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Homequantum computing  The connection between quantum computers and encryption Example of cryptography

The connection between quantum computers and encryption
Example of cryptography

By Rowshon Ara -December 8, 20190

The connection between quantum computers and encryption

How does the computer look? Usually, the computer looks like a square box with a CPU, monitor, and mouse. Now scientist spends their sweat on making a computer which will look like an inverse cake. Exactly when hanging four or five layers of cakes upside down, just like that. There will be many metallic cylinders and compressive wire. Above all underneath there will be a small black chip. This quaint device will be called a quantum computer. The scientist thinks that computers will change the entire technology world fully.

How will the change really be like? There are some ‘but’ in this section. This quantum computer is completely new compared to the current computer system. A supercomputer takes a thousand years to solve a complex calculation where the quantum computer can solve that in just a few seconds. The new medicine can be discovered by a quantum computer. The discovery of new substances will also bring revolutionary momentum. In a line, a quantum computer will create a new era in the technology world. The full computer science will be changed.

There is some black side also. There is some issue with the quantum computer. Now the whole world is living under a root because of the Internet. Everyone is so connected, the distance is reduced. The world is becoming small, that’s why we called the world as a global village. We can express our little emotions through social media even important money transactions. At present this internet connection follows some encryption. This encryption is created by cryptography. Being encrypted keeps the internet safe and prevents user information from being lost. But the problem is that the quantum computer can be proved as a killer for present internet encryption. The quantum computer can hack present internet cryptography just a second. So if quantum computer technology falls into the hands of a malicious hacker, the data of billions of internet users around the world will be at risk! Even important state data, the information will not be safe. Secret intelligence and defense information will no longer be kept secret.

quantum computers

What are cryptography and encryption?
Upward there are 2 words cryptography and encryption. I don’t give you any kind of big academic definition. Let’s go through a simple example, I feel it will be easy for you to understand. Think you fall in love and you wanted to give a message to your partner but this is not so easy because anyone can read your message. So what can you do in this situation? There is a way that you can give the message to your partner and also nobody can understand what is actually you write. This process name is encryption and for this encryption, you have to know cryptography. I mean how to write an undecipherable message. As an example,” I love you. ” It’s not encryption but,” love I say.” This can be considered as encryption. You feel it’s too easy but what about now, “9 1215225 251521”. I don’t think it isn’t so simple to anyone who can understand. People may be considered any phone number. According to the English alphabet, the latter of the position really has meaning.       I          L, O,   V, E         Y, O,   U       9        12,15,22, 5        25,15, 21

What am I actually writing it’s not cryptography, not even encryption. I make it as my wish, just for example. But the actual process of encryption that message is known as an ‘encrypted message’. In the term of cryptography, the message will be meaningless generally but undecipherable. Encryption can also be described as the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. So this is so complex to realize what actually wrote. For understanding ‘encrypted message’ your partner also have the ability to understand. This special technique named is cryptography and who have this ability they know as a cryptographer. They do all this in a mathematical formula. This formula is specifically known as the “encryption algorithm.” All this process, formula, the study of years a cryptographer use for the purpose of not understand the important information by any third party.

Now switch to cyber cryptography and encryption. Cryptography is a specialized area of cybersecurity. Kaspersky Lab has defined it as follows: “Cryptography is the study of secure communications techniques that allow only the sender and intended recipient of a message to view its contents. In addition, cryptography also covers the obfuscation of information in images using techniques such as microdots or merging.” Now cryptography is the fundamental technology used to protect information as it travels over the Internet. Every day, encryption is used to protect the content of web transactions, email, newsgroups, chat, web conferencing, and telephone calls as they are sent over the Internet. So, in your internet life, encryption is the shield that gives you the courage to share your information freely in the internet world.

