Cyagen Mouse & Rat Models @ MICE RESEARCHES – PLACES & COUNTRIES – HISTORY @ CONTACTS & ´´In architecture, a “model” is a representation of a building. In mice, a “model” is a representation of a human disease or syndrome. Mice share more than 95% of our DNA — and this means that we’re both affected by disease in surprisingly similar ways. By studying mice that have symptoms of diseases like Alzheimer’s, diabetes, or cancer, we can learn a lot more about how these diseases might be treated in patients. The quest for the best mouse model — or best “representation” — of a disease is always ongoing. The closer we are to accurately modeling genetic diseases in the mouse, the closer we are to discovering cures in the clinic.´´ @ Diseases and aging: patterns of morbidity with age; relationship between aging and age-associated diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Jun;55(6 Suppl):1225S-1230S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/55.6.1225S. @ ´´A laboratory (UK: /ləˈbɒrətəri/, US: /ˈlæbərətɔːri/; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Laboratory services are provided in a variety of settings: physicians offices, clinics, hospitals, and regional and national referral centers.[1]´´ @ Very Important Links and Images

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  • – > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics´´My´´ Dissertation @ #Innovation #energy #life #health #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo´´My´´ Dissertation Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laboratory

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1590261

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kent Scientific Corporation – Innovative Research Solutions for Mice & Rats – Kent Scientific provides integrated, modular solutions for small animal pre-clinical research and drug discovery advancement. https://www.kentscientific.com/ https://www.kentscientific.com/contact/

GenScript – Make Research Easy – https://www.genscript.com/contact.html

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knockout mouse models |  Turboknockout conditional knockout mice (floxed mice) - Cyagen US Inc.

Get Your Conditional Knockout & Knockin Mice in as Fast as 6 Months!

Our new TurboKnockout® service can provide you with conditional knockout, reporter knockin and humanization mouse models as fast as 6-8 months. This proprietary gene targeting method is enabled by two innovations:
(1) A super competent ES cell line that generates 100% ESC-derived founder mice rather than chimeras, eliminating the need to screen for germline transmission.
(2) A selection cassette on the targeting construct capable of removing itself after ES cell targeting without the need to breed to Flp deleter mice.
These innovations eliminate two generations of breeding, shortening production time by 4-6 months as compared to industry standard. For conditional knockouts, it may be possible to breed founders directly to your tissue-specific Cre mice.
All projects are backed by our full money-back guarantee – no animals, no charge!

Discount of the Decade Event: Save up to 25% on all custom animal models

◆ Workflow of TurboKnockout® Gene Targeting Mouse Services

Each full gene targeting project is split into the following phases:

knockout mouse model | Turboknockout conditional knockout mice - Cyagen US Inc.

1. TurboKnockout® gene targeting strategy design

  • Analyze relevant information for your target gene, including gene structure, neighboring genes at the genomic locus, known targeted animal models, etc.
  • Develop a gene targeting strategy, including the method for screening targeted ES cells by PCR and confirmation by Southern blot.
  • Propose the strategy to you for review and approval.

2. TurboKnockout® targeting vector construction

  • Clone relevant DNA fragments corresponding to homology arms into the targeting vector.
  • Confirm construction of the final targeting vector by restriction digest and sequencing.

3. Targeting in ES cells

  • Electroporate targeting vector into our super competent TurboKnockout® ES cells, followed by appropriate drug selection and isolation of drug-resistant clones. Our ES cells are derived from the C57BL/6 strain.
  • Screen for targeted ES cell clones by PCR.
  • Expand up to six PCR-positive clones, which are further confirmed by Southern blot.
  • Karyotype ES cells to ensure correct chromosome number.

4. TurboKnockout® mouse production

  • Introduce targeted ES cells into host embryos, followed by transfer into surrogate mothers. The resulting TurboKnockout® heterozygous mutants are 100% derived from the injected ES cells. We will aim to generate a minimum of 3 mice.
  • Genotype founders by PCR to confirm their mutant status.
  • Optional: Breed to F1.
  • Delivery of mice to the customer.

 Types of Knockout Mouse Services 

conventional knockout mice - Cyagen US Inc.

Conventional knockout
In conventional knockout models, one or more critical exons of the target gene are replaced with a drug-selection cassette. This results in the permanent inactivation of the target gene in all cells of the body throughout development.

Conditional knockout mice - Cyagen US Inc.

Conditional knockout
In conditional knockout models, one or more critical exons of the target gene are flanked by LoxP sequences which can be recognized by Cre recombinase. By breeding these floxed mice (mice with gene locus flanked by LoxP) with tissue-specific Cre-expressing mice (Cre deleters), it is possible to specifically delete the floxed region and inactivate the gene in desired tissues, while in all other tissues, the target gene remains functional. 

Knockin 
– Reporter knockinA visually detectable marker gene (such as GFP or lacZ) is knocked into a gene locus to replace the coding sequence of the target gene for the purpose of monitoring the promoter activity of the gene. Alternatively, a marker or an epitope tag can be knocked into the end (or less frequently, the beginning) of the coding sequence to form a fusion protein, which allows target gene expression and localization/trafficking to be examined.

conditional knockin mice - Cyagen US Inc.

– Point mutation knockinBy introducing point mutation(s) into homology arms or the targeting vector, desired mutation(s) can be incorporated into the target gene. The mutated gene is expressed under the control of the wildtype gene regulatory elements. 

– Humanized mouseA humanized mouse is defined as a mouse model in which a portion or the full mouse gene sequence has been replaced by its human counterpart. The human gene is expressed under the control of the wildtype mouse regulatory sequences.

