry a transgene for a fluorescent protein. When activated, this gene made the worms glow under ultraviolet light.

Then, they switched things up for the nematodes by changing the temperature of their containers. When the team kept nematodes at 20° Celsius (68° F), they measured low activity of the transgene – which meant the worms hardly glowed at all.

But by moving the worms to a warmer climate of 25° C (77° F), they suddenly lit up like little wormy Christmas trees, which meant the fluorescence gene had become much more active.

Their tropical vacation didn’t last long, however. The worms were moved back to cooler temperatures to see what would happen to the activity of the fluorescence gene.

Surprisingly, they continued to glow brightly, suggesting they were retaining an ‘environmental memory’ of the warmer climate – and that the transgene was still highly active.

Furthermore, that memory was passed onto their offspring for seven brightly-glowing generations, none of whom had experienced the warmer temperatures. The baby worms inherited this epigenetic change through both eggs and sperm.

The team pushed the results even further – when they kept five generations of nematodes at 25° C (77° F) and then banished their offspring to colder temperatures, the worms continued to have higher transgene activity for an unprecedented 14 generations.

That’s the longest scientists have ever observed the passing-down of an environmentally induced genetic change. Usually, environmental changes to genetic expression only last a few generations.

“We don’t know exactly why this happens, but it might be a form of biological forward-planning,” said one of the team, Adam Klosin from EMBO and Pompeu Fabra University, Spain.

“Worms are very short-lived, so perhaps they are transmitting memories of past conditions to help their descendants predict what their environment might be like in the future,” added co-researcher Tanya Vavouri from the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute in Spain.

There’s a reason why scientists turn to C. elegans as a model organism – after all, those 14 generations would only take roughly 50 days to develop, but can still give us important clues on how environmental genetic change is passed down in other animals, including humans.

There are many examples of this phenomenon in worms and mice, but the study of environmental epigenetic inheritance in humans is a hotly debated topic, and there’s still a lot we don’t know.

“Inherited effects in humans are difficult to measure due to the long generation times and difficulty with accurate record keeping,” stated one recent review of epigenetic inheritance.

But some research suggests that events in our lives can indeed affect the development of our children and perhaps even grandchildren – all without changing the DNA.

For example, studies have shown that both the children and grandchildren of women who survived the Dutch famine of 1944-45 were found to have increased glucose intolerance in adulthood.

Other researchers have found that the descendants of Holocaust survivors have lower levels of the hormone cortisol, which helps your body bounce back after trauma.

The 2017 study on nematodes is an important step towards understanding more about our own epigenetic inheritance – especially because it serves as a remarkable demonstration of how long-lasting these inter-generational effects may be.

The findings were published in Science.

A version of this article was first published in April 2017.

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India to be a world leader in Biotechnology- Global Bio-India Summit, 2019.

November 23, 2019KESHAV SINGH

Union Minister for Science & Technology, Earth Sciences and Health & Family Welfare, Dr. Harsh Vardhan has said India has the potential to emerge as the world’s top industry destination in biotechnology sector. Addressing the Inaugural function of the 3-day Global Bio-India Summit, 2019 in New Delhi, Dr. Harsh Vardhan said India has the expertise and the biotechnology sector has witnessed exponential growth in recent decades. Government has encouraged the sector by setting up hundreds of Biotechnology Parks and Incubators while thousands of Start-ups have been supported by the Government, he added.

screen_shot_2019_11_21_at_8_48_55_pm-15173
Dr Harsh Vardhan inaugurates Global Bio-India Summit 2019 (Image Credit: Twitter)

Dr. Harsh Vardhan said the Prime Minister has set a target of making India the top country in Science & Technology by 2030. As compared to 5% growth in scientific publications worldwide, India has notched a growth of 14% in this sphere, he said. “We have developed a number of vaccines and the rotavirus vaccine is now a part of the National Immunization programme, besides our laboratories have also produced vaccines against dengue and malaria. We are No.3 in Nanotechnology and our Tsunami Early Warning System has been ranked No.1 in the world”, he added.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan said India plays a pioneering role in the UN sponsored Mission Innovation (MI) programme and is the leading country in three MI challenges on Smart Grids, Off-Grid Access to Electricity and Sustainable Biofuels. He said we are a “Changed India” today, and as Shri Narendra Modi has aimed, we will make a “New India” by 2022 and finally we aim to be the world leader, “Vishwa Guru”.