quantum computers

The future quantum computer and encryption:
Previously I note down that quantum computers will change the current technology world fully. Think your secret is unsafe, hackers know your inbox message, phone number, birth date, bank account number, credit card password. How will you feel? This is gonna happen to you with a quantum computer. Quantum computing will break your encryption in a few years. Modern public-key encryption is currently good enough to meet enterprise requirements, according to experts. We are soon going to get a more powerful quantum computer for the sake of advanced physics. Such future devices would still be able to decrypt present-day communications, allowing anyone to decrypt data transmitted today. So now it’s time to start developing quantum-safe cryptography even before the quantum computer is built.  The field of quantum-safe cryptography, also called post-quantum or quantum-resistant cryptography, aims to construct public-key cryptosystems that are believed to be secure even against quantum computers. Now the world is waiting for the result of a superpower quantum computer instead of a safe internet life on the basis of quantum-resistant cryptography.

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Rowshon Ara

Rowshon Arahttps://bndesk.com/author/rowshonara/Assalamualaikum . I am Rowshon Ara . I am studying Masters degree in management from national University in Bangladesh . I have a huge interest on bloging . Bloging is the only way describe my thoughts to other people and most importantly which can remain decade to decade . If you really notice something special from my writing don’t forget to infrom me in the comment section . It can take only some seconds but which can make my day . Have a good day .  

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What will humans look like in a million years?

By Lucy Jones

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To understand our future evolution we need to look to our past

Will our descendants be cyborgs with hi-tech machine implants, regrowable limbs and cameras for eyes like something out of a science fiction novel?

Might humans morph into a hybrid species of biological and artificial beings? Or could we become smaller or taller, thinner or fatter, or even with different facial features and skin colour?

Of course, we don’t know, but to consider the question, let’s scoot back a million years to see what humans looked like then. For a start, Homo sapiens didn’t exist. A million years ago, there were probably a few different species of humans around, including Homo heidelbergensis, which shared similarities with both Homo erectus and modern humans, but more primitive anatomy than the later Neanderthal.

Over more recent history, during the last 10,000 years, there have been significant changes for humans to adapt to. Agricultural living and plentiful food have led to health problems that we’ve used science to solve, such as treating diabetes with insulin. In terms of looks, humans have become fatter and, in some areas, taller.

Perhaps, then, we could evolve to be smaller so our bodies would need less energy, suggests Thomas Mailund, associate professor in bioinformatics at Aarhus University, Denmark, which would be handy on a highly-populated planet.What will happen to our species in the future?

Living alongside lots of people is a new condition humans have to adapt to. Back when we were hunter gatherers, there would’ve been a handful of interactions on a daily basis. Mailund suggests we may evolve in ways that help us to deal with this. Remembering people’s names, for example, could become a much more important skill.  

Here’s where the technology comes in. “An implant in the brain would allow us to remember people’s name,” says Thomas. “We know what genes are involved in building the brain that’s good at remembering people’s names. We might just change that. It sounds more like science fiction. But we can do that right now. We can implant it but we don’t know how to wire it up to make it useful. We’re getting there but it’s very experimental.”

Will our descendants be cyborgs? © Daniel Haug/Getty
Will our descendants be cyborgs? © Daniel Haug/Getty

“It’s not really a biological question anymore, it’s technological,” he said.

Currently, people have implants to fix an element of the body that’s broken, such as a pacemaker or a hip implant. Perhaps in the future, implants will be used simply to improve a person.  As well as brain implants, we might have more visible parts of technology as an element of our appearance, such an artificial eye with a camera that can read different frequencies of colour and visuals.

We’ve all heard of designer babies. Scientists already have the technology to change the genes of an embryo though it’s controversial and no one’s sure what happens next. But in the future, Mailund suggests, it may be seen as unethical not to change certain genes. With that may come choice about a baby’s features, so perhaps humans will look like what their parents want them to look like.

“It’s still going to be selection, it’s just artificial selection now. What we do with breeds of dogs, we’ll do with humans,” said Mailun.

This is all rather hypothetical, but can demographic trends give us any sense of what we may look like in the future?

