About my Dissertation @ EDITORIAL 20 MARCH 2019 – Nature 567, 283 (2019) – ´´It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance – Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better. If researchers do discard statistical significance, what should they do instead? They can start by educating themselves about statistical misconceptions. Most important will be the courage to consider uncertainty from multiple angles in every study. Logic, background knowledge and experimental design should be considered alongside P values and similar metrics to reach a conclusion and decide on its certainty.´´Projects that have crowdsourced analyses of a data set to diverse teams suggest that this approach can work to validate findings and offer new insights.´´When working out which methods to use, researchers should also focus as much as possible on actual problems. People who will duel to the death over abstract theories on the best way to use statistics often agree on results when they are presented with concrete scenarios.´´ @ Very Important Observations: 1. Cancer is very related to the weight loss of the patient. 2. Age and genetics of the person are very important factors that influence cancer. ´´The mouse is the main animal model used as the basis for research on diseases that affect humans.´´The genetics of the mouse is very similar to that of the human. & Physicists Have Identified a Metal That Conducts Electricity But Not Heat @ Novo método detecta câncer de próstata por meio da urina @ Link about my Monograph – Links about ´´My´´ Dissertation @ Link about Animal Models Diseases like Cardiovascular Diseases & https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00874-8

Do the downloads !!! Share!! Thanks!!

´´The world people need to have very efficient researches and projects resulting in very innovative drugs, vaccines, therapeutical substances, medical devices and other technologies according to the age, the genetics and medical records of the person. So, the treatment, disgnosis and prognosis will be very efficient and better, of course´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2021/08/14/do-the-downloads-of-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-data-of-the-world-about-my-dissertation-like-the-graphics-i-did-about-the-variations-of-weights-of-all-mice-control/

Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1

GRUPO_AF2

GRUPO AFAN 1

GRUPO AFAN 2

Slides – mestrado

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

 

https://www.sciencealert.com/physicists-identify-a-metal-that-conducts-electricity-but-not-heat?fbclid=IwAR355f_wuh9s26FgF2GFylzZd-FwtP3SmP3dvSGKBLcOr-pFO-PSLBQqijM

Very important observations: 1. Cancer is very related to the weight loss of the patient. 2. Age and genetics of the person are very important factors that influence cancer. ´´The mouse is the main animal model used as the basis for research on diseases that affect humans.´´The genetics of the mouse is very similar to that of the human.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683274

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225286318_The_influence_of_physical_activity_in_the_progression_of_experimental_lung_cancer_in_mice

Click to access slides-mestrado-final.pdf

-CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS -DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

-Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

Click to access rodrigonunescal_dissert.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683274

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0344033812001082

https://www.journals.elsevier.com/pathology-research-and-practice

https://www.researchgate.net/scientific-contributions/76406552_Rodrigo_Nunes_Cal

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225286318_The_influence_of_physical_activity_in_the_progression_of_experimental_lung_cancer_in_mice

https://www.researchgate.net/scientific-contributions/76406552_Rodrigo_Nunes_Cal?_sg=ZIpVjGGv7eVzEc9yJ9aPkTMGB6pMQsrWx29bFgaQAZqbcOeBtkDU9nJbgRH4EGlpmSGNWbF7nSuHpA

* Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics – Gráficos detalhistas e importantes que fiz sobre as variações dos pesos de todos os camundongos durante todo o período experimental / Detailed and important graphics I did about variations of all mice weights during all experimental time @ Esses gráficos podem servir como uma excelente referência para futuras pesquisas científicas envolvendo animais de experimentação, por exemplo, na área de engenharia genética. These graphics can be an excellent reference for future scientific researches using experimental animals, for example, in the field of genetic engineering.

Details about time of exercise and rest of the animals.

