WHY MICE FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH? @ ´´Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 17th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure.[2] During the 18th century Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier both used mice to study respiration. In the 19th century Gregor Mendel carried out his early investigations of inheritance on mouse coat color but was asked by his superior to stop breeding in his cell “smelly creatures that, in addition, copulated and had sex”.[2] He then switched his investigations to peas but, as his observations were published in a somewhat obscure botanical journal, they were virtually ignored for over 35 years until they were rediscovered in the early 20th century. In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel’s laws of inheritance were also valid for animals — results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species.[2] In the early part of the 20th century, Harvard undergraduate Clarence Cook Little was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle.´´

Do the downloads!! Share!! The diffusion of very important information and knowledge is essential for the world progress always!! Thanks!!

  • – > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics´´My´´ Dissertation @ #Innovation #energy #life #health #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo´´My´´ Dissertation Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laboratory_mouse

MICE RESEARCH – HISTORY & PLACES – COUNTRIES – CONTACTS:

GenScript – Make Research Easy – https://www.genscript.com/contact.html

Cyagenhttps://www.cyagen.com/us/en/service/crispr-based-genome-editing-knockout-mice.html?gclid=Cj0KCQiAoIPvBRDgARIsAHsCw08X9PSwbuDgqpeTqdZC88CPqIanUizDuprB1X_z0ZY0jsx9fUDxgrIaArwdEALw_wcB https://www.cyagen.com/us/en/about-us/contact-us.html

Cyagen – Tel:877-598-8122 or +1 408-969-0306 (Int’l) (8am-6pm Pacific Time)Email:animal-service@cyagen.com (Animal Model Services)cell-service@cyagen.com (Cell Products and Services)

The Jackson Laboratoryhttps://www.jax.org/contact-jax

EUROPEAN ANIMAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONhttp://eara.eu/en/contact-us/

Kent Scientific Corporation – Innovative Research Solutions for Mice & Rats @ Kent Scientific provides integrated, modular solutions for small animal pre-clinical research and drug discovery advancement. https://www.kentscientific.com/ordering-information/ https://www.kentscientific.com/

https://www.jax.org/about-us/why-mice

https://www.linkedin.com/company/the-jackson-laboratory/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson_Laboratory

https://www.jax.org/about-us

https://www.facebook.com/JacksonLaboratory

https://www.youtube.com/user/TheJacksonlab?sub_confirmation=1

https://www.instagram.com/jaxlab/

https://www.jax.org/clinical-genomics/maine-cancer-genomics-initiative

https://www.jax.org/research-and-faculty/research-centers

https://www.jax.org/research-and-faculty/research-overview

https://www.jax.org/personalized-medicine

https://www.jax.org/jax-mice-and-services/find-and-order-jax-mice

https://www.jax.org/

  • I DID VERY INTERESTING, INNOVATIVE, IMPORTANT AND DETAILED GRAPHICS ABOUT VARIATIONS OF ALL MICE WEIGHTS OF DIFFERENT AGES DURING ALL EXPERIMENTAL TIME OF ´´MY´´ DISSERTATION. THEY´RE AVAILABLE IN THIS BLOG AND ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY!! THE DIFFUSION OF RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE IS ALWAYS ESSENTIAL FOR A COUNTRY PROGRESS. NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES NEED TO EMERGE URGENTLY !! BELOW YOU CAN DO DOWNLOAD OF THESE GRAPHICS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATED TO SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION. SO, SHARE THESE GRAPHICS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS TO OTHER PEOPLE KNOW ABOUT IT AND PERHAPS USE THEM AS AN EXCELLENT REFERENCE IN THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. @ PERSON – PEOPLE – ANALYSIS – TIME – DATA – GRAPHICS – RESEARCHES – VISION – READING – SPEAKING – LISTENIG – INFORMATION – KNOWLEDGE – INTENTIONS – INNOVATIONS – CHANGES – DATA INTERPRETATIONS – NEW INNOVATIONS – INTERNET – BOOKS – GRAPHICS INTERPRETATIONS – GRAPHICS COMPARISONS – INFLUENCES – TIME – SUBSTANCES – DRUGS – VACCINES – NEW MEDICAL DEVICES – WORLD HISTORY – NEW TECHNOLOGIES – HUMAN ENERGY – WORK – NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES – SCIENCE – GRAPHICS ANALYSIS – AGES – AGE – GENETICS – PHYSIOLOGY – MIND – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY – STATISTICS – BIOSTATISTICS – HUMAN LONGEVITY

Mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Sciene_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO_AF2 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 1 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 2 – ´´my´´ dissertation

Slides – mestrado – ´´my´´ dissertation

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´my´´ dissertation

Positive Feedbacks by Facebook and Twitter about this Blog, like the very important, innovative and detailed graphics I did about variations of all mice weights (Control and Study Groups) of different ages during all experimental time of ´´my´´ dissertation. Note: I have received positive feedbacks about this Blog by LinkedIn, E-mails and Instagram too. @ Internet invitations I received by direct messages to participate in very important science events worldwide in less than 1 year because I participated of great researches in Brazil and other informations @ Links & The next step in nanotechnology | George Tulevski & Animated Nanomedicine movie @ Nanotechnology Animation & Powering Nanorobots & The World’s Smallest Robots: Rise of the Nanomachines & Building Medical Robots, Bacteria sized: Bradley Nelson at TEDxZurich @ Mind-controlled Machines: Jose del R. Millan at TEDxZurich & The present and future of brain-computer interfaces: Avi Goldberg at TEDxAsheville & Future of human/computer interface: Paul McAvinney at TEDxGreenville 2014 @ Bio-interfaced nanoengineering: human-machine interfaces | Hong Yeo | TEDxVCU @ Very important images, websites, social networks and links – https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/17/feedbacks-on-facebook-related-to-researches-i-participated-in-brazil-for-example-the-graphics-i-did-about-variations-of-all-mice-weights-control-and-study-groups-of-different-ages-during-all-exper/