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 ROSA26 knockin: ROSA26 is a locus that has been widely used for achieving global expression of the introduced gene in mice. The gene of interest is targeted into the first intron of this locus. The expression of the gene can be driven by the endogenous ROSA26 promoter or by a promoter of choice that is targeted into the locus along with the gene. 

◆ Pricing and Turnaround Time
ServicePriceTurnaround time
TurboKnockout® targeting strategy designFree1-4 days
Construction of TurboKnockout® gene targeting vector$8,9508-14 weeks
Gene targeting in ES cells$12,9508-14 weeks
Karyotype ES cells to ensure correct chromosome number$350/clone1-2 weeks
TurboKnockout® mouse production$8,950
(we will inject as many ES cell clones as needed to fulfill our guarantee)
8-12 weeks
Optional: Breeding founders to obtain F1Please inquire*

* You can choose to receive F0 founder animals and perform their own breeding to F1 mice. To ensure the successful generation of F1 mice and germline transmission, breeding of F0 animals require adherence to Turboknockout® breeding protocol, which will be supplied to you. You can also choose to have Cyagen perform F1 breeding, which adds 1-3 months to the projected turnaround time. You can choose to breed F0 founders to wildtype mice or to other stains such as Cre deleter strains of your choice; additional service fees may apply.

Note: For special knockout/knockin services not listed above, please inquire about availability and pricing. The turnaround time above does not include the time for obtaining host institution’s approval for mouse importation and transit time during shipping.

◆ Guarantee

Cyagen offers the best guarantee in the industry – we will fully refund the client’s service fee if animals with the specified genotype are not generated (except for genetic modifications severely affecting viability, morbidity, or fertility). Given the complexity of biological systems, a particular genetic modification may not result in the desired phenotype. As such, Cyagen’s guarantee covers the creation of animals with the specified genotype, not a particular phenotypic outcome in terms of transcription, protein/RNA function, or organismal biology.

◆ Inquiries and Quote Requests

Request a quote now. Alternatively, you can always email animal-service@cyagen.com or call 800-921-8930 to inquire about our services or obtain a quote for your project.

◆ Price Matching

If you find another service provider that offers better pricing than ours, we will match the price plus an additional 5% off.

◆ Payments

Standard payment terms include a 50% upfront payment before the project begins, and the remaining 50% plus shipping paid after completion of the project. If you need us to design your targeting strategy, we will provide this service for free irrespective of whether you end up choosing us for your project (other companies typically charge a few thousand dollars for this service).

◆ Bulk Discount

We offer up to a 10% bulk discount for large orders. Large orders are defined as 5 or more projects from the same institution. If you bundle your orders with those of your colleagues, you can all qualify for the bulk discount.

◆ Shipping

Products are shipped from our facility in China to our Santa Clara, California facility, then are relayed to end users. For mouse shipments, the shipping charge includes courier cost plus a $100/crate handling fee. Cells are shipped on dry ice, and the charge includes courier cost plus a $45 handling fee. DNA constructs are shipped in E. coli at room temperature, and the charge includes courier cost plus a $10 handling fee. We typically use World Courier to ship live mice and FedEx for other shipments.

◆ Animal Programs

All animal work is conducted in our specific pathogen free (SPF) facilities that have been AAALAC accredited and OLAW assured. For details information, please visit our support section for Description of our FacilityAnimal Health and Animal Welfare Program.

◆ Customer References

Please click here to view a map of customer who have used Cyagen before worldwide. 

◆ Citations

Please click here for a list of publications that have cited Cyagen.

◆ Case studies on our TurboKnockout® Gene Targeting Mice

Case 1

Sensing of viral and endogenous RNA by ZBP1/DAI induces necroptosis.
EMBO J 36 (17): 2529-2543 (2017)
Jonathan Maelfait

Abstract

Nucleic acids are potent triggers for innate immunity. Double‐stranded DNA and RNAadopt different helical conformations, including the unusual Z‐conformation. Z‐DNA/RNA is recognised by Z‐binding domains (ZBDs), which are present in proteins implicated in antiviral immunity. These include ZBP1 (also known as DAI or DLM‐1), which induces necroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death. Using reconstitution and knock‐in models, we report that mutation of key amino acids involved in Z‐DNA/RNA binding in ZBP1’s ZBDs prevented necroptosis upon infection with mouse cytomegalovirus. Induction of cell death was cell autonomous and required RNAsynthesis but not viral DNA replication. Accordingly, ZBP1 directly bound to RNA via its ZBDs. Intact ZBP1‐ZBDs were also required for necroptosis triggered by ectopic expression of ZBP1 and caspase blockade, and ZBP1 cross‐linked to endogenous RNA. These observations show that Z‐RNA may constitute a molecular pattern that induces inflammatory cell death upon sensing by ZBP1.

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Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.IMMUNITY 47:107 (2017) IF=22.845

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“I’ve been very happy with Cyagen’s service so I’ve been referring a lot of colleagues… thanks for the great service.”Washington University in St. Louis

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Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.IMMUNITY 47:107 (2017) IF=22.845

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Cyagen offers a one-stop solution for all your custom mouse and rat model needs. We are now the world`s largest provider of transgenic and knockout mouse and rat services, with thousands of genetically modified mice generated each year for researchers worldwide.