Dr Harsh Vardhan said Biotechnology serves mankind helping in to move towards a biotechnology-led economy, transforming as many lives as possible, creating opportunities and promising development for all. He encouraged young innovators and entrepreneurs in the Biotech sector to come forward for the development of the country. “Government of India will support and assist their ideas to make it a reality. He said, as per the vision of former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the wave of Information Technology 20 years ago is India Today and Biotechnology is the India tomorrow”, he said.

Global-Bio-India-2019-Sci-Tech-Min-releases-report-on-biologics-biosimilars-future
(Image Credit:- https://indusdictum.com/)

Speaking on the occasion, the Minister for Petroleum & Natural Gas and Steel, Dharmendra Pradhan said the Government has set a target to achieve 20% ethanol blending of automotive fuels. “When we took charge ethanol blending was less than 1%, today it has increased to 6% and further we have targettedto achieve 20% ethanol blending”, he said.

Pradhan said we are committed to work towards greater decarbonisation and make India a gas based economy. Bio-energy will play an important role in this, he said. “Through innovations developed by our bio-energy scientists we are now working on utilising waste biomass by converting it into Biofuels. With 600MT of biomass, which can be used as raw material, India remains the only country with highest scope for growth of Biofuels”, he added.

“In future ethanol will be produced from raw materials like, excess food grains, to help transform our ‘Annadatas’ to ‘Urjadatas.’With 600MT of biomass, which can be used as raw material, India remains the only country with highest scope for growth of Biofuels”, said  Pradhan.

Pradhan said the Petroleum& Natural Gas Ministry has instituted a Rs 300 croreStart-Up Fund. “I have advised my colleagues to have biofuels as a key focus area and provide stimulus to the industry by giving handholding support and offtake guarantee to new & emerging entrepreneurs in the Biofuel sector”, he said.

In his address, Member, NITI Aayog, Dr. Vinod K. Paul said the Government and the private sector are working in unison to make Primary Healthcare success in the country. “The aspirations of the people of India have risen and from Primary Healthcare, we are now extending our reach to Secondary and Tertiary Healthcare”, he said.

Secretary, Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Renu Swarup said the 3-day Biotechnology Summit will discuss roadmap to achieve $100 billion bioeceonomy target. “We have scaled $51 billion already and the sector is growing at 14.7%. So the $100b target seems very modest”, she said.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan and Dharmendra Pradhan later inaugurated the Global Bio-India Exhibition.

Global Bio-India is one of the largest biotechnology stakeholders conglomerate being held in India for the first time. It has brought academia, innovators, researchers, start-ups, medium and large companies together on the same platform. Over 3,000 delegates from around 25 countries and over 15 states of India are participating in the mega event. More than 200 exhibitors, 275 Start-Ups and more than 100 Bio-Technology Incubators are participating in it.

Biotechnology is recognized as the sunrisesector- a key driver for contributing to India’s USD 5 Trillion economy target by 2025

#SOURCE:- Press Information Bureau
Government of India
Ministry of Science & Technology

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IN YOUR SERVICE SINCE 2016. I AM A BIOTECH STUDENT WITH A DREAM TO TAKE UP BIOTECHNOLOGY IN INDIA TO A MUCH MORE ADVANCED AND LARGER SCALE. LET THE PEOPLE KNOW ABOUT BIOTECHNOLOGY WHICH TODAY IS A BOON TO MANKIND. HOPE THE ONLINE PORTAL IS HELPING OUT THE STUDENTS AND PROFESSIONALS IN A RIGHT WAY TO MAKE THEIR WAY AHEAD. THANKS FOR VISITING. MEMBER:- 1)EUROPEAN BIOTECHNOLOGY NETWORK 2)EUROPEAN FEDERATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY View all posts by KESHAV SINGH

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New DNA Technology

November 22, 2019DNA phenotypehealthrapid testsciencetechnology

 
FBI plans the ‘Rapid DNA’ network for quick database checks on arrestees and suspects.

Law enforcement agencies trained on new technology that speeds up DNA testing.

From residue on a soda can to tiny hairs, or bloodstains, DNA evidence has come a long way in helping to solve thousands of crimes. “It’s evolving crime-fighting as we know it,” says Ariana Wheaton with Thermo Fisher Scientific. And what used to take 8 hours and 4 pieces of lab equipment, now can be done on one machine in just 90 minutes. “That’s incredible,” said Kevin Lothridge with the National Forensic Science Technology Center.