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

monografia – ´´my´´ monograph

Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação pelo Messenger – Facebook. Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Facebook – Messenger. Ano – Year: 2018

My suggestion of a very important Project…

rodrigonunescal_dissertation

Apostila – Pubmed

LISTA DE NOMES – PEOPLE´S NAMES – E-MAIL LIST – LISTA DE E-MAILS

A Psicossomática Psicanalítica

O Homem como Sujeito da Realidade da Saúde – Redação

ÁCIDO HIALURONICO

As credenciais da ciência (1)

Aula_Resultados – Results

Frases que digitei – Phrases I typed

Nanomedicina – Texto que escrevi. Nanomedicine – Text I typed(1)

Nanomedicine123(2)57

Genes e Epilepsia

MÉTODOS DE DOSAGEM DO ÁCIDO HIALURÔNICO

microbiologia-famerp – Copia

Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Sciene_Journals

Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Messenger (Facebook). Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação, blog e canal do YouTube pelo Facebook (Messenger) Year / Ano: 2018 – positive-feedback-of-people-about-my-dissertation-blog-and-youtube-channel-by-facebook-messenger-ano-year-2018

Jackson Laboratory

WHY MICE FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH?

We are getting more and more biological and genomic data from people all the time, but for most applications — including true scientific discovery — those data aren’t effective for developing new medical advances. Why?

As humans, we are wildly variable from birth, with significant genetic differences between individuals. We live in different environments, eat different foods, sleep at different times — every aspect of how we live affects our response to a drug or other treatment. With our long average life span, it would take decades to uncover anything useful about aging and associated diseases. And, there are myriad ethical issues that prevent researchers from influencing human inheritance, controlling daily environment or behavior, or fully investigating our biology. Clearly there needs to be a different experimental subject.

The best models — stand-in surrogates for humans and our diseases — are mice.  

Unlike inbred strains, Diversity Outbred (DO) mice are genetically diverse, allowing more accurate modeling of the human population.

The impact of mouse-based research on biological discovery and medical progress over the past century has been profound. Read the background of most Nobel Prizes awarded in Physiology or Medicine and you’ll find mice used for the research  — in fact, 26 Nobel Prizes can be directly tied to JAX® Mice. 

Today, mice are more important than ever to research. Mice and humans are strikingly similar — genetically and biologically. They get most of the same diseases we do. With groundbreaking genome sequencing and genetic engineering capabilities, we can now create mice that have exactly the same mutations that human patients have. We can observe them throughout their lifetimes to see how environmental, pharmaceutical or other variables affect health and life span. We can even mimic human genetic variability with populations of mice that are deliberately quite genetically different. Introducing a variable — a new drug, for example — leads to different responses. With mice, researchers can readily track the genetics that underlie those differences and use their findings to inform drug development, and more accurate clinical trials.

Mice are the key filling in the blanks of human genomics, and their presence in research is vital for the development of new diagnostics, treatments, and preventative actions. 

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Jackson Laboratory

BE A CATALYST

Make your Giving Tuesday gift last beyond one day.MAKE A GIFTPress ReleaseHow do gliomas evolve?Tech CornerAddressing the urgent need for training in data scienceResearch HighlightImproving transgene research with split selectable markersMighty mice in spaceA study onboard the International Space Station will help scientists understand how to prevent muscle and bone loss in astronauts during space flight.

Maine Cancer Genomics Initiative

ADVANCED CARE FOR MAINE’S MOST ISOLATED CANCER PATIENTS

The Jackson Laboratory’s partnership with the Jefferson Cary Cancer Center brings Maine Cancer Genomics Initiative options to Aroostook County.LEARN MORE 

Sheng Li, The Jackson Laboratory

COMPUTING THE ETIOLOGY OF CANCER

What if, much like screening through genetic testing, we could learn how to better treat individual patients through their unique epigenetic markers? This is the question that Assistant Professor Sheng Li, Ph.D. tackles in her lab every day.LEARN MORE 

JAX® MICE & SERVICES

Breeding and Rederivation Services

LEARN MORE

In Vivo Pharmacology

LEARN MORE

Mouse Cryopreservation, Recovery and Strain Submission

LEARN MORE

Surgical and Preconditioning Services

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JAX mice phone number is 1-800-422-6423
JAX mice phone number is 1-800-422-6423

FIND OR ORDER JAX MICE

Advanced Mice Search

Search for Mice

JAX 2020 CALENDARAdventure awaits, for those who desire, reserve your calendar before this offer expiresORDER NOW

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Jackson Laboratory

FIND & ORDER MICE

find and order jax mice

JAX® Mice are the most published and well characterized mouse models in the world. Our most popular mouse models are readily available in the quantities you need to support your biomedical and drug discovery research.Advanced Mice Search

Search for Mice

JAX 2020 CALENDARAdventure awaits, for those who desire, reserve your calendar before this offer expiresORDER NOWBARRIER LEVELS
The Jackson Laboratory maintains animal facilities at several barrier levels that ensure the health and well-being of our animal colonies.
LEARN MOREANIMAL HEALTH PROGRAM
The Jackson Laboratory is committed to setting quality standards in animal care and ensuring that these standards are maintained throughout all of our mouse colonies.
LEARN MOREINNOVATIVE DISEASE MODELING USING NSG™ MICE
Learn why the portfolio of NSG™ models are the most versatile immunodeficient strains for oncology and drug discovery research.
LEARN MORESPECIAL OFFERS & VOLUME PRICING
Take advantage of special offers and volume pricing made possible by our research mission.
LEARN MOREHUMANIZED MICENSG™ and NSG™-SGM3 Mice engrafted with human hematopoetic stem cells represent powerful tools for studying oncology, infectious disease, and hematopoiesis and are helping accelerate the development of novel therapies.LEARN MOREAGING SERVICESLearn how JAX can age and deliver mice to you when they reach an age appropriate for your research.LEARN MORE

MOUSE SERVICES

Surgical and Preconditioning Services

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Jackson Laboratory

PERSONALIZED MEDICINE

It’s time to accelerate medical progress.