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Acknowledgement: AlphaKnockout is made possible by utilizing the computing power of Milkyway-2 of National Super Computer Center in Guangzhou, the super machine rated by TOP500 ranking as the top 1/top 2 world’s most powerful computer for the past 4 consecutive years.Search                                                                       Mouse (Mus musculus)                                                                                                       Rat (Rattus norvegicus)                                                                                                   KO (CRISPR/Cas 9)                                     cKO                                         (CRISPR/Cas 9)                                                                          cKO (ES)                                                                       for SearchCopyright © 2019 Cyagen Biosciences. All rights reserved. 备案号和版权所有: 粤ICP备17037667号-1

 

 

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Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.IMMUNITY 47:107 (2017) IF=22.845

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crispr cas9 knockout mice
Engineered nuclease-mediated genome editing (especially CRISPR/Cas9) is an emerging technology which can serve as an alternative to the conventional, ES cell homologous recombination-based knockout (KO) animal generation. When gRNA(s) designed to target specific site(s) in the mouse genome and Cas9 are co-injected into fertilized mouse eggs, cleavage at the target site(s) followed by imperfect repair can result in indels (insertion or deletion). If the cut site is in the coding region of a gene, this may result in a frameshift mutation downstream of the site, generating a constitutive knockout. If deletion of exon(s) encoding critical domains is desirable, two gRNAs targeting sites upstream and downstream of the exon(s) can be co-injected with Cas9 and knockout pups with critical region deletion can be generated. Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 system can generate constitutive knockout founder animals in as little as 3 months, far faster than the typical 8~12 months required for conventional knockout mice generation with ES cell homologous recombination. We guarantee delivery of a minimum of 2 founders or 3 F1 animals for knockout.

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 ◆ Workflow of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Knockout (KO) Mouse Services

workflow of CRISPR/Cas9 knockout mouse services - Cyagen US Inc.

◆ Description of Services

Knockout (KO) strategy design

Tell us the name of gene you wish to knockout and we will design a nuclease-mediated strategy for you. This includes the selection of target sites in the gene based on our optimized algorithm that maximizes on-target nuclease activity and minimizes off-target activity, and the design of nuclease expression vector(s). For each gene to be knocked out, we will design vectors against at least two target sites in the gene to ensure success. Genotyping assays based on PCR and sequencing will also be designed for the screening of knockout founder mice.

Nucleases expression vector construction

DNA vectors that express the desired nucleases will be constructed. Where needed, the efficacy of these vectors will be tested in cell culture.

Nuclease injection into mouse eggs

– mRNA preparation: Nuclease expression vectors will be transcribed in vitro. The resulting mRNA will be artificially capped and polyadenylated to facilitate its proper translation into protein in mammalian cells.

– Nuclease injection to obtain founders: The in vitro transcribed nuclease mRNA(s) will be injected into fertilized mouse eggs, followed by implantation of the eggs into surrogate mothers to obtain offspring. In cases where the nuclease expression vectors are designed and constructed by Cyagen, we will inject as many eggs and/or target as many sites as needed to fulfill the guarantee. In cases where the nuclease expression vectors (or their mRNA products) are provided by the customer, we will inject a minimum of 200/300 eggs (based on strain) and screen pups for founders carrying desired mutation. If no founders are identified, more injections can be performed at an additional charge.

Founder screening

Pups will be screened by PCR and sequencing to identify knockout founder mice. Specifically, the site targeted by the nucleases will be PCR-amplified, followed by sequencing of the PCR product to reveal any mutations that might have occurred. Mice carrying frameshift deletions/insertions or critical exon(s) deletion on at least one allele are considered knockout founders. Occasionally, an animal may be found to have both alleles of the target site mutated.

Breeding founders to obtain F1

For some projects, the generation of founder mice is the end point. However, some customers wish to have us breed the founders further to obtain F1 mice. We will breed up to 3 founders to wildtype mice of matching strain background, and genotype their offspring to obtain F1 mice bearing the knockout allele.

◆ Donor Strain Information

We typically produce CRISPR-mediated knockout mice in the C57BL/6 and FVB background, but we may be able to use other strains per your request.

>> Rat models are also available. Learn more about CRISPR Knockout Rat Services.

◆ Pricing and Turnaround Time

For projects where nuclease expression vectors are constructed by Cyagen

StagesServicePriceTurnaround time
1Knockout strategy designFree1-4 days
2Nuclease expression vector construction for knockout$1,9503-5 weeks
3mRNA preparation$9501-2 weeks
4CRISPR/Cas9 injection to obtain knockout foundersFVB$5,9506-8 weeks
C57BL/6$9,9506-10 weeks
5Genotyping pups to identify knockout founders$9501-2 weeks
6Off-target analysis$5951-2 weeks
7Breeding founders to obtain F1$2,45012-16 weeks

 Note: For nuclease-mediated knockout mouse services not listed above, please inquire about availability and pricing. The turnaround time above does not include the time for obtaining host institution’s approval for mouse importation, nor transit time during shipping.

◆ Guarantee

Cyagen offers the best guarantee in the industry – we guarantee generation of constitutive knockout mice. We will fully refund the client’s service fee if animals with the specified genotype are not generated (except for genetic modifications severely affecting viability, morbidity, or fertility). Given the complexity of biological systems, a particular genetic modification may not result in the desired phenotype. As such, Cyagen’s guarantee covers the creation of animals with the specified genotype, not a particular phenotypic outcome in terms of transcription, protein/RNA function, or organismal biology.

◆ Inquiries and Quote Requests

Request a quote now. Alternatively, you can always email animal-service@cyagen.com or call 800-921-8930 to inquire about our services or obtain a quote for your project.

◆ Price Matching

If you find another commercial service provider that offers better pricing than ours, we will match the price plus an additional 5% off.

◆ Payments

Standard payment terms include a 50% upfront payment before the project begins, and the remaining 50% plus shipping charge paid after completion of the project. If you need us to design your knockout strategy, we will provide this service for free irrespective of whether you end up choosing us for your project. 