Will technology affect our evolution? © Donald Iain Smith/Getty
Will technology affect our evolution? © Donald Iain Smith/Getty

“Predicting out a million years is pure speculation, but predicting into the more immediate future is certainly possible using bioinformatics by combining what is known about genetic variation now with models of demographic change going forward,” says Dr. Jason A. Hodgson, Lecturer, Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment

Now we have genetic samples of complete genomes from humans around the world, geneticists are getting a better understanding of genetic variation and how it’s structured in a human population. We can’t exactly predict how genetic variation will change, but scientists in the field of bioinformatics are looking to demographic trends to give us some idea.

Hodgson predicts urban and rural area will become increasingly differentiated within people. “All the migration comes from rural areas into cities so you get an increase in genetic diversity in cities and a decrease in rural areas,” he said. “What you might see is differentiation along lines where people live.”

Genetic diversity will increase in cities and decrease in rural areas © Ryan Deberardinis/EyeEm
Genetic diversity will increase in cities and decrease in rural areas © Ryan Deberardinis/EyeEm

It will vary across the world but in the UK, for example, rural areas are less diverse and have more ancestry that’s been in Britain for a longer period of time compared with urban areas which have a higher population of migrants.

Some groups are reproducing at higher or lower rates. Populations in Africa, for example, are rapidly expanding so those genes increase at a higher frequency on a global population level. Areas of light skin colour are reproducing at lower rates. Therefore, Hodgson predicts, skin colour from a global perspective will get darker.

“It’s almost certainly the case that dark skin colour is increasing in frequency on a global scale relative to light skin colour,” he said. “I’d expect that the average person several generations out from now will have darker skin colour than they do now.”

And what about space? If humans do end up colonising Mars, what would we evolve to look like? With lower gravity, the muscles of our bodies could change structure. Perhaps we will have longer arms and legs. In a colder, Ice-Age type climate, could we even become even chubbier, with insulating body hair, like our Neanderthal relatives?

We don’t know, but, certainly, human genetic variation is increasing. Worldwide there are roughly two new mutations for every one of the 3.5 billion base pairs in the human genome every year, says Hodgson. Which is pretty amazing – and makes it unlikely we will look the same in a million years.

By Lucy Jones
Featured image by Donald Iain Smith/Gettyshare

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The spaceship Rocinante arrives at the exoplanet Ilus in The Expanse. AMAZON PRIME VIDEO

How real-world science sets The Expanse apart from other sci-fi shows

By Stephen HumphreyDec. 6, 2019 , 8:00 AM

On 13 December, Amazon Prime will air the fourth season of The Expanse, a hardboiled space drama renowned for its working-class characters and real-world space physics. Showrunner Naren Shankar is part of the reason the science checks out. The veteran writer and producer for programs such as Star Trek: The Next GenerationFarscape, and the police procedural CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, has a doctorate in applied physics and electrical engineering.

Shankar chatted with Science about why he feels it’s important to have a realistic sci-fi show, and how television work is like the scientific peer-review process.

This interview has been edited for clarity and length.

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Q: How did you end up making sci-fi shows?

A: I actually started at Cornell [University] as an arts student. But I always loved science and math. In my second year, I transferred into the college of engineering. Usually, people transfer out of the college of engineering! I stayed all the way through to get my Ph.D. And somewhere along the line I just kind of decided I didn’t want to be an engineer anymore. The field rewards incredible specialization, and I saw myself becoming more and more of an expert over a smaller and smaller corner of the universe. I had a couple of friends out in Los Angeles that I had just done creative writing with when I was in school. They said, “Hey, come out, be a screenwriter.” And I thought, great.

Q: What did your science education bring to your television work?

A: One of the most valuable things I took away from school is peer review. You write a paper, sit down with your colleagues, and then you pare it down. That is really the process of the writing, when you’re writing a script. Everybody sits down and reads it and then you take it apart.