Since its inception, The Jackson Laboratory has led the discovery of causes, treatments and cures for some of humankind’s most devastating genetic diseases. Today, we are speeding the path of discovery from the laboratory bench to clinical care. We are combining the skills and knowledge of our scientists with our institutional strengths in disease modeling and bioinformatics, connecting genetics to genomics, and using our unparalleled knowledge of mouse models of disease to understand the human condition.

JAX research programs are leading efforts to improve human health worldwide.

ADDICTION

Addiction is a chronic illness, with genetic, environmental and social aspects. JAX researchers are at the forefront of understanding the genetic factors involved in individuals’ vulnerability to addiction. How do sleep and social interaction affect addiction?Innovative AI technology captures mouse sleep and social behaviors for the study of their influence on drug intake and addiction.

AGING

JAX researchers are using genomic technologies and specialized mouse models to decipher the changes that occur as a consequence of aging in order to extend our health span, delay age-related health issues, repair damaged organs and improve our quality of life. Looking for clues to longer, healthier life$7.9 million grant to JAX scientists extend an important testing program for age-retarding agents

ALZHEIMER’S AND OTHER DEMENTIAS

Using genomic technologies and specialized mouse models to develop preventative therapies, JAX scientists aim to stop Alzheimer’s before it starts. Amy Dunn: WunderkindSTAT taps Jackson Laboratory postdoc Amy Dunn for 2019 class of future science superstars.

CANCER

Driven by the desire to eradicate cancer, we are leading the future of cancer treatments by combining computational expertise with our unparalleled knowledge of mouse genetics. Making a difference for rural cancer patientsDr. Jens Rueter and the Maine Cancer Genomics Initiative are providing advanced genomic tools to oncology practices throughout Maine.

DIABETES

JAX researchers investigate the processes that lead to failure to produce insulin in type 1 diabetes and loss of insulin production in type 2 diabetes. Investigating the details of type 2 diabetes onsetA new study published in Nature sets a new precedent for understanding the development of type 2 diabetes, and it provides a trove of data for ongoing research.

MICROBIOME

JAX researchers are exploring the effect on health and disease of the microorganisms that outnumber human cells 10 to 1. The microbiome and the nursing homeJAX, UConn researchers explore how patients’ microbiome, and risk of infection, change after time in a skilled nursing facility.

RARE DISEASES

About 80 percent of rare diseases are genetic in origin, about half affect children, many are fatal, and very few have cures. The path to personalized treatments for rare diseasesThe genetic study of rare diseases is giving us insight into how to examine and treat more common diseases, said JAX experts at a recent JAXtaposition event in Portland, ME.GIVE TO JAXYOU CAN HELP

  • Personalized medicine and youWe identify the genetic and molecular bases of disease and marshal our strengths in genomics and disease modeling to discover individualized treatments and cures so that medicine is more precise, predictable and personal.

Personal Stories

  • A rare disease calls for a special mouse modelFor the rarest of rare genetic conditions, a one-of-a-kind mouse could light a path to new treatments.
  • The Gene DetectiveBy harnessing the most advanced data-mining tools, JAX Professor Carol Bult is leading the hunt for suspect genes that contribute to a common, deadly birth defect.
  • A Cure for CarolineJAX Professor Robert Burgess and collaborators are developing personalized gene therapy for a Texas child suffering from a neuromuscular disease.

GIVE NOW

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Jackson Laboratory

RESEARCH OVERVIEW

More than 2,200 employees are working toward one goal — to discover precise genomic solutions for disease and empower the global biomedical community in our shared quest to improve human health.

The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) is a world leader in mammalian genetics and human genomics research. Founded in 1929 in Bar Harbor, Maine, The Jackson Laboratory is an independent, non-profit research institution with locations in Maine, Connecticut, California and Shanghai.

Long renowned for its mice and data resources used for biomedical research around the globe, JAX provides a unique bridge across experimental, translational and clinical contexts. More than 70 multi-disciplinary research faculty collaborate together to integrate mouse genetics and human genomics to understand the underlying causes of human health and disease. There are no research departments within JAX, facilitating an environment of intra-institutional collaborative science. The result is a multi-disciplinary, impactful research program that provides a broad scope for inquiry and catalyzes discovery across the spectrum of basic, translational and preclinical research. 

In addition to research supported by the NIH, DOD, and foundation funding sources, generous philanthropic donations have led to the establishment of eight new endowed faculty chairs since 2013. The chairs provide leading faculty members with additional support to take their research in bold and innovative directions. Current chair holders investigate the microbiome, computational genomics, 4D genomic structure, reproductive biology, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and glaucoma.

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Jackson Laboratory

ABOUT THE JACKSON LABORATORY

Empowering research for a disease-free life. 

A UNIQUE ORGANIZATION, A MISSION THAT MATTERS.

Our mission is bold: to discover precise genomic solutions for disease and empower the global biomedical community in the shared quest to improve human health.

Quote from Edison T. Liu, President and CEO of The Jackson Laboratory

The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) is making a new future of human health and personalized medicine possible — using an individual’s unique genomic makeup to predict, treat and even prevent disease.

Founded in 1929, JAX is an independent, 501(c)3 nonprofit biomedical research institution that seeks to decipher the biological and genomic causes of human disease— by using the mouse as our model.

Our research breakthroughs have helped form the foundation of modern medicine. Organ and bone marrow transplants, stem cell therapies, and in vitro fertilization all have a foundation in JAX research.

Today, JAX is integrating mouse genetics and human genomics to decipher the genetic and molecular causes of human health and disease.

JAX uniquely amplifies the efforts of the global biomedical research community. We develop and share our research, innovative tools and solutions, ever‑expanding data resources, more than 11,000 specialized mouse models and services, and a suite comprehensive educational programs to empower basic scientific research and speed drug discovery across the globe.

Celebrating 90 years at The Jackson Laboratory

BY THE NUMBERS

90

Years

2,200+

Employees

75+

Principal Investigators

1

Mission

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Your gift to The Jackson Laboratory supports our mission to discover precise genomic solutions for disease and empower the global biomedical community in our shared quest to improve human health.