◆ Bulk Discount

We offer up to a 10% bulk discount for large orders. Large orders are defined as 5 or more projects from the same institution. If you bundle your orders with those of your colleagues, you can all qualify for the bulk discount.

◆ Shipping

Products are shipped from our facility in China to our Santa Clara, California facility, then are relayed to end users. For mouse shipments, the shipping charge includes courier cost plus a $100/crate handling fee. DNA constructs in E. coli are shipped at room temperature, and the charge includes courier cost plus a $10 handling fee. We typically use World Courier to ship live mice and FedEx for other shipments.

◆ Animal Programs

All animal work is conducted in our specific pathogen free (SPF) facilities that have been AAALAC accredited and OLAW assured. For details information, please visit our support section for Description of our FacilityAnimal Health and Animal Welfare Program.

◆ Customer References

Please click here to view a map of customer who have used Cyagen before worldwide. 

◆ Citations

Please click here for a list of publications that have cited Cyagen.

◆ Case studies on our Knockout Mice

Case 1

Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.
Cell Death and Disease 47: 107–117 (2017)
Leonard JD, Gilmore DC, Dileepan T, Nawrocka WI, Chao JL, Schoenbach MH, Jenkins MK, Adams EJ, Savage PA

Abstract

Regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 are critical for the prevention of autoimmunity and the suppression of anti-tumor immunity. The major self-antigens recognized by Treg cells remain undefined, representing a substantial barrier to the understanding of immune regulation. Here, we have identified natural Treg cell ligands in mice. We found that two recurrent Treg cell clones, one prevalent in prostate tumors and the other associated with prostatic autoimmune lesions, recognized distinct non-overlapping MHC-class-II-restricted peptides derived from the same prostate-specific protein. Notably, this protein is frequently targeted by autoantibodies in experimental models of prostatic autoimmunity. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model in which Treg cell responses at peripheral sites converge on those self-proteins that are most susceptible to autoimmune attack, and we suggest that this link could be exploited as a generalizable strategy for identifying the Treg cell antigens relevant to human autoimmunity.

>> See More <<

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Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.IMMUNITY 47:107 (2017) IF=22.845

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Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.IMMUNITY 47:107 (2017) IF=22.845

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“I’ve been very happy with Cyagen’s service so I’ve been referring a lot of colleagues… thanks for the great service.”Washington University in St. Louis

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Understanding Different Virus VectorsChoosing a Fluorescent ProteinUnderstanding Different Virus Vectors

The most common viral vectors used in biomedical research are lentivirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV) and retroviruses, and each vector type has distinct advantages and disadvantages.

Considerations

Many different factors affect the ideal vector type for each experiment. Some of the key things to consider include: What is the target cell type? Are they dividing? Do you want transient transduction or stable integration into the host genome? Will an immune response to the virus affect your experiment? What transduction efficiency is needed?

 LentivirusRetrovirusAdenovirusAAV
TropismBroadBroadIneffective on some cell typesBroad
Can infect non-dividing cells?YesNoYesYes
Stable integrationStably integrateStably integrateTransient, episomalTransient, episomal
Maximal titerHighModerateVery HighHigh
Immune responseLowModerateHighVery low

Lentivirus

This is the most common viral system for gene delivery. Lentivirus is a highly efficient vehicle for introducing genes permanently into mammalian cells. This system has broad tropism (i.e. can infect a wide range of cell types) for both dividing and non-cycling cells, with relatively low cellular immune response. Live lentivirus can be produced at high titer (>108 TU/ml), and transduction efficiency for cultured cells can approach 100% under optimal conditions.

Retrovirus

Similar to lentivirus are retrovirus such as MMLV (Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus). These viruses also have broad tropism and stably integrate into the host cell genome, allowing long-term, stable gene expression. However, MMLV does not efficiently infect non-dividing cells, and can produce a more significant cellular immune response than lentivirus. Additionally, the viral titer of MMLV and similar retrovirus is usually only about one tenth that of lentivirus.

Adenovirus

These viral vectors are non-integrating, remaining in an episomal state within infected target cells, with no disruption of the host genome. Expression of transduced genes is usually transient, particularly in rapidly dividing cells which will lose adenovirus over time. Many cell types (both diving and non-dividing) can be transduced with adenovirus, but certain cell types lack the appropriate cell surface receptor, and cannot be efficiently transduced. Cellular and in vivo immune responses due to adenoviral infection can be significant, and may interfere with certain experiments. Adenovirus can be produced at very high titer (>109 TU/ml) which allows for very efficient transduction of susceptible target cells.

Adeno-associated virus

AAV is another non-integrating, episomal virus usually producing transient gene expression. Unlike adenovirus, AAV has very low immunogenicity and is almost entirely nonpathogenic in vivo. A major practical advantage is that AAV can in most cases be handled in biosafety level 1 (BSL1) facilities. This viral vector has broad tropism, toward both dividing and non-dividing cells, and the relatively high titer of most AAV preparations makes this an efficient gene delivery system.

References

  1. Warnock JN, Daigre C, Al-Rubeai M. (2011) Introduction to viral vectors. Methods Mol Biol. 737:1-25
  2. Walther W and Stein U. (2000) Viral vectors for gene transfer: a review of their use in the treatment of human diseases. Drugs 60:249-71

Choosing a Fluorescent Protein

For single-color experiments, green-emitting fluorescent proteins (FP) are the most common choices. Although EGFP is the most popular green FP, EmGFP (Emerald GFP) is a better choice for most applications due to its superior folding. If a red FP is preferred, mCherry is a very good choice for most experiments. The brighter dTomato works well in situations where dimerization of the FP is acceptable.