The center in Largo just got the “Rapid Hit” system. It’s training 15 Florida police agencies on the new technology. That includes the Boca Raton Police Department, and the Palm Beach and Indian River County Sheriff’s offices. “This could help with the human trafficking problem right on the spot,” says Lothridge.

Here’s how it works: When investigators bring a suspect into custody, they can take a DNA sample, then put it in the machine. An hour and a half later they have a full DNA profile to match with the FBI’s database. All before that person is released from police custody. “That’s what we’re really trying to get out of this is information we can move on right then,” Lothridge says.

Agencies are being trained on the new equipment and testing it before making at the $150 thousand investment. Crime scene investigators hope it will go a long way towards keeping our community safe. “As we say, science serving justice,” says Dave Sylvester with the National Forensic Science Technology Center.SHARE THIS Facebook Twitter Google+DIGITAL DRIVER’S LICENSE

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Meet the cyborg who’s running against Donald Trump for president

Zoltan Istvan, a leader of the transhumanist movement to merge humans with technology, is challenging Trump with a plan for America that’s beyond radical.Eric MackNovember 18, 2019 4:09 PM PST

  •  
  •  

Zoltan Istvan, a man who opens doors with a chip embedded in his hand and wants Americans to live forever, is now taking on President Donald Trump from inside his own party. 

The author, journalist and a leader of the transhumanist movement, which believes humans can use technology to transcend our current physical and mental limitations, is challenging Trump for the 2020 Republican nomination for president and will appear on the New Hampshire primary ballot next year. 


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zoltan-istvan-public-bio-picture-600x585
Former Transhumanist Party candidate Zoltan Istvan is challenging Trump again, this time as a Republican.Zoltan Istvan

“Our goal is to try to really get the GOP to embrace a new way of looking at the world, one that is futuristic and transhuman,” Istvan told me.  “I think it’s quite possible to be fiscally conservative and open-minded. Naturally, we’re taking on Trump too, who I don’t think is helping science and tech much.”

The Trump campaign didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment. 

Istvan, a 46-year-old former National Geographic reporter, previously ran against Trump in 2016 as the Transhumanist Party candidate and also ran for governor of California as a Libertarian. He generated plenty of media attention by doing much of his 2016 campaigning from a coffin-shaped bus, spreading the gospel of human immortality through technology at each stop. 

The campaign failed to generate many votes, though (one unofficial count finds he received less than 100 votes in total nationwide). For a while, Istvan was hopeful he might convert the media attention into a spot as a high-level adviser or even running mate for one of the name-brand candidates from 2016. He had discussions with Gary Johnson, Hillary Clinton and others, but no jobs came from them.

In person, Istvan has the build of a superhero with a certain approachable charisma. He spent years traveling the world for National Geographic before turning to a successful career in real estate in Northern California, where he still lives with his wife, a doctor, and their children. 

Istvan left the real estate game and went all in on his passion for transhumanism, writing the 2013 philosophical sci-fi novel The Transhumanist Wager. Now he continues to promote radical ideas about advancing humanity through science and technology via writing columns for various publications and pursuing politics.

Watch this: The CraveCast visits the future with US Presidential… 49:21

For a conservative party candidate, Istvan’s ideas can seem pretty far out. His platform centers on three core policies: competing with China, introducing a universal basic income and promoting transhumanism, which he defines as “the movement to upgrade human bodies and lives with technology.”

He also has a 20-point plan that’s, well… calling it revolutionary and radical just doesn’t seem strong enough. 

For starters, Istvan would like to amend the US Constitution to introduce a fourth branch of government based on the notion of a digital direct democracy in which citizens vote on policies in real time using new technologies. The foundational document would also be changed to enshrine the right to genetic editing, cloning and other radical sciences meant to promote health and longevity. 2020 could be the year we finally see presidential candidates debate the merits of cyborg rights. 

And that’s just the beginning. He also hopes to abolish the IRS and income tax, legalize all drugs, make college free and mandatory, fight climate change with geo-engineering, and add language to the Constitution to “lay the groundwork for rights for other future advanced sapient beings like conscious robots and cyborgs.”

You heard it here first: 2020 could be the year we finally see presidential candidates debate the merits of cyborg rights. 

Istvan also proposes some novel new technological approaches to some of the more divisive issues in American politics, like abortion. 