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RESEARCH CENTERS

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Jackson Laboratory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search

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Established1929
TypeNonprofit Organization Research Institute
LeaderEdison Liu
Staff2100
Websitejax.org

Located near scenic Frenchman Bay on Mount Desert Island, Maine, The Jackson Laboratory is a nonprofit biomedical research institution.

The Jackson Laboratory (often abbreviated as JAX) is an independent, nonprofit biomedical research institution dedicated to contributing to a future of better health care based on the unique genetic makeup of each individual. With more than 2,100 employees in Bar Harbor, MaineSacramento, California; and at a new genomic medicine institute in Farmington, Connecticut; the Laboratory’s mission is to discover precise genomic solutions for disease and empower the global biomedical community in the shared quest to improve human health.[1] The institution is a National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center and has NIH centers of excellence in aging and systems genetics.

The laboratory is also the world’s source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice, is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database and is an international hub for scientific courses, conferences, training and education.[2]

Contents

Major research areas[edit]

Jackson Laboratory research, represented by the activities of more than 60 laboratories, performs research in six areas:

  • Cancer: The Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center (JAXCC) has a National Cancer Institute designated Cancer Center. Cancer areas of focus include: brain, leukemia, lung, lymphoma, prostate, breast; cancer initiation and progression; cancer prevention and therapies
  • Development/Reproductive Biology: birth defects, Down syndrome, osteoporosis, fertility
  • Immunology: HIV-AIDS, anemia, autoimmunity, cancer immunology, immune system disorders, lupus, tissue transplant rejection, vaccines
  • Metabolic diseases: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity
  • Neurobiology: blindness, Alzheimer’s, deafness, epilepsy, glaucoma, macular degeneration, neurodegenerative diseases
  • Neurobehavioral disorders: autism, addiction, depression

History[edit]

Contemporary research highlights[edit]

  • A grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences funds the development of new computational tools to understand how multiple genes interact in complex diseases.
  • The National Institute on Aging provides $25 million to develop new treatments, future therapies based on precision modeling.
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) funds phase 2 of the Knockout Mouse Production and Phenotyping Project (KOMP2).[3]
  • A charitable contribution of $8,410,000 from the Harold Alfond Foundation will support The Jackson Laboratory’s efforts to enhance cancer diagnostics and treatment in Maine.
  • Researchers link mutations to butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy, an inherited macular disease [4]
  • Jackson Laboratory researchers discover mutation involved in neurodegeneration
  • The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine opens in Farmington, CT.[5]

Historic research highlights[edit]

The Jackson Laboratory was founded in 1929 in Bar Harbor, Maine, by former University of Maine and University of Michigan president C. C. Little under the name Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory.[6] (Roscoe B. Jackson was a one-time head of the Hudson Motor Company who helped provide the funds for the first laboratory building at the property and the first five years of operation.)[7]

  • Established that cancer is a genetic disorder, a novel concept before the Laboratory’s founding in 1929.
  • Dr. Leroy Stevens first described cells that can develop into different tissues – today known as stem cells.
  • Dr. Elizabeth Russell performed the first bone marrow transplants in a mammal, leading to new treatments for blood and immunological diseases.
  • Dr. George Snell won the Nobel Prize in 1980 for providing an in-depth understanding of the immune system’s major histocompatibility complex, making organ transplants possible.
  • Dr. Douglas L. Coleman discovered the hormone leptin, central to obesity and diabetes research, earning him the Shaw Prize, the Albert Lasker Award, the Gairdner International Award, Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Biomedicine, and the King Faisal International Prize in Medicine.
  • Is pioneering the use of cancer avatars – mice with implanted human tumors – to test targeted therapies for cancer patients.

Recent research has provided insight into cancer stem cells and treatments for leukemia; progress with type 1 diabetes and lupus; and a breakthrough in extending mammalian life span.

The Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center[edit]

The Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center (JAXCC) first received its National Cancer Institute designation in 1983 in recognition of the foundational cancer research conducted there. The JAXCC is one of seven NCI-designated Cancer Centers with a focus on basic research.

The Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center has a single program, “Genetic Models for Precision Cancer Medicine,” composed of three biological themes: cancer cell robustness, genomic and genetic complexity, and progenitor cell biology. The themes emphasize the systems genetics of cancer and translational cancer genomics, and all are supported by the JAX Cancer Center’s technological initiatives in mouse modeling, genome analytics and quantitative cell biology.

The Morrell Park fire[edit]

On May 10, 1989, a flash fire destroyed the Morrell Park mouse production facility.[8] The fire raged for five hours, requiring over 100 firefighters from 15 companies and a total of 16 trucks for the fire to be contained. Four workers of the Colwell Construction Company who were installing fiberglass wallboard in the room where the fire broke out were injured, one with burns over 15 percent of his body. While none of the foundation strains were lost, 300,000 production mice (about 50% of their stock) died, resulting in a national shortage of laboratory mice and the layoff of 60 employees.[9]

This was the second fire to severely affect the laboratory; the 1947 fire that burned most of the island destroyed most of the laboratory, and its mice. Worldwide donations of funds and mice allowed the lab to resume operations in 1948.[10]

Research resources[edit]

  • Hosts the Mouse Genome Informatics database, by far the world’s most significant source for information on mouse genetics and biology.
  • Distributes more than 3 million JAX® mice annually to more than 20,000 investigators in at least 50 countries for research and drug discovery.
  • Offers more than 11,000 genetically defined strains of JAX® mice to the international research community.
  • Provides animal husbandry, reproductive science and in vivo drug efficacy services in a wide range of therapeutic areas for biomedical researchers.
  • Conducts over 100 educational seminars and webinars yearly to educate and enable external biomedical researchers.