For multicolor experiments, researchers must carefully consider the spectral properties of FPs. Care must be taken that the FPs (and dyes used in the experiments) are distinguishable using the microscope filters or other hardware that will be used for detection. Frequently, three-color experiments will make use of a red and a green FP (e.g. mCherry + EGFP), together with a DNA dye such as DAPI. Another effective multicolor scheme would include a red, a yellow, and a cyan FP (mCherry + YPet + CyPet). These FP combinations are easily separable on most fluorescence microscopes or flow cytometers.

Recommendations: Single Color: mCherry or dTomato or EmGFP or EGFP

Three-color (Red, Green, Blue): mCherry + EmGFP or EGFP + DAPI (DNA dye)

Three-color (Red, Yellow, Cyan): mCherry + YPet + CyPet

Special Applications

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a specialized application of FPs that is highly dependent on experimental details, such as an appropriate FP pair and relative positioning of the FPs within the protein structure. CyPet and YPet are optimized FPs developed for use as a donor/acceptor pair, and we recommend this pair as a starting point for FRET experients.

Fluorescent Protein Properties

Notes: * In practice, many factors can influence brightness in the context of an experiment (e.g. FP maturation, pH, photobleaching). This value is based on experimental measurements of purified FPs under idealized conditions.

References

  1. Cubitt, A.B., L.A. Woollenweber, and R. Heim, Understanding structure-function relationships in the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein. Meth Cell Biol, 1999. 58: p. 19-30.
  2. Heim R, Cubitt AB, Tsien RY. Improved green fluorescence. Nature. 1995 Feb 23;373(6516):663-4.
  3. Cormack BP, Valdivia RH, Falkow S. FACS-optimized mutants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Gene. 1996;173(1 Spec No):33-8.
  4. Ward WW, Cormier MJ. An energy transfer protein in coelenterate bioluminescence. Characterization of the Renilla green-fluorescent protein. J Biol Chem. 1979 Feb 10;254(3):781-8.
  5. Strack RL, Strongin DE, Bhattacharyya D, Tao W, Berman A, Broxmeyer HE, Keenan RJ, Glick BS. A noncytotoxic DsRed variant for whole-cell labeling. Nat Methods. 2008 Nov;5(11):955-7.
  6. Shaner, N.C. et al., Improved monomeric red, orange, and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein. Nat Biotechnol, 2004.
  7. Campbell RE, Tour O, Palmer AE, Steinbach PA, Baird GS, Zacharias DA, Tsien RY. A monomeric red fluorescent protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 11;99(12):7877-82.
  8. Nguyen AW, Daugherty PS. Evolutionary optimization of fluorescent proteins for intracellular FRET. Nat Biotechnol. 2005 Mar;23(3):355-60.

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Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.IMMUNITY 47:107 (2017) IF=22.845

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rapid knockout with crispr technology
It has been difficult to knockout a gene function in rats until recently when engineered nucleases (especially CRISPR/Cas9) have been successfully applied to gene targeted animal generation. When gRNA(s) designed to target specific site(s) in the rat genome and Cas9 are co-injected into fertilized rat eggs, cleavage at the target site(s) followed by imperfect repair can result in indels (insertion or deletion). If the cut site is in the coding region of a gene, this will result in a frameshift mutation downstream of the site, generating a constitutive knockout. If deletion of exon(s) encoding critical domains is desirable, two gRNAs targeting sites upstream and downstream of the exon(s) can be co-injected with Cas9 and knockout rats with critical region deletion can be generated. We guarantee delivery of a minimum of 2 founders or 3 F1 animals for knockout.

Discount of the Decade Event: Save up to 25% on all custom animal models

 ◆ Workflow of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Knockout Rat Services

workflow of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout rat services
◆ Description of Services

Knockout strategy design

Tell us the name of gene you wish to knockout, and we will design a nuclease-mediated strategy that meets your research needs. This includes the selection of target sites in the gene based on our optimized algorithm that maximizes on-target nuclease activity and minimizes off-target reactivity, and the design of nuclease expressing vector(s). For each gene, we will design vectors against at least two target sites in the gene to ensure success. Genotyping assays based on PCR and sequencing will also be designed for the screening of founder rats.

Nuclease expression vector construction

DNA vectors that express the desired nucleases will be constructed. Where needed, the efficacy of these vectors will be tested in cell culture.

Nuclease injection into rat eggs

– Preparation of nuclease mRNA: Nuclease expression vectors will be transcribed in vitro. The resulting mRNA will be artificially capped and polyadenylated to facilitate its proper translation into protein in mammalian cells.

– Nuclease injection to obtain founders: The nuclease mRNA(s) will be injected into fertilized rat eggs, followed by implantation of the eggs into surrogate mothers to obtain offspring. In cases where the nuclease expression vectors are designed and constructed by Cyagen, we will inject as many eggs and/or target as many sites as needed to fulfill the guarantee. In cases where the nuclease expression vectors (or their mRNA products) are provided by the customer, we will inject a minimum of 200/300 eggs (based on strain) and screen pups for founders carrying desired mutation. If no founders are identified, more injections can be performed at an additional charge.

Founder screening

Pups will be screened by PCR and sequencing to identify founder rats. Specifically, the site targeted by the nucleases will be PCR-amplified, followed by sequencing of the PCR product to reveal any mutations that might have occurred. Rats carrying frameshift deletions/insertions or critical exon(s) deletion on at least one allele are considered knockout founders. Occasionally, an animal can have both alleles of the target site mutated.

Breeding founders to obtain F1

For some projects, the generation of founder knockout rats is the end point. However, some customers wish to have us breed the founders further to obtain F1 rats. We will breed up to 3 founders to wildtype rats of matching strain background, and genotype their offspring to obtain F1 rats bearing the knockout allele.