ELECTION SEASON COMES EARLY

“Within 10 years, I expect artificial wombs to improve to be able to handle fetuses around 16 weeks, which would give many women a third choice,” he told me. “There are 50 million abortions a year. No longer will one have to be pro-choice or pro-life, but one can also say: I’d like to give my child up for adoption via an artificial womb.” 

Istvan acknowledges that a lot of his platform might sound pretty futuristic, but he says transhumanism is already at the heart of world-leading companies like Apple, Google and Microsoft.

“We are using more and more radical tech in our lives, and someday soon, a lot of that tech will be making its way into our bodies. I already have a tiny chip implant in my hand that I can text with, start a car, and open doors.”  

Istvan’s last presidential campaign was more a curiosity, but this time around his operation is significantly more serious. 

He’s on the primary ballot of a major party with other serious challengers like former Massachusetts Gov. Bill Weld and former Rep. Joe Walsh from Illinois. He tells me fundraising is already underway and he plans to campaign from New Hampshire and Iowa and in bigger states like Texas and California in the hopes of convincing Republicans that a future in which cutting-edge technology is everywhere — including inside our bodies — is better than four more years of Trump.

Originally published Nov. 18, 10:39 a.m. PT. COMMENTSDonald TrumpPolitics CLOSE

Discuss: Meet the cyborg who’s running against Donald Trump for president

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Meet the cyborg who’s running against Donald Trump for president

Zoltan Istvan, a leader of the transhumanist movement to merge humans with technology, is challenging Trump with a plan for America that’s beyond radical.Eric MackNovember 18, 2019 4:09 PM PST

  •  
  •  

Zoltan Istvan, a man who opens doors with a chip embedded in his hand and wants Americans to live forever, is now taking on President Donald Trump from inside his own party. 

The author, journalist and a leader of the transhumanist movement, which believes humans can use technology to transcend our current physical and mental limitations, is challenging Trump for the 2020 Republican nomination for president and will appear on the New Hampshire primary ballot next year. 


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zoltan-istvan-public-bio-picture-600x585
Former Transhumanist Party candidate Zoltan Istvan is challenging Trump again, this time as a Republican.Zoltan Istvan

“Our goal is to try to really get the GOP to embrace a new way of looking at the world, one that is futuristic and transhuman,” Istvan told me.  “I think it’s quite possible to be fiscally conservative and open-minded. Naturally, we’re taking on Trump too, who I don’t think is helping science and tech much.”

The Trump campaign didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment. 

Istvan, a 46-year-old former National Geographic reporter, previously ran against Trump in 2016 as the Transhumanist Party candidate and also ran for governor of California as a Libertarian. He generated plenty of media attention by doing much of his 2016 campaigning from a coffin-shaped bus, spreading the gospel of human immortality through technology at each stop. 

The campaign failed to generate many votes, though (one unofficial count finds he received less than 100 votes in total nationwide). For a while, Istvan was hopeful he might convert the media attention into a spot as a high-level adviser or even running mate for one of the name-brand candidates from 2016. He had discussions with Gary Johnson, Hillary Clinton and others, but no jobs came from them.

In person, Istvan has the build of a superhero with a certain approachable charisma. He spent years traveling the world for National Geographic before turning to a successful career in real estate in Northern California, where he still lives with his wife, a doctor, and their children. 

Istvan left the real estate game and went all in on his passion for transhumanism, writing the 2013 philosophical sci-fi novel The Transhumanist Wager. Now he continues to promote radical ideas about advancing humanity through science and technology via writing columns for various publications and pursuing politics.

Watch this: The CraveCast visits the future with US Presidential… 49:21

For a conservative party candidate, Istvan’s ideas can seem pretty far out. His platform centers on three core policies: competing with China, introducing a universal basic income and promoting transhumanism, which he defines as “the movement to upgrade human bodies and lives with technology.”

He also has a 20-point plan that’s, well… calling it revolutionary and radical just doesn’t seem strong enough. 

For starters, Istvan would like to amend the US Constitution to introduce a fourth branch of government based on the notion of a digital direct democracy in which citizens vote on policies in real time using new technologies. The foundational document would also be changed to enshrine the right to genetic editing, cloning and other radical sciences meant to promote health and longevity. 2020 could be the year we finally see presidential candidates debate the merits of cyborg rights. 