Educational programs[edit]

  • Summer Student Program has brought thousands of talented high school and college students to campus over 89 years for mentoring, including three who later won Nobel Prizes: David BaltimoreHoward Temin and Jack Szostak.
  • Nearly 700 students, researchers and physicians attend Laboratory courses, conferences and workshops annually.
  • Participates in three collaborative degree programs: the Tufts University Ph.D. program in Genetics, the Ph.D. program in Biomedical Sciences of the University of Maine, and the Master’s of Science in Teaching program of the University of Maine.
  • Offers predoctoral and postdoctoral training programs and a visiting scientists program.
  • Coordinates and hosts the Maine State Science Fair for high school students.

Business model[edit]

The Jackson Laboratory is recognized by the IRS as a public charity.[11] According to organization literature, revenue comes primarily from the sale of materials and services (~70%) and from government support (~25%).[12] Less than 5% of 2012 revenue came from charitable donations.[12]

Notable researchers[edit]

Controversy[edit]

In 2013, a jury in Maine found that Jackson Laboratory did not violate that state’s whistleblower protection law when they fired an employee who claimed to have been terminated after reporting her concerns about the treatment of animals to the National Institutes of Health Office for Laboratory Animal Welfare. The worker accused the laboratory of “allowing mice to suffer and then die in their cages instead of euthanizing them” and of cutting off the toes of mice to identify them. Jackson laboratory denied the allegations and said the worker was fired for her confrontational demeanor.[13]

In 2009, Jackson Laboratory was fined $161,680 by the EPA for improperly handling and storing hazardous materials.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “About The Jackson Laboratory”. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  2. ^ “JAX Mice and Research Services Provided Through Charles River”Criver.com. Retrieved 2016-01-10.
  3. ^ “Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP)”The Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2017-07-16.
  4. ^ Hollander, Anneke I. den; Nishina, Patsy M.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Peachey, Neal S.; Leroy, Bart P.; Roepman, Ronald; Boon, Camiel J. F.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Simonelli, Francesca; Banfi, Sandro; Walraedt, Sophie; Baere, Elfride De; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; Moorsel, Tamara W. van; Neveling, Kornelia; Letteboer, Stef J.; Charette, Jeremy R.; Collin, Gayle B.; Rowe, Lucy; Shi, Lanying; Yu, Minzhong; Hicks, Wanda; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E.; Krebs, Mark P.; Saksens, Nicole T. M. (1 February 2016). “Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity”Nature Genetics48 (2): 144–151. doi:10.1038/ng.3474PMC 4787620. Retrieved 23 June 2019 – via http://www.nature.com.
  5. ^ STURDEVANT, MATTHEW. “Jackson Lab Opens To Big Hopes For Bioscience Growth”Courant.com. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  6. ^ “The Jackson Laboratory Milestones: 1900 – 1929”The Jackson Laboratory Timeline. Jackson Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2006-09-25. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
  7. ^ “85 Years of Discovery”. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2019-03-24.
  8. ^ Harbour, Kathy (August 21, 1989). “Probable causes given for Jackson Lab fire”Bangor Daily News (Hancock County ed.). p. 8. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
  9. ^ Mathewson, Judy (June 26, 1989). “Debris Cleared, Jackson Begins Recovery From Fire”The Scientist. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
  10. ^ “The Jackson Laboratory Milestones: 1940 – 1949”The Jackson Laboratory Timeline. Jackson Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2006-09-25. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
  11. ^ “Exempt Organizations Select Check” (search results). IRSEIN 01-0211513. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  12. Jump up to:a b “2012 Annual Report” (PDF). Retrieved December 14,2014.
  13. ^ Trotter, Bill (3 June 2013). “Former worker who accused Jackson Lab of mistreating mice loses whistleblower lawsuit”. BDN Maine. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  14. ^ Trotter, Bill (2 April 2009). “Jackson Laboratory to pay $161,680 EPA fine”. Bangor Daily News. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
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Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.IMMUNITY 47:107 (2017) IF=22.845

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Knockout Mice

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crispr cas9 knockout mice
Engineered nuclease-mediated genome editing (especially CRISPR/Cas9) is an emerging technology which can serve as an alternative to the conventional, ES cell homologous recombination-based knockout (KO) animal generation. When gRNA(s) designed to target specific site(s) in the mouse genome and Cas9 are co-injected into fertilized mouse eggs, cleavage at the target site(s) followed by imperfect repair can result in indels (insertion or deletion). If the cut site is in the coding region of a gene, this may result in a frameshift mutation downstream of the site, generating a constitutive knockout. If deletion of exon(s) encoding critical domains is desirable, two gRNAs targeting sites upstream and downstream of the exon(s) can be co-injected with Cas9 and knockout pups with critical region deletion can be generated. Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 system can generate constitutive knockout founder animals in as little as 3 months, far faster than the typical 8~12 months required for conventional knockout mice generation with ES cell homologous recombination. We guarantee delivery of a minimum of 2 founders or 3 F1 animals for knockout.

Discount of the Decade Event: Save up to 25% on all custom animal models

 ◆ Workflow of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Knockout (KO) Mouse Services

workflow of CRISPR/Cas9 knockout mouse services - Cyagen US Inc.

◆ Description of Services

Knockout (KO) strategy design

Tell us the name of gene you wish to knockout and we will design a nuclease-mediated strategy for you. This includes the selection of target sites in the gene based on our optimized algorithm that maximizes on-target nuclease activity and minimizes off-target activity, and the design of nuclease expression vector(s). For each gene to be knocked out, we will design vectors against at least two target sites in the gene to ensure success. Genotyping assays based on PCR and sequencing will also be designed for the screening of knockout founder mice.

Nucleases expression vector construction

DNA vectors that express the desired nucleases will be constructed. Where needed, the efficacy of these vectors will be tested in cell culture.

Nuclease injection into mouse eggs

– mRNA preparation: Nuclease expression vectors will be transcribed in vitro. The resulting mRNA will be artificially capped and polyadenylated to facilitate its proper translation into protein in mammalian cells.

– Nuclease injection to obtain founders: The in vitro transcribed nuclease mRNA(s) will be injected into fertilized mouse eggs, followed by implantation of the eggs into surrogate mothers to obtain offspring. In cases where the nuclease expression vectors are designed and constructed by Cyagen, we will inject as many eggs and/or target as many sites as needed to fulfill the guarantee. In cases where the nuclease expression vectors (or their mRNA products) are provided by the customer, we will inject a minimum of 200/300 eggs (based on strain) and screen pups for founders carrying desired mutation. If no founders are identified, more injections can be performed at an additional charge.