-GRUPO – GROUP -> AFAN 1

-GRUPO – GROUP -> AFAN 2

-GRUPO – GROUP -> AF1

-GRUPO – GROUP ->_AF2

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Paceli RB1Cal RNdos Santos CHCordeiro JANeiva CMNagamine KKCury PM-Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

RESUMO

Introdução: O câncer de pulmão é uma das neoplasias mais incidentes no mundo, sendo a principal causa de mortalidade por câncer. Muitos estudos epidemiológicos têm sugerido que a atividade física pode reduzir o risco do câncer de pulmão, outros trabalhos avaliaram a eficácia da utilização da atividade física na supressão, remissão e redução da recorrência de tumores. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia no desenvolvimento e na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental. Material e Métodos: Os tumores de pulmão foram induzidos com uma dose de 3mg de uretana/kg, em 67 camundongos Balb-C, divididos em três grupos: Grupo 1 – 24 camundongos tratados com uretana e sem atividade física; Grupo 2 – 25 camundongos tratados com uretana e submetidos ao exercício aeróbio em natação; Grupo 3 – 18 camundongos tratados com uretana, submetidos ao exercício anaeróbio em natação com carga gradual de 5 a 20% do peso corporal. Todos os animais foram sacrificados após 20 semanas, e as lesões pulmonares foram analisadas. Resultados: A mediana do número de lesões (nódulos e hiperplasias) foi de 3,0 para o grupo 1, 2,0 para o grupo 2 e 1,5 para o grupo 3 (p = 0,052). Quando comparado apenas a presença ou ausência de lesão, houve uma diminuição no número de lesões no grupo 3 em comparação com o grupo 1 (p = 0,03), mas não em relação ao grupo 2. Não houve metástases ou outras alterações em outros órgãos. Conclusão: A atividade física anaeróbia, mas não a aeróbia, diminuiu a incidência dos tumores de pulmão experimental.

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Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice.

Paceli RB1Cal RNdos Santos CHCordeiro JANeiva CMNagamine KKCury PM.

Author information

1School of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto – FAMERP, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Brazil.

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.PMID: 22683274 DOI: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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Elsevier

Pathology – Research and Practice

Volume 208, Issue 7, 15 July 2012, Pages 377-381

Pathology - Research and Practice

Original articleThe influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Author links open overlay panelRenato BatistaPaceliacRodrigo NunesCalaCarlos Henrique Ferreirados SantoscJosé AntonioCordeirocCassiano MerussiNeivadKazuo KawanoNagaminebcPatrícia MalufCuryaShow morehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006Get rights and content

Summary

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer.

Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3 mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5–20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed.

The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5–3 (p = 0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p = 0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs.

The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

Keywords

Physical activityExperimental lung cancerAerobic exerciseAnaerobic exerciseCopyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice.

Paceli RB1Cal RNdos Santos CHCordeiro JANeiva CMNagamine KKCury PM.

Author information

1School of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto – FAMERP, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Brazil.

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.PMID: 22683274 DOI: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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(Karl-Ludwig Poggemann/Flickr, CC BY 2.0)PHYSICS

Physicists Have Identified a Metal That Conducts Electricity But Not Heat

FIONA MACDONALD30 NOV 2019

Researchers have identified a metal that conducts electricity without conducting heat – an incredibly useful property that defies our current understanding of how conductors work.

The metal, found in 2017, contradicts something called the Wiedemann-Franz Law, which basically states that good conductors of electricity will also be proportionally good conductors of heat, which is why things like motors and appliances get so hot when you use them regularly.

But a team in the US showed this isn’t the case for metallic vanadium dioxide (VO2) – a material that’s already well known for its strange ability to switch from a see-through insulator to a conductive metal at the temperature of 67 degrees Celsius (152 degrees Fahrenheit). 

“This was a totally unexpected finding,” said lead researcher Junqiao Wu from Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division back in January 2017.

“It shows a drastic breakdown of a textbook law that has been known to be robust for conventional conductors. This discovery is of fundamental importance for understanding the basic electronic behaviour of novel conductors.”

Not only does this unexpected property change what we know about conductors, it could also be incredibly useful – the metal could one day be used to convert wasted heat from engines and appliances back into electricity, or even create better window coverings that keep buildings cool.

Researchers already knew of a handful of other materials that conduct electricity better than heat, but they only display those properties at temperatures hundreds of degrees below zero, which makes them highly impractical for any real-world applications.

Vanadium dioxide, on the other hand, is usually only a conductor at warm temperatures well above room temperature, which means it has the ability to be a lot more practical.

To uncover this bizarre property, the team looked at the way that electrons move within vanadium dioxide’s crystal lattice, as well as how much heat was being generated.