◆ Donor Strain Information

We typically produce CRISPR-mediated knockout rats in SD or Long Evans strain background, but we may be able to use other strains per your request.

>> Mouse models are also available. Learn more about CRISPR Knockout Mouse Services.

◆ Pricing and Turnaround Time

For projects where nuclease expression vectors are constructed by Cyagen

StagesServicePriceTurnaround time
1Knockout strategy designFree1-4 days
2Nuclease expression vector construction for knockout$1,9503-5 weeks
3mRNA preparation$9501-2 weeks
4CRISPR/Cas9 injection to obtain knockout foundersSD$15,0007-12 weeks
Long Evans$17,0007-16 weeks
5Genotyping pups to identify knockout founders$9501-2 weeks
6Off-target analysis$5951-2 weeks
7Breeding founders to obtain F1$3,15012-18 weeks

Note: For nuclease-mediated knockout rat services not listed above, please inquire about availability and pricing. The turnaround time above does not include the time for obtaining host institution’s approval for rat importation and transit time during shipping.

◆ Guarantee

Cyagen offers the best guarantee in the industry – we guarantee generation of constitutive knockout rats. We will fully refund the client’s service fee if animals with the specified genotype are not generated (except for genetic modifications severely affecting viability, morbidity, or fertility). Given the complexity of biological systems, a particular genetic modification may not result in the desired phenotype. As such, Cyagen’s guarantee covers the creation of animals with the specified genotype, not a particular phenotypic outcome in terms of transcription, protein/RNA function, or organismal biology.

◆ Inquiries and Quote Requests

Request a quote now. Alternatively, you can always email animal-service@cyagen.com or call 800-921-8930 to inquire about our services or obtain a quote for your project.

 Price Matching

If you find another commercial service provider that offers better pricing than ours, we will match the price plus an additional 5% off.

◆ Payments

Standard payment terms include a 50% upfront payment before the project, and the remaining 50% plus shipping charge paid after completion of the project. If you need us to design your knockout strategy, we will provide this service for free irrespective of whether you end up choosing us for your project.

◆ Bulk Discount

We offer up to 10% bulk discount for large orders. Large orders are defined as 5 or more projects from the same institution. If you bundle your order with that of your colleagues, you can all qualify for the bulk discount.

◆ Shipping

Products are shipped from our facility in China to our Santa Clara, California facility, then are relayed to end users. For rat shipments, the shipping charge includes courier cost plus a $100/crate handling fee. DNA constructs in E. coli are shipped at room temperature, and the charge includes courier cost plus a $10 handling fee. We typically use World Courier to ship live rats and FedEx for other shipments.

◆ Animal Programs

All animal work is conducted in our specific pathogen free (SPF) facilities that have been AAALAC accredited and OLAW assured. For details information, please visit our support section for Description of our FacilityAnimal Health and Animal Welfare Program.

◆ Customer References

Please click here to view a map of customer who have used Cyagen before worldwide. 

◆ Citations

Please click here for a list of publications that have cited Cyagen.

Follow this link if you are looking for another customized rat model.

For business development and collaboration opportunities, please contact us:

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hashtag#Grant applications just got less stressful with Cyagen! Cyagen’s experts can provide a letter of support for your hashtag#research grant proposal, backing the integrity of custom genetic animal model(s) & clarifying their significance for review boards. Learn how Cyagen can support your next grant application: https://lnkd.in/ev7juw9…visualizar maisVisualizar traduçãoContact Cyagen for Grant Supportcyagen.com • 1 min de leituraR01 applications just got less stressful with Cyagen! If you are considering applying for a grant, r…

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Read our newest Technical Bulletin to learn how custom mouse models from hashtag#Cyagen have been used to study the specific roles hashtag#nestin plays across NSCs, the hashtag#cytoskeleton, tendon differentiation, and hashtag#tenogenesis. Whether your research involves the study of nestin – or additional compounds that have been implicated in a number of cellular processes – the development of an appropriate rodent model can provide the investigative platform to help corroborate your next hashtag#research breakthrough & identify new areas of potential hashtag#therapeutics. hashtag#animalmodels…visualizar maisVisualizar traduçãoDifferentiating the Biological Functions of Nestin with Transgenic Micecyagen.com • 4 min de leituraSince the identification of the intermediate filament (IF), nestin, it has been used as a marker for…GosteiComentarCompartilhar

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Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Jun;55(6 Suppl):1225S-1230S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/55.6.1225S.

Diseases and aging: patterns of morbidity with age; relationship between aging and age-associated diseases.

Vellas BJ1Albarede JLGarry PJ.

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Abstract

Patterns of morbidity with age can be schematically represented in three situations: 1) as a progressive illness, such as Alzheimer’s disease, leading to a relatively rapid functional decline. 2) as a catastrophic event, such as a stroke or hip fracture, leading to a decline in function with improvement after rehabilitation. 3) as normal aging with gradual progressive functional decline. Results from the New Mexico Aging Process Study provide some unique insights about the consequences of the effects of aging on the nutritional status of healthy elderly people. Between 1979 and 1989, anthropometric and biochemical markers as well as dietary intakes remained relatively constant in this healthy elderly population. Thus, the aging process alone may have little or no important consequences on the nutritional status of healthy elderly individuals. However, the adaptation of pancreatic and intestinal function to undernutrition and refeeding can be perturbed in these individuals.PMID: 1590261 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/55.6.1225S[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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Laboratory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchFor other uses, see Lab and Laboratory (disambiguation).A medical laboratory run by the Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology of China Medical University (Taiwan)Molecular Biology Technics Laboratory at Faculty of Biology of Adam Mickiewicz University in PoznanA workbench in a chemistry laboratoryThe Schuster LaboratoryUniversity of Manchester (a physics laboratory)

laboratory (UK/ləˈbɒrətəri/US/ˈlæbərətɔːri/; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Laboratory services are provided in a variety of settings: physicians offices, clinics, hospitals, and regional and national referral centers.[1]

Contents

Overview[edit]

Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist’s laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientistscomputers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories as well to design, build, and test technological devices.