Founder screening

Pups will be screened by PCR and sequencing to identify knockout founder mice. Specifically, the site targeted by the nucleases will be PCR-amplified, followed by sequencing of the PCR product to reveal any mutations that might have occurred. Mice carrying frameshift deletions/insertions or critical exon(s) deletion on at least one allele are considered knockout founders. Occasionally, an animal may be found to have both alleles of the target site mutated.

Breeding founders to obtain F1

For some projects, the generation of founder mice is the end point. However, some customers wish to have us breed the founders further to obtain F1 mice. We will breed up to 3 founders to wildtype mice of matching strain background, and genotype their offspring to obtain F1 mice bearing the knockout allele.

◆ Donor Strain Information

We typically produce CRISPR-mediated knockout mice in the C57BL/6 and FVB background, but we may be able to use other strains per your request.

>> Rat models are also available. Learn more about CRISPR Knockout Rat Services.

◆ Pricing and Turnaround Time

For projects where nuclease expression vectors are constructed by Cyagen

StagesServicePriceTurnaround time
1Knockout strategy designFree1-4 days
2Nuclease expression vector construction for knockout$1,9503-5 weeks
3mRNA preparation$9501-2 weeks
4CRISPR/Cas9 injection to obtain knockout foundersFVB$5,9506-8 weeks
C57BL/6$9,9506-10 weeks
5Genotyping pups to identify knockout founders$9501-2 weeks
6Off-target analysis$5951-2 weeks
7Breeding founders to obtain F1$2,45012-16 weeks

 Note: For nuclease-mediated knockout mouse services not listed above, please inquire about availability and pricing. The turnaround time above does not include the time for obtaining host institution’s approval for mouse importation, nor transit time during shipping.

◆ Guarantee

Cyagen offers the best guarantee in the industry – we guarantee generation of constitutive knockout mice. We will fully refund the client’s service fee if animals with the specified genotype are not generated (except for genetic modifications severely affecting viability, morbidity, or fertility). Given the complexity of biological systems, a particular genetic modification may not result in the desired phenotype. As such, Cyagen’s guarantee covers the creation of animals with the specified genotype, not a particular phenotypic outcome in terms of transcription, protein/RNA function, or organismal biology.

◆ Inquiries and Quote Requests

Request a quote now. Alternatively, you can always email animal-service@cyagen.com or call 877-598-8122 to inquire about our services or obtain a quote for your project.

◆ Price Matching

If you find another commercial service provider that offers better pricing than ours, we will match the price plus an additional 5% off.

◆ Payments

Standard payment terms include a 50% upfront payment before the project begins, and the remaining 50% plus shipping charge paid after completion of the project. If you need us to design your knockout strategy, we will provide this service for free irrespective of whether you end up choosing us for your project. 

◆ Bulk Discount

We offer up to a 10% bulk discount for large orders. Large orders are defined as 5 or more projects from the same institution. If you bundle your orders with those of your colleagues, you can all qualify for the bulk discount.

◆ Shipping

Products are shipped from our facility in China to our Santa Clara, California facility, then are relayed to end users. For mouse shipments, the shipping charge includes courier cost plus a $100/crate handling fee. DNA constructs in E. coli are shipped at room temperature, and the charge includes courier cost plus a $10 handling fee. We typically use World Courier to ship live mice and FedEx for other shipments.

◆ Animal Programs

All animal work is conducted in our specific pathogen free (SPF) facilities that have been AAALAC accredited and OLAW assured. For details information, please visit our support section for Description of our FacilityAnimal Health and Animal Welfare Program.

◆ Customer References

Please click here to view a map of customer who have used Cyagen before worldwide. 

◆ Citations

Please click here for a list of publications that have cited Cyagen.

◆ Case studies on our Knockout Mice

Case 1

Identification of Natural Regulatory T Cell Epitopes Reveals Convergence on a Dominant Autoantigen.
Cell Death and Disease 47: 107–117 (2017)
Leonard JD, Gilmore DC, Dileepan T, Nawrocka WI, Chao JL, Schoenbach MH, Jenkins MK, Adams EJ, Savage PA

Abstract

Regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 are critical for the prevention of autoimmunity and the suppression of anti-tumor immunity. The major self-antigens recognized by Treg cells remain undefined, representing a substantial barrier to the understanding of immune regulation. Here, we have identified natural Treg cell ligands in mice. We found that two recurrent Treg cell clones, one prevalent in prostate tumors and the other associated with prostatic autoimmune lesions, recognized distinct non-overlapping MHC-class-II-restricted peptides derived from the same prostate-specific protein. Notably, this protein is frequently targeted by autoantibodies in experimental models of prostatic autoimmunity. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model in which Treg cell responses at peripheral sites converge on those self-proteins that are most susceptible to autoimmune attack, and we suggest that this link could be exploited as a generalizable strategy for identifying the Treg cell antigens relevant to human autoimmunity.

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Laboratory mouse

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchAn albino SCID laboratory mouseA laboratory mouse with intermediate coat colour

The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research. Laboratory mice are usually of the species Mus musculus. They are the most commonly used mammalian research model and are used for research in geneticspsychologymedicine and other scientific disciplines. Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues.[1]

Other mouse species sometimes used in laboratory research include the American white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus).