Surprisingly, they found that the thermal conductivity that could be attributed to the electrons in the material was 10 times smaller than that amount predicted by the Wiedemann-Franz Law.

The reason for this appears to be the synchronised way that the electrons move through the material.

“The electrons were moving in unison with each other, much like a fluid, instead of as individual particles like in normal metals,” said Wu.

“For electrons, heat is a random motion. Normal metals transport heat efficiently because there are so many different possible microscopic configurations that the individual electrons can jump between.”

“In contrast, the coordinated, marching-band-like motion of electrons in vanadium dioxide is detrimental to heat transfer as there are fewer configurations available for the electrons to hop randomly between,” he added.

Interestingly, when the researchers mixed the vanadium dioxide with other materials, they could ‘tune’ the amount of both electricity and heat that it could conduct – which could be incredibly useful for future applications.

For example, when the researchers added the metal tungsten to vanadium dioxide, they lowered the temperature at which the material became metallic, and also made it a better heat conductor.

That means that vanadium dioxide could help dissipate heat from a system, by only conducting heat when it hits a certain temperature. Before that it would be an insulator.

Vanadium dioxide also has the unique ability of being transparent to around 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit), but then reflects infrared light above 60 degrees Celsius (140 degrees Fahrenheit) while remaining transparent to visible light.

So that means it could even be used as a window coating that reduces the temperature without the need for air conditioning. 

“This material could be used to help stabilise temperature,” said one of the researchers, Fan Yang.

“By tuning its thermal conductivity, the material can efficiently and automatically dissipate heat in the hot summer because it will have high thermal conductivity, but prevent heat loss in the cold winter because of its low thermal conductivity at lower temperatures.”

A lot more research needs to be done on this puzzling material before it’s commercialised further, but it’s pretty exciting that we now know these bizarre properties exist in a material at room temperature.

The research was published in Science in 2017.

A version of this article was first published in January 2017.

Learn More

  1. Effects of Hydrology on the Thermal Conditions of the Active Layer: Paper presented at the 10th Northern Res. Basin Symposium (Svalbard, Norway — 28 Aug./3 Sept. 1994)Woo, Ming-ko et al., Hydrology Research, 1996
  2. Effects of Hydrology on the Thermal Conditions of the Active LayerMing-ko Woo, Hydrology Research, 1996
  1. Hipertermia malignaNikolaus Gravenstein et al., BMJ Best Practice, 2018
  2. Bloqueio atrioventricularSanjiv Petkar et al., BMJ Best Practice, 2018

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Home > Ciências > Ciências da Saúde > Novo método detecta câncer de próstata por meio da urina

– 28/11/2019

Novo método detecta câncer de próstata por meio da urina

Mais simples e barata que as disponíveis atualmente, técnica criada por cientistas da USP possibilitou também a análise da agressividade do tumorPor Matheus SouzaEditorias: Ciências da Saúde – URL Curta: jornal.usp.br/?p=289900

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De acordo com o Instituto Nacional de Câncer (Inca), no Brasil, o câncer de próstata é o segundo mais comum entre os homens. Em 2018, foram contabilizados 68.220 casos – Foto: Marcos Santos / USP Imagens

.

Um estudo produzido pelo Laboratório de Investigação Médica da Disciplina de Urologia (LIM 55) da Faculdade de Medicina (FM) da USP, em parceria com o Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas (ICB) da USP, conseguiu identificar pacientes com câncer de próstata a partir do exame de amostras de urina. Além de permitir o diagnóstico de modo não invasivo, a técnica também possibilitou a análise da agressividade do tumor, fundamental para determinar o melhor tratamento.

Agora, o próximo passo é a validação das descobertas. Os pesquisadores buscam financiamento para um novo projeto de pesquisa que terá como objetivo comprovar se os resultados encontrados se repetem em uma população diferente da estudada até então. 

Caso validadas, as descobertas poderão contribuir como uma opção mais prática e barata de exame. Apesar de já existirem testes semelhantes disponíveis comercialmente, estes são mais complexos e protegidos por patente, o que resulta em alto custo e baixa disponibilidade. “Por isso, é bastante desejável que consigamos disponibilizar esse exame, validar e talvez disponibilizar na prática”, afirma a professora Kátia Leite, professora da FMUSP e chefe do LIM 55.