Naren Shankar, showrunner for The Expanse AMAZON PRIME VIDEO

I did a lot of science fiction in the early stage of my career, and then I did a lot of cop shows and crime shows. CSI: I ran that show for many years. It had a lot of scientific method in it. Investigating, the idea of the logical path to do a criminal investigation, evaluating evidence: All of that sort of really did play to the training.

Q: The Expanse tries to incorporate real-world science. Does that fire up the physicist in you?

A: It does, and it’s actually one of the things that attracted me to the project. When I got the script for the The Expanse, the pilot, I was, like, “Wow, this is a very different kind of a show.” Because they embraced all of the things that most science fiction shows run away from: the fact that you don’t have weight unless your ship is accelerating, the fact that communication in space is not instantaneous. We use that for drama. At the end of one episode, a bunch of missiles are heading off to basically hit Mars. In the very next episode, people on Earth are realizing that that has happened, like, 25 minutes ago.

Q: What about the physics of your spaceships?

A: They fly with realistic physics. You see conservation of momentum, conservation of angular momentum: all of the things that would actually occur in space. You don’t see control surfaces and aerodynamic flight, because they’re all moving in a vacuum. You see realistic objects changing orientation with thrusters. Personally, I’m quite tired of seeing spaceships fly around like fighter planes in the Pacific in World War II.

In the pilot, the series opener, the big action sequence was the ship making a turn. This crappy old ship has to suddenly divert off of its course to go investigate a distress call. The only way a ship can change course is “flip and burn,” which is to flip around and fire the rocket. But they decelerate much harder than they should have. “This could break the ship apart!” That was the tension of it.

Q: In season four we see an exoplanet, Ilus, that’s rich in lithium—a rare mineral that’s valuable in the future. Ilus is like Earth but a bit wrong. You see different continents from space. Animals on its surface are different. There’s sort of an uncanny valley experience.

James Holden (played by Steven Strait) suffers the physical consequences of acceleration in The Expanse. AMAZON PRIME VIDEO

A: That’s a really good way to describe it. It appears to be Earth-like, because you can breathe the air. “Oh, things are fine.” Well, biology is much more complicated than that. There are things that happen when you have interacting biomes. Imagine the first Europeans coming to Australia. All the biology that was there was stuff that they were not used to. There were things that were poisonous, that they didn’t understand. Many of them died. It’s a little different with Ilus because we’ve got humans coming to an alien planet with a different biome than human genetics. So that causes some interesting interactions.

Q: How is Ilus different than a Star Trek “planet of the week” planet for you?

A: Star Trek is a wonderful show, but it’s not really, in any true sense, a hard science fiction show. The kind of stories it chooses to tell are largely allegorical in nature. Star Trek went to planets with monolithic cultures and dealt with certain sociological problems. Ilus is uninhabited. It’s just a place that’s got a lot of lithium. The only people there are a bunch of refugees saying, “You can’t have our mine.”

Q: Is that maybe a couple of steps from happening, right now? Maybe somebody will claim an asteroid and become a trillionaire.

A: Absolutely. It’s amazing when you’re getting into these stories that are set hundreds of years in the future and then you look at the present: You know, maybe it’s not going to be that long. Because that stuff is out there, for sure.

Q: Do you think you’re raising the game for everybody, as far as how to make a science fiction show?

A: I hope we’re raising the game. I do get the impression, though, that people are a little intimidated by trying to pull it off. It does require you to pay attention to things that people aren’t really told to pay attention to. That requires a different kind of appreciation of the reality of what’s going on. And so it’s a fairly high bar, I think. But it’s certainly not inaccessible.Posted in: 

doi:10.1126/science.aba4638

Stephen Humphrey

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  1. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point. You obviously know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your weblog when you could be giving us something informative to read?

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  2. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to your blog? My website is in the very same niche as yours and my users would truly benefit from a lot of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this alright with you. Thank you!

    Like

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