Contents

History as a biological model[edit]

Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 17th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure.[2] During the 18th century Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier both used mice to study respiration. In the 19th century Gregor Mendel carried out his early investigations of inheritance on mouse coat color but was asked by his superior to stop breeding in his cell “smelly creatures that, in addition, copulated and had sex”.[2] He then switched his investigations to peas but, as his observations were published in a somewhat obscure botanical journal, they were virtually ignored for over 35 years until they were rediscovered in the early 20th century. In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel’s laws of inheritance were also valid for animals — results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species.[2]

In the early part of the 20th century, Harvard undergraduate Clarence Cook Little was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers.[3] Together they generated the DBA (Dilute, Brown and non-Agouti) inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains.[4] The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st Centuries.[2]

The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine is currently one of the world’s largest suppliers of laboratory mice, at around 3 million mice a year.[5] The laboratory is also the world’s source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database.[6]

Reproduction[edit]

1 day old pups

Breeding onset occurs at about 50 days of age in both females and males, although females may have their first estrus at 25–40 days. Mice are polyestrous and breed year round; ovulation is spontaneous. The duration of the estrous cycle is 4–5 days and lasts about 12 hours, occurring in the evening. Vaginal smears are useful in timed matings to determine the stage of the estrous cycle. Mating can be confirmed by the presence of a copulatory plug in the vagina up to 24 hours post-copulation. The presence of sperm on a vaginal smear is also a reliable indicator of mating.[7]

The average gestation period is 20 days. A fertile postpartum estrus occurs 14–24 hours following parturition, and simultaneous lactation and gestation prolongs gestation by 3–10 days owing to delayed implantation. The average litter size is 10–12 during optimum production, but is highly strain-dependent. As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. The young are called pups and weigh 0.5–1.5 g (0.018–0.053 oz) at birth, are hairless, and have closed eyelids and ears. Pups are weaned at 3 weeks of age when they weigh about 10–12 g (0.35–0.42 oz). If the female does not mate during the postpartum estrus, she resumes cycling 2–5 days post-weaning.[7]

Newborn males are distinguished from newborn females by noting the greater anogenital distance and larger genital papilla in the male. This is best accomplished by lifting the tails of littermates and comparing perinea.[7]

Genetics and strains[edit]

Mice are mammals of the clade (a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants) Euarchontoglires, which means they are amongst the closest non-primate relatives of humans along with lagomorphstreeshrews, and flying lemurs.

EuarchontogliresGliresRodentia (rodents)  Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas)  EuarchontaScandentia (treeshrews) PrimatomorphaDermoptera (flying lemurs)   Primates (†PlesiadapiformesStrepsirrhiniHaplorrhini)    

Laboratory mice are the same species as the house mouse, however, they are often very different in behaviour and physiology. There are hundreds of established inbredoutbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in which all members are as nearly as possible genetically identical. In laboratory mice, this is accomplished through inbreeding. By having this type of population, it is possible to conduct experiments on the roles of genes, or conduct experiments that exclude genetic variation as a factor. In contrast, outbred populations are used when identical genotypes are unnecessary or a population with genetic variation is required, and are usually referred to as stocks rather than strains.[8][9] Over 400 standardized, inbred strains have been developed.[citation needed]

Most laboratory mice are hybrids of different subspecies, most commonly of Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus. Laboratory mice can have a variety of coat colours, including agouti, black and albino. Many (but not all) laboratory strains are inbred. The different strains are identified with specific letter-digit combinations; for example C57BL/6 and BALB/c. The first such inbred strains were produced in 1909 by Clarence Cook Little, who was influential in promoting the mouse as a laboratory organism.[10] In 2011, an estimated 83% of laboratory rodents supplied in the U.S. were C57BL/6 laboratory mice.[11]

Genome[edit]

Sequencing of the laboratory mouse genome was completed in late 2002 using the C57BL/6 strain. This was only the second mammalian genome to be sequenced after humans.[11] The haploid genome is about three billion base pairs long (3,000 Mb distributed over 19 autosomal chromosomes plus 1 respectively 2 sex chromosomes), therefore equal to the size of the human genome. Estimating the number of genes contained in the mouse genome is difficult, in part because the definition of a gene is still being debated and extended. The current count of primary coding genes in the laboratory mouse is 23,139.[12] compared to an estimated 20,774 in humans.[12]

Mutant and transgenic strains[edit]

Two mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under UV-illumination flanking one plain mouse from the non-transgenic parental line.Comparison of a knockout Obese mouse (left) and a normal laboratory mouse (right).

Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods. A small selection from the many available strains includes –

Since 1998, it has been possible to clone mice from cells derived from adult animals.

Appearance and behaviour[edit]

Laboratory mice have retained many of the physical and behavioural characteristics of house mice, however, due to many generations of artificial selection some of these characteristics now vary markedly. Due to the large number of strains of laboratory mice, it is impractical to comprehensively describe the appearance and behaviour of all these, however, they are described below for two of the most commonly used strains.

C57BL/6[edit]

A female C57BL/6 laboratory mouseMain article: C57BL/6

C57BL/6 mice have a dark brown, nearly black coat. They are more sensitive to noise and odours and are more likely to bite than the more docile laboratory strains such as BALB/c.[14]

Group-housed C57BL/6 mice (and other strains) display barbering behaviour, in which the dominant mouse in a cage selectively removes hair from its subordinate cage mates.[15] Mice that have been barbered extensively can have large bald patches on their bodies, commonly around the head, snout, and shoulders, although barbering may appear anywhere on the body. Both hair and vibrissae may be removed. Barbering is more frequently seen in female mice; male mice are more likely to display dominance through fighting.[16]

C57BL/6 has several unusual characteristics which make it useful for some research studies but inappropriate for others: It is unusually sensitive to pain and to cold, and analgesic medications are less effective in this strain.[17] Unlike most laboratory mouse strains, the C57BL/6 drinks alcoholic beverages voluntarily. It is more susceptible than average to morphine addictionatherosclerosis, and age-related hearing loss.[11]

BALB/c[edit]

Main article: BALB/cBALB/c laboratory mice

BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain from which a number of common substrains are derived. With over 200 generations bred since 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation.[18]

BALB/c are noted for displaying high levels of anxiety and for being relatively resistant to diet-induced atherosclerosis, making them a useful model for cardiovascular research.[19][20]

Male BALB/c mice are aggressive and will fight other males if housed together. However, the BALB/Lac substrain is much more docile.[21] Most BALB/c mice substrains have a long reproductive life-span.[18]