And that’s just the beginning. He also hopes to abolish the IRS and income tax, legalize all drugs, make college free and mandatory, fight climate change with geo-engineering, and add language to the Constitution to “lay the groundwork for rights for other future advanced sapient beings like conscious robots and cyborgs.”

You heard it here first: 2020 could be the year we finally see presidential candidates debate the merits of cyborg rights. 

Istvan also proposes some novel new technological approaches to some of the more divisive issues in American politics, like abortion. 

ELECTION SEASON COMES EARLY

“Within 10 years, I expect artificial wombs to improve to be able to handle fetuses around 16 weeks, which would give many women a third choice,” he told me. “There are 50 million abortions a year. No longer will one have to be pro-choice or pro-life, but one can also say: I’d like to give my child up for adoption via an artificial womb.” 

Istvan acknowledges that a lot of his platform might sound pretty futuristic, but he says transhumanism is already at the heart of world-leading companies like Apple, Google and Microsoft.

“We are using more and more radical tech in our lives, and someday soon, a lot of that tech will be making its way into our bodies. I already have a tiny chip implant in my hand that I can text with, start a car, and open doors.”  

Istvan’s last presidential campaign was more a curiosity, but this time around his operation is significantly more serious. 

He’s on the primary ballot of a major party with other serious challengers like former Massachusetts Gov. Bill Weld and former Rep. Joe Walsh from Illinois. He tells me fundraising is already underway and he plans to campaign from New Hampshire and Iowa and in bigger states like Texas and California in the hopes of convincing Republicans that a future in which cutting-edge technology is everywhere — including inside our bodies — is better than four more years of Trump.

Originally published Nov. 18, 10:39 a.m. PT. COMMENTSDonald TrumpPolitics CLOSE

Discuss: Meet the cyborg who’s running against Donald Trump for president

Be respectful, keep it civil and stay on topic. We delete comments that violate our policy, which we encourage you to read. Discussion threads can be closed at any time at our discretion.English | EspañolMORE FROM CNETBlack Friday deals right nowThe Guide to WellnessHoliday Survival GuideNew to Netflix in DecemberABOUTAbout CNETSitemapCareersHelp CenterPrivacy PolicyTerms of UseMobile User AgreementLicensingAd ChoiceFOLLOW USAFFILIATE DISCLOSURECNET may get a commission from retail offers.© CBS INTERACTIVE INC.All Rights Reserved.

 

38 Comments

  1. With almost everything that appears to be developing within this specific subject matter, many of your points of view are relatively exciting. Even so, I am sorry, but I can not give credence to your whole plan, all be it exhilarating none the less. It looks to me that your remarks are not totally justified and in simple fact you are generally your self not totally convinced of the argument. In any case I did enjoy reading it.

    Like

  2. How are you doing?

    Please allow me to share some very significant information that’s been going all over the internet relevant to our future well being.

    We’re on the horizon of a future of a one world cashless society where they will mandate us to receive an RFID chip implanted in our body. This microchip will contain all our personal information and we will lose much more of our privacy due to the tracking technology.

    Even bigger news than this, have you heard that this was predicted around two thousand years ago by a person named Jesus Christ? Have doubts? Keep reading… This may be the most important thing you will read.

    • “Also he(the false prophet) compels all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free men and the slaves, to be given a mark on their right hand or on their forehead signifying allegiance to the beast, and that no one will be able to buy or sell, except the one who has the mark, either the name of the beast or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let the person who has enough insight calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man; and his number is six hundred and sixty-six” (Revelation 13:16-18 AMP)…

    Speaking on the last days, this can only be speaking of a cashless money society, which has yet to occur, but we are making our way towards. Why so? Otherwise we could still buy or sell without receiving the mark among each other if tangible money was still valid. It logically deduces itself to this conclusion.

    The mark could not be anything spiritual, because the word references two different physical locations. If it was to be spiritual, the text would only conclude one place.

    Now here is where it gets interesting. It is amazing how on the nail the scriptures are concerning this RFID chip. Here are the details from a man named Carl Sanders who worked with a group of engineers to help invent this RFID chip in the 90’s.

    Carl Sanders attended seventeen New World Order meetings with heads of state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the C.I.A. to discuss their agenda on how to bring forth this one-world system. The US government commissioned Carl Sanders to invent a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the nations-a microchip that might be inserted under the skin with a hypodermic needle(a quick, convenient process that would be progressively accepted by the people).