Scientific laboratories can be found as research room and learning spaces in schools and universitiesindustrygovernment, or military facilities, and even aboard ships and spacecraft.Laboratory, Brecon County School for Girls

Despite the underlying notion of the lab as a confined space for experts,[2] the term “laboratory” is also increasingly applied to workshop spaces such as Living LabsFab Labs, or Hackerspaces, in which people meet to work on societal problems or make prototypes, working collaboratively or sharing resources.[3][4][5] This development is inspired by new, participatory approaches to science and innovation and relies on user-centred design methods[6] and concepts like Open innovation or User innovation,.[7][8] One distinctive feature of work in Open Labs is phenomena of translation, driven by the different backgrounds and levels of expertise of the people involved.[9]

History[edit]

Early instances of “laboratories” recorded in English involved alchemy and the preparation of medicines.[10]

The emergence of Big Science during World War II increased the size of laboratories and scientific equipment, introducing particle accelerators and similar devices.

The early laboratories[edit]

The earliest laboratory according to the present evidence is a home laboratory of Pythagoras of Samos, the well-known Greek philosopher and scientist. This laboratory was created when Pythagoras conducted an experiment about tones of sound and vibration of string.[11]

In the painting of Louis Pasteur by Albert Edelfelt in 1885, Louis Pasteur is shown comparing a note in his left hand with a bottle filled with a solid in his right hand, and not wearing any personal protective equipment.[12]

Researching in teams started in the 19th century, and many new kinds of equipment were developed in the 20th century.[13]

A 16th century underground alchemical laboratory was accidentally discovered in the year 2002. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor was believed to be the owner. The laboratory is called Speculum Alchemiae and is preserved as a museum in Prague.[14]

Techniques[edit]

Laboratory techniques are the set of procedures used on natural sciences such as chemistrybiologyphysics to conduct an experiment, all of them follow the scientific method; while some of them involve the use of complex laboratory equipment from laboratory glassware to electrical devices, and others require more specific or expensive supplies.

Equipment and supplies[edit]

Three beakers, an Erlenmeyer flask, a graduated cylinder and a volumetric flask

Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory:

The classical equipment includes tools such as Bunsen burners and microscopes as well as specialty equipment such as operant conditioning chambersspectrophotometers and calorimeters.Chemical laboratories

Molecular biology laboratories + Life science laboratories

Laboratory equipment is generally used to either perform an experiment or to take measurements and gather data. Larger or more sophisticated equipment is generally called a scientific instrument.

Specialized types[edit]

The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include:

Safety[edit]

Main article: Laboratory safetyAn eyewash station in a laboratory.Geneticist Riin Tamm wearing protective lab coat

In many laboratories, hazards are present. Laboratory hazards might include poisonsinfectious agentsflammableexplosive, or radioactive materials; moving machinery; extreme temperatureslasers, strong magnetic fields or high voltage. Therefore, safety precautions are vitally important. Rules exist to minimize the individual’s risk, and safety equipment is used to protect the lab users from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, recognizing the unique characteristics of the laboratory workplace, has tailored a standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. This standard is often referred to as the “Laboratory Standard”. Under this standard, a laboratory is required to produce a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) which addresses the specific hazards found in its location, and its approach to them.

In determining the proper Chemical Hygiene Plan for a particular business or laboratory, it is necessary to understand the requirements of the standard, evaluation of the current safety, health and environmental practices and assessment of the hazards. The CHP must be reviewed annually. Many schools and businesses employ safety, health, and environmental specialists, such as a Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) to develop, manage, and evaluate their CHP. Additionally, third party review is also used to provide an objective “outside view” which provides a fresh look at areas and problems that may be taken for granted or overlooked due to habit.

Inspections and audits like also be conducted on a regular basis to assess hazards due to chemical handling and storage, electrical equipment, biohazardshazardous waste managementchemical waste, housekeeping and emergency preparedness, radiation safety, ventilation as well as respiratory testing and indoor air quality. An important element of such audits is the review of regulatory compliance and the training of individuals who have access to and/or work in the laboratory. Training is critical to the ongoing safe operation of the laboratory facility. Educators, staff and management must be engaged in working to reduce the likelihood of accidents, injuries and potential litigation. Efforts are made to ensure laboratory safety videos are both relevant and engaging.[15]

Organization[edit]

Organization of laboratories is an area of focus in sociology. Scientists consider how their work should be organized, which could be based on themes, teams, projects or fields of expertise. Work is divided, not only between different jobs of the laboratory such as the researchers, engineers and technicians, but also in terms of autonomy (should the work be individual or in groups).[16] For example, one research group has a schedule where they conduct research on their own topic of interest for one day of the week, but for the rest they work on a given group project.[17] Finance management is yet another organizational issue.

The laboratory itself is a historically dated organizational model. It came about due to the observation that the quality of work of researchers who collaborate is overall greater than a researcher working in isolation. From the 1950s, the laboratory has evolved from being an educational tool used by teachers to attract the top students into research, into an organizational model allowing a high level of scientific productivity.