There are noted differences between different BALB/c substrains, though these are thought to be due to mutation rather than genetic contamination.[22] The BALB/cWt is unusual in that 3% of progeny display true hermaphroditism.[23]

Husbandry[edit]

Laboratory mouse (note the ear tag)

Handling[edit]

Traditionally, laboratory mice have been picked up by the base of the tail. However, recent research has shown that this type of handling increases anxiety and aversive behaviour.[24] Instead, handling mice using a tunnel or cupped hands is advocated. In behavioural tests, tail-handled mice show less willingness to explore and to investigate test stimuli, as opposed to tunnel-handled mice which readily explore and show robust responses to test stimuli.[25]

Nutrition[edit]

In nature, mice are usually herbivores, consuming a wide range of fruit or grain.[26] However, in laboratory studies it is usually necessary to avoid biological variation and to achieve this, laboratory mice are almost always fed only commercial pelleted mouse feed. Food intake is approximately 15 g (0.53 oz) per 100 g (3.5 oz) of body weight per day; water intake is approximately 15 ml (0.53 imp fl oz; 0.51 US fl oz) per 100 g of body weight per day.[7]

Injection procedures[edit]

Routes of administration of injections in laboratory mice are mainly subcutaneousintraperitoneal and intravenousIntramuscular administration is not recommended due to small muscle mass.[27] Intracerebral administration is also possible. Each route has a recommended injection site, approximate needle gauge and recommended maximum injected volume at a single time at one site, as given in the table below:

RouteRecommended site[27]Needle gauge[27]Maximal volume[28]
subcutaneousdorsum, between scapula25-26 ga2-3 ml
intraperitonealleft lower quadrant25-27 ga2-3 ml
intravenouslateral tail vein27-28 ga0.2 ml
intramuscularhindlimb, caudal thigh26-27 ga0.05 ml
intracerebralcranium27 ga

To facilitate intravenous injection into the tail, laboratory mice can be carefully warmed under heat lamps to vasodilate the vessels.[27]

Anaesthesia[edit]

A common regimen for general anesthesia for the house mouse is ketamine (in the dose of 100 mg per kg body weight) plus xylazine (in the dose of 5–10 mg per kg), injected by the intraperitoneal route.[29] It has a duration of effect of about 30 minutes.[29]

Euthanasia[edit]

Approved procedures for euthanasia of laboratory mice include compressed CO
2 gas, injectable barbiturate anesthetics, inhalable anesthetics, such as Halothane, and physical methods, such as cervical dislocation and decapitation.[30] In 2013, the American Veterinary Medical Association issued new guidelines for CO
2 induction, stating that a flow rate of 10% to 30% volume/min is optimal for euthanasing laboratory mice.[31]

Pathogen susceptibility[edit]

A recent study detected a murine astrovirus in laboratory mice held at more than half of the US and Japanese institutes investigated.[32] Murine astrovirus was found in nine mice strains, including NSGNOD-SCIDNSG-3GSC57BL6Timp-3−/−uPA-NOGB6J, ICR, Bash2, and BALB/C, with various degrees of prevalence. The pathogenicity of the murine astrovirus was not known.

Legislation in research[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the UK, as with all other vertebrates and some invertebrates, any scientific procedure which is likely to cause “pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm” is regulated by the Home Office under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. UK regulations are considered amongst the most comprehensive and rigorous in the world.[33] Detailed data on the use of laboratory mice (and other species) in research in the UK are published each year.[34] In the UK in 2013, there were a total of 3,077,115 regulated procedures on mice in scientific procedure establishments, licensed under the Act.[35]

United States[edit]

In the US, laboratory mice are not regulated under the Animal Welfare Act administered by the USDA APHIS. However, the Public Health Service Act (PHS) as administered by the National Institutes of Health does offer a standard for their care and use. Compliance with the PHS is required for a research project to receive federal funding. PHS policy is administered by the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare. Many academic research institutes seek accreditation voluntarily, often through the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, which maintains the standards of care found within The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the PHS policy. This accreditation is however not a prerequisite for federal funding, unlike the actual compliance.[36]

Limitations[edit]

While mice are by far the most widely used animals in biomedical research, recent studies have highlighted their limitations.[37] For example, the utility of rodents in testing for sepsis,[38] burns,[38] inflammation,[38] stroke,[39][40] ALS,[41][42][43] Alzheimer’s disease,[44] diabetes,[45][46] cancer,[47][48][49][50][51] multiple sclerosis,[52] Parkinson’s disease,[52] and other illnesses has been called into question by a number of researchers. Regarding experiments on mice, some researchers have complained that “years and billions of dollars have been wasted following false leads” as a result of a preoccupation with the use of these animals in studies.[37]

An article in The Scientist notes, “The difficulties associated with using animal models for human disease result from the metabolic, anatomic, and cellular differences between humans and other creatures, but the problems go even deeper than that” including issues with the design and execution of the tests themselves.[40]

For example, researchers have found that many mice in laboratories are obese from excess food and minimal exercise which alters their physiology and drug metabolism.[53] Many laboratory animals, including mice, are chronically stressed which can also negatively affect research outcomes and the ability to accurately extrapolate findings to humans.[54][55] Researchers have also noted that many studies involving mice are poorly designed, leading to questionable findings.[40][42][43]

Some studies suggests that inadequate published data in animal testing may result in irreproducible research, with missing details about how experiments are done are omitted from published papers or differences in testing that may introduce bias. Examples of hidden bias include a 2014 study from McGill University which suggests that mice handled by men rather than women showed higher stress levels.[5][56][57] Another study in 2016 suggested that gut microbiomes in mice may have an impact upon scientific research.[58]

Market size[edit]

The world-wide market for gene-altered mice is predicted to grow to $1.59 billion by 2022, growing at a rate of 7.5 percent per year.[59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). “Superfamily Muroidea”. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 894–1531. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.
  • Nyby J. (2001). “Ch. 1 Auditory communication in adults”. In Willott, James F. (ed.). Handbook of Mouse Auditory Research: From Behavior to Molecular Biology. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 3–18.

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