    Mr. Sanders, along with a crew of engineers behind him, with U.S. grant monies provided by US tax dollars, took on this mission and designed a RFID chip that’s powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable by way of the temperature fluctuations in our skin. With out having knowledge of the biblical scriptures (Brother Sanders was not a believer at the time), these engineers spent one and a half million dollars gathering data on the best and most convenient location to have the chip placed in the body.

    These researchers discovered that the forehead and the back of the hand(the two spots Revelation says the mark will be received) are not only the most convenient locations, but are also the only viable spots for rapid, steady temperature fluctuations in the skin to recharge the lithium battery. The RFID chip is about 7 millimeters in length, .75 millimeters in diameter, about the dimensions of a grain of rice. It’s capable of containing many pages of data you. All of your basic information, work information, crime data, health records, and financial history could be saved on this chip.

    Mr. Sanders believes that this microchip, which he regretfully helped engineer, is the “beast’s mark” mentioned in Revelation 13:16-18. The Greek word for “mark” is “charagma,” which is defined as a “scratch or etching.” Additionally it’s fascinating to observe that the number 666 is actually a word in the original Greek language. The word is “chi xi stigma,” with the final word, “stigma,” additionally meaning “to stick or prick. Mr. Sanders believes this is referencing to the usage of a hypodermic needle being poked into a person to insert the RFID chip.”

    Carl asked a doctor what would take place if the lithium contained within the microchip was exposed in the body. The medical doctor responded by saying a horrible sore would appear in that spot. This is what the book of Revelation has to say:

    “And the first went and poured out his bowl on the earth; and there came an evil and grievous sore upon the men that had the mark of the beast, and those who worshipped its image” (Revelation 16:2 DARBY).

    The holy scriptures tell us that we cannot buy or sell without receiving the mark, or the number of its name. The number being identified as 666. Scripture tells us to count the number 666. How can we calculate 666?

    This is where it becomes an eye opener. Calculating the number 666 has been long debated throughout history, but has finally been uncovered in these final times by the Holy Spirit. What you will see establishes itself with the holy scriptures the real meaning to calculate six-six-six.

    Throughout God’s Holy Scriptures, God uses the number 3 for confirmation. Below are a some examples:

    “For there are three that bear witness in heaven: the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one” (1 John 5:7 NKJV).

    “and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures” (1 Corinthians 15:4 NKJV).

    “…Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was and is and is to come!” (Revelation 4:8 NKJV).

    Now what is interesting is the the mark of the beast is described in detail in 3 separate verses (Revelation 13:16,17,18), and each verse lists three different examples of the given subject. The final 3 being the number 6 used 3 times in a row. This is a key point to solving how to count the number 666.

    What does it mean to count the number 666? It means to add up. So how could we add up 666? Call back to mind my earlier key point concerning God confirming in 3’s. Now logically, what would be the best way to count the number 666? To count it equally in threes based off the number. It is not sensible to count it equally as 600+60+6, this would also take us back to the beginning. We cannot add it as 600+600+600, or 60+60+60, because there are no zeroes in between or at the end of 666. The only reasonable explanation we are left with is 6+6+6=18. What is fascinating is that the verse that tells us to count the number itself is verse 18, being the third verse out of three verses that describe the mark. Now what is 18 divided by 3? 6. So 3×6=18, or 6+6+6=18.

    Another fascinating point is the only two other possible combinations (bringing a total of three possible combinations) for placing a plus symbol in between the 6’s are 66+6=72, and 6+66=72. Count both 72’s together and you get 144. Why the number 144 is interesting is because the verse following Revelation 13:18 is the first time in the scriptures where the 144,000 are being mentioned in detail:

    “Then I looked, and behold, a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having His Father’s name written on their foreheads…” (Revelation 14:1).

    If we add up all three numbers by counting 666 by moving the “+” symbol around in all 3 possible combinations, we would get 72+72+18=162. What is fascinating concerning the number 162, is, if you divide 144,000 by 162, you get 888. The name for Jesus in Greek gematria adds up to 888. The New Testament was originally written in Greek. Revelation 14:1 not only mentions the 144,000, but also the Lamb of God who is Jesus Christ.

    Now what is interesting about the number for Jesus, 888, is that if you apply this same formula, you get 8+8+8=24. Why the number 24? Revelation chapter 4 tells us there are 24 elders seated around the throne of God. This is the same throne where Jesus sits:

    “Immediately I was in the Spirit; and behold, a throne set in heaven, and One sat on the throne. And He who sat there was like a jasper and a sardius stone in appearance; and there was a rainbow around the throne, in appearance like an emerald. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and on the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting, clothed in white robes; and they had crowns of gold on their heads” (Revelation 4:2-4).