Some forms of organization in laboratories include:

  • Their size: Varies from a handful of researches to several hundred.
  • The division of labor: “Occurs between designers and operatives; researchers, engineers and technicians; theoreticians and experimenters; senior researchers, junior researchers and students; those who publish, those who sign the publications and the others; and between specialities.” [18]
  • The coordination mechanisms: Which includes the formalization of objectives and tasks; the standardization of procedures (protocols, project management, quality management, knowledge management), the validation of publications and cross-cutting activities (number and type of seminars).

There are three main factors that contribute to the organizational form of a laboratory :

  • The educational background of the researchers and their socialization process.
  • The intellectual process involved in their work, including the type of investigation and equipment they use.
  • The laboratory’s history.

Other forms of organization include social organization.

Social organization[edit]

A study by Richard H.R. Harper, involving two laboratories, will help elucidate the concept of social organization in laboratories. The main subject of the study revolved around the relationship between the staff of a laboratory (researchers, administrators, receptionists, technicians etc.) and their Locator. A Locator is an employee of a Laboratory who is in charge of knowing where each member of the laboratory currently is, based on a unique signal emitted from the badge of each staff member. The study describes social relationships among different classes of jobs, such as the relationship between researchers and the Locator. It does not describe the social relationship between employees within a class, such as the relationship between researchers.

Through ethnographic studies, one finding is that, among the personnel, each class (researchers, administrators…) has a different degree of entitlement, which varies per laboratory. Entitlement can be both formal or informal (meaning it’s not enforced), but each class is aware and conforms to its existence. The degree of entitlement, which is also referred to as a staff’s rights, affects social interaction between staff. By looking at the various interactions among staff members, we can determine their social position in the organization. As an example, administrators, in one lab of the study, do not have the right to ask the Locator where the researchers currently are, as they are not entitled to such information. On the other hand, researchers do have access to this type of information. So a consequence of this social hierarchy is that the Locator discloses various degrees of information, based on the staff member and their rights. The Locator does not want to disclose information that could jeopardize his relationship with the members of staff. The Locator adheres to the rights of each class.

Social hierarchy is also related to attitudes towards technologies. This was inferred based on the attitude of various jobs towards their lab badge. Their attitude depended on how that job viewed their badge from a standpoint of utility, (how is the badge useful for my job) morality (what are my morals on privacy, as it relates to being tracked by this badge) and relations (how will I be seen by others if I refuse to wear this badge). For example, a receptionist would view the badge as useful, as it would help them locate members of staff during the day. Illustrating relations, researchers would also wear their badge due to informal pressures, such as not wanting to look like a spoil-sport, or not wanting to draw attention to themselves.

Another finding is the resistance to change in a social organization. Staff members feel ill at ease when changing patterns of entitlement, obligation, respect, informal and formal hierarchy, and more.

In summary, differences in attitude among members of the laboratory are explained by social organization: A person’s attitudes are intimately related to the role they have in an organization. This hierarchy helps understand information distribution, control, and attitudes towards technologies in the laboratory.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Laboratory Structure and Function
  2. ^ Latour, Bruno (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  3. ^ Flaherty, Joe (May 14, 2012). “Ford + TechShop: Getting Employees to Tinker”Wired.
  4. ^ Burress, Charles (December 22, 1997). “A Tinkerer’s Paradise in Berkeley / Young, old inventors are offered tools, techniques and inspiration”SF Chronicle.
  5. ^ Carlson, Adam (September 5, 2013). “Top 8 Tools for Building a Personal Prototyping Laboratory”EE Times.
  6. ^ ISO 13407:(1999), titled Human-centred design processes for interactive systems, is an ISO Standard providing Guidance on human-centred design activities throughout the life cycle of interactive computer-based systems.
  7. ^ Von Hippel, E. (1986). Lead users: a source of novel product concepts. Management Science 32, 791–805.
  8. ^ Chesbrough, H.W. (2003). Open Innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  9. ^ Fritzsche, A (2017). “Corporate Foresight in Open Laboratories – A Translational Approach”. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management30 (6): 646–657. doi:10.1080/09537325.2017.1380180.
  10. ^ “laboratory”Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.): “Originally: a room or building for the practice of alchemy and the preparation of medicines. Later: one equipped for carrying out scientific experiments or procedures, esp. for the purposes of research, teaching, or analysis; (also) one in which chemicals or drugs are manufactured.”
  11. ^ “World’s Oldest Laboratory”. Analytical Chemistry62 (13): 701A. 30 May 2012. doi:10.1021/ac00212a716.
  12. ^ Schummer, Joachim; Spector, Tami I (July 2007). “The Visual Image of Chemistry: Perspectives from the History of Art and Science”Hyle: International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry(1): 3–41.
  13. ^ Lowe, Derek (27 May 2015). “Laboratory history: The chemistry chronicles”. Nature521 (7553): 422. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..422Ldoi:10.1038/521422a.
  14. ^ “Museum of Alchemy”Speculum Alchemiae.
  15. ^ Michael L. Matson; Jeffrey P. Fitzgerald; Shirley Lin (October 1, 2007). “Creating Customized, Relevant, and Engaging Laboratory Safety Videos”. Journal of Chemical Education84 (10): 1727. Bibcode:2007JChEd..84.1727Mdoi:10.1021/ed084p1727.
  16. ^ Vinck, Dominique (2010). The sociology of scientific work. The Lypiatts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. pp. 83, 97–100.
  17. Jump up to:a b Harper, Richard H.R (1992). Looking at Ourselves: An Examination of the Social Organisation of Two Research Laboratories. Cambridge: Reprinted as Rank Xerox Technical Report EPC–92–108. pp. 330–337.
  18. ^ The sociology of scientific work p98

External links[edit]

Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Laboratory.
showvteLaboratory equipment
Authority control GND4033927-0LCCNsh85073739NARA10638987

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