Atualmente, os dois principais modos de analisar a suspeita do câncer são o toque retal, que busca identificar uma zona de endurecimento na próstata relacionada à presença da doença, e o exame dos níveis de Antígeno Prostático Específico (PSA) no sangue. Apesar de menos invasivo, este último não elimina a necessidade da biópsia, explica a professora.

“O PSA é um marcador interessante, pois é específico da próstata. Mas não é específico do câncer de próstata, pois também pode aumentar na hiperplasia prostática benigna e na prostatite, por exemplo”, diz a professora, que também é coautora do estudo. “O que  precisamos é de melhores indicadores para fazer uma biópsia de maneira segura e em um número menor de pacientes.”

A professora Kátia Ramos Moreira Leite – Foto: Arquivo pessoal


Marcadores genéticos

O estudo começou em 2014, com um projeto do LIM 55 que tinha como objetivo a identificação de marcadores genéticos para prognóstico e diagnóstico do câncer de próstata. A pesquisa foi feita com homens que já tinham suspeita de câncer e, por isso, tinham indicação de biópsia para diagnóstico definitivo. Destes pacientes foi coletado um fragmento da biópsia, para estudo molecular, e também uma amostra de urina, da qual foi possível sequenciar uma série de gene.

Foi então que o professor Giuseppe Palmisano, do ICB, se juntou à pesquisa. Ele propôs que a partir da urina coletada fosse caracterizado um perfil de proteína, por meio da espectrometria de massa (técnica que mede a massa e a estrutura química das moléculas). Como apontou o estudo, a urina pode conter elementos que reflitam os processos bioquímicos relacionados ao desenvolvimento de um tumor. 

O estudo foi realizado com 12 pacientes, sendo seis com a doença e os outros com hiperplasia benigna. Os resultados indicaram que um painel de 56 glicoproteínas (tipo de proteína ligado a um carboidrato) nas amostras de urina alcançou uma precisão de 100% no diagnóstico do câncer de próstata.

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Pesquisa foi desenvolvida a partir de amostras coletadas pelo Laboratório de Investigação Médica da Disciplina de Urologia, da Faculdade de Medicina da USP – Foto: Marcos Santos / USP Imagens

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Maior precisão

A pesquisa também mostrou que o exame via urina é capaz de indicar a existência e agressividade do tumor com maior precisão do que o PSA sozinho. Como explica a professora Kátia, o câncer de próstata é um dos tipos mais comuns entre os homens, mas em parte dos casos não apresenta ameaça grave à saúde. Alguns deles são caracterizados como “câncer indolente”: pouco agressivos e sem necessidade de intervenção imediata.

“Hoje existe uma conduta chamada de active surveillance [vigilância ativa], na qual o paciente não é tratado, e sim observado. Se o tumor muda de característica e fica com um padrão maior de agressividade, aí sim é feito o tratamento curativo”, diz. “No painel, conseguimos identificar um perfil de expressão de gene que caracterizava um tumor mais ou menos agressivo, ajudando nessa decisão de tratar ou observar.”

Clique aqui para acessar o estudo na íntegra, em inglês.

Mais informações:  e-mail bruna.ortega@agenciabluechip.com.br, com Bruna Ortega

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A reprodução de matérias e fotografias é livre mediante a citação do Jornal da USP e do autor. No caso dos arquivos de áudio, deverão constar dos créditos a Rádio USP e, em sendo explicitados, os autores. Para uso de arquivos de vídeo, esses créditos deverão mencionar a TV USP e, caso estejam explicitados, os autores. Fotos devem ser creditadas como USP Imagens e o nome do fotógrafo.

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Número Internacional Normalizado para Publicações Seriadas: International Standard Serial Number

ISSN 2525-6009

Política de uso

A reprodução de matérias e fotografias é livre mediante a citação do Jornal da USP e do autor. No caso dos arquivos de áudio, deverão constar dos créditos a Rádio USP e, em sendo explicitados, os autores. Para uso de arquivos de vídeo, esses créditos deverão mencionar a TV USP e, caso estejam explicitados, os autores. Fotos devem ser creditadas como USP Imagens e o nome do fotógrafo.

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