    Now if you take 8+8+8=24, and 8+88=96, and 88+8=96, you get 24+96+96=216. Take 144,000 divided by 216 and you get 666. Keep in mind that this was the identical method to get the numeral 162 out of counting 666 that brought about the number 888 when dividing 144,000 by 162. It’s perpetual.

    With using the identical method of counting by including the plus symbol in between the numbers, why do all these numbers relate in such a way?

    Another interesting factor to note is that if you add up all the numbers from 1 to 36, it totals 666. The number 36, as in three sixes? May this be a hint that we should add up three sixes as opposed to perceiving the number as six-hundred sixty six?

    So what might this mean? Well we know in this world we’re identified by numbers in various forms. From our birth certificate to our social security card, also with our drivers license, being recognized based on a system of ruler ship. So it’s possible that this RFID chip will include a new identification that has a complete total of 18 characters.

    Might this be the title of the beast, the number of its name? The one-world beast system that is recognized by 18 characters? This might match the scriptures that speaks of a mark that we ought to have to buy or sell in our right hand or forehead, and that it additionally incorporates the number of the beast, during a future cashless money society.

    Go to: https://biblefreedom.com to see all the proof!

    The scriptures warns us in the last days that a false prophet will stand up doing miracles to deceive many to obtain the beasts mark:

    “Then the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet who worked signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image” (Revelation 19:20).

    At ALL COSTS, resist the mark!

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name” (Revelation 14:9-11).

    We are residing in very prophetic times with very important Biblical prophecies being fulfilled. When Donald Trump recognized Jerusalem as capital of Israel in December of 2017, this was a massive step to bring forth the Third Temple foretold in the Holy Bible.

    The scriptures warns us that the Antichrist will seat himself in this temple:

    “…and the man of sin is revealed, the son of perdition, who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thessalonians 2:3-4).

    Within the Islamic faith, there is a man referred to as the Mahdi, known as their messiah who they are waiting to appear. There are many testimonies from individuals on the internet who consider this man will be Barack Obama who is to be the biblical Antichrist. I personally have had unusual dreams about Barack. He came on stage declaring himself to be a Christian with no affiliation to the Muslim faith, but was later revealed by his circle of relatives that he indeed is a religious Muslim.

    His actual name is stated to be Barry Soetoro, and he had his name changed to Barack Obama. Why so?

    Jesus says, “And He said to them, ‘I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven'” (Luke 10:18).

    In Hebrew, the word “Barack” means “lighting”, and the use of “Bama” (Strongs Hebrew word 1116) is used to refer to the “heights” of heaven.

    The day after the election of Barack Obama (11/04/08), the triumphing pick 3 lotto numbers in Illinois (Obama’s home state) for 11/5/08 were 666.

    Obama was formerly a U.S. senator for Illinois, and his zip code was 60606.

    Regardless, whoever seats themselves in the Third Temple in Jerusalem, declaring himself to be God IS THE ANTICHRIST. NEVER FORGET.

    So, why do we need Jesus Christ?

    “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Romans 2:23).

    “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 6:23).

    Our own works cannot save us from our sins. If we step in front of a judge, being responsible for breaking the law, the judge won’t judge us by the good that we’ve accomplished, rather the crimes we have committed. If we as fallen humanity, created in God’s image, pose this kind of justice, how much greater a perfect, righteous, and Holy God?

    God has delivered to us His ethical law’s by means of the 10 commandments handed to Moses at Mt. Siani. These laws were not given so we may be justified, however in order that we could see the need for a saviour. They’re the mirror of God’s character of what He has put in each of us, with our conscious bearing witness that we know that it is an offense to steal, lie, dishonor our parents, and so forth.

    We can try to follow all the ethical guidelines of the ten commandments, however we will by no means catch up to them to be justified before a Holy God. That same word of the law given to Moses became flesh over 2000 years ago within the body of Jesus Christ. He was brought forth to be our justification by perfectly fulfilling the commandments of God, living a sinless life that solely God could accomplish.

    The gap between us and the law of God can by no means be reconciled by our own personal merit, however the arm of Jesus is stretched out by the grace and mercy of God. And if we’re to seize hold of, by faith in Him, He will pull us up being the one to justify us. As within the court of law, if somebody steps in and pays your debt, despite the fact that you’re guilty, the judge can do what is legal and just and set you free. This is what Jesus did nearly 2000 years ago on the cross. It was a legal transaction being fulfilled in the spiritual realm by the shedding of His blood, with His final words being, “…It is finished!…” (John 19:30).

    So why did Jesus have to die for us?

    Due to the fact that God is Holy and just, the wrath that belongs to us could not be brushed away. Through the perfect righteousness and justice of God’s character, it ought to be dealt with, it ought to be quenched and satisfied.

    For God takes no pleasure in the dying of the wicked (Ezekiel 18:23). That is why in Isaiah chapter 53, where it speaks of the coming Messiah and His soul being a sacrifice for our sins, why it says it pleased God to crush His only begotten Son.

    This is because the wrath that we deserve was justified by being poured out upon His Son. For if it were to be poured out on us who have earned it, we’d all perish and go to hell. God created a way of escape by pouring it out on His Son who’s soul could not be left in Hades, but was raised and seated on the right hand of God in power.

    Now after we put on the Lord Jesus Christ (Romans 13:14), God no longer see’s the person who deserves His wrath, but now the glorious image of His perfect Son dwelling inside our hearts, justifying us as if we acquired the wrath we deserve, making a means of escape from the curse of death.

    Now what we must do is repent and believe in the savior, confessing and forsaking our sins. This is not just a head knowledge of believing in Jesus, howeverrather receiving His words, taking them to heart. Where we no longer live to exercise sin, but turn away from our sins and exercise righteousness:

    “Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived. Neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor homosexuals, nor sodomites, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners will inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you. But you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of our God” (1 Corinthians 6:9-11).

    By doing so we will come to be transformed into the image of God by way of faith in His Son Christ Jesus Who’s willing to give the Holy Spirit to people who ask of Him:

    “Most assuredly, I(Jesus) say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’ (John 3:5-6).

    “But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His” (Romans 8:9).

    Now what are you waiting for? Our heavenly Father only wants the best for us, restoring all the pieces this world has stolen from us. That is what it means to be “holy”. To be made whole.

    He’s ready to hear from you. That God given tongue to speak language, by faith, pray to Him, ask Him to forgive you by confessing to Him your sins and be willing to forsake them; that you receive the sacrifice of His Son Jesus on the cross, and that you want His Holy Spirit dwelling inside you reworking you into a child of the living God.

    Jesus says, “but whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him(the Holy Spirit) will never thirst. But the water that I shall give him will become in him a fountain of water springing up into everlasting life.”

    Did you realize that Jesus spoke more about hell than any one else in the scriptures, even more than He spoke about heaven?! For this very cause He was brought forth to die for us, to save us from this place that we earned by our sins against a holy God.

    He describes hell as a real place where,

    “Their worm does not die
    And the fire is not quenched” (Mark 9:44).

    And where,

    “There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth…” (Luke 13:28).

    Jesus tells us who to fear,

    “And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell” (Matthew 10:28).

    “Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, ‘Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God. And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.’

    Then He who sat on the throne said, ‘Behold, I make all things new.’ And He said to me, ‘Write, for these words are true and faithful.’

    And He said to me, ‘It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. He who overcomes shall inherit all things, and I will be his God and he shall be My son. But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.'” (Revelation 21:1-8).

    With all the world religions, how can we make sure the Bible got it right? The scientific information has established and continues to support that the universe once had a starting point wherein space, time and matter were created. Many know this as the big bang.

    “The non-biblical religions tell us that god or god’s create within space and time that eternally exist. The Bible stands alone and says that time and space don’t exist until God creates the universe.” – Astronomer(Phd) Hugh Ross

    The Bible not only got it all right that space, time and matter all came into existence at the beginning of the universe, it additionally states in 7 different places that the universe is in a continuous state of expansion thousands of years before scientists discovered these facts.

    Did you know that the actual Noah’s Ark was found where the Bible instructed us it’d be with the right dimensions? As well as proof for the destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah and the Exodus event of the Red Sea crossing?

    The Bible is the most translated and examine document in the history of the world, packed with predictive prophecies, matching what we find inside the book of nature. Wouldn’t you count on God’s word to be so?

    This information and more can all be discovered right here: https://biblefreedom.com

    Jesus loves you!

    Like

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