Invitation by Facebook for me through direct message to participate at the Asian Pulmonology Summit which will be held on July 22-23, 2020, Hong Kong, China with the Theme “Optimizing research strategies for Lung disorder treatments” @ Researchers create functional mini-liver by 3-D bioprinting & DECEMBER 20, 2019 – New technique increases 3-D printing speed by 1,000 to 10,000 times by The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) @ ´´In 1945, Turing joined the National Physical Laboratory and began work on developing an electronic stored-program digital computer. His 1945 report “Proposed Electronic Calculator” was the first specification for such a device. John von Neumann at the University of Pennsylvania also circulated his First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC in 1945.[20] The Manchester Baby was the world’s first stored-program computer.´´ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer

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Asian Pulmonology Summit

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Date

July 22-23, 2020

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Asian Pulmonology Summit invites all the participants from all over the world to attend Asian Pulmonology summits during July 22-23, 2020 at Hong Kong, China with the Theme “Optimizing research strategies for Lung disorder treatments”.

Asian Pulmonology 2020 will also provide the excellent opportunity to meet experts, exchange information, and strengthen the collaboration among Directors, Researchers, Associate Professors, and Scholars from both academia and industry.

Respiratory Conference welcomes pulmonologists and Respiratory Medicine specialists across the globe to discuss current trends in respiratory disease screening to diagnosis, treatment and management. The major aim is to upgrade the practicing knowledge of the physicians to improve the respiratory patients care and management. This Pulmonology & Respiratory care Congress composed of well-organized scientific sessions, plenary sessions, Oral presentations, Poster presentations, one to one meetings, networking sessions, e-poster presentation, Young Researcher Forums (YRFs), B2B meetings, International workshops, Symposiums, Industrial sessions, Exhibitor presentations etc.

Sessions 1: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease it causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Symptoms includes breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke.

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common conditions that contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most instances of pulmonary diseases can be prevented by lessening presentation to hazard factors this incorporates diminishing rates of smoking and enhancing indoor and open air quality. While treatment can moderate declining, no cure is known.

Tuberculosis 2020 | Respiratory Diseases | Pulmonary Meetings | Chronic Disease Conferences | Infectious Diseases MeetingsPulmonology Events

Session 2: Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension defined as a pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 25 mm Hg at rest or greater than 30 mm Hg during exercise, is often characterized by a progressive and sustained increase in pulmonary vascular resistance that eventually may lead to right ventricular failure. It can be a life-threatening condition if untreated. Therapy for Pulmonary Hypertension is targeted at the underlying cause and its effects on the cardiovascular system.

Pulmonary Hypertension (PHT) is high blood pressure in the heart-to-lung system that delivers fresh blood to the heart while returning used blood back to the lungs. Unlike systemic blood pressure, which represents the force of your blood moving through the blood vessels in your body, pulmonary blood pressure reflects the pressure the heart exerts to pump blood from the heart through the arteries of the lungs. In other words, it focuses on the pressure of the blood flow in your lungs.

Pulmonology Events | Respiratory Diseases | Infectious Diseases Meetings | Chronic Disease Conferences | Pulmonary Meetings | Tuberculosis 2020

Session 3: Tuberculosis

TB is an infectious disease that generally has an effect the lungs. It is the second greatest killer due to a single infectious agent throughout the world, and in 2012, 1.3 million people expire from the disease, with 8.6 million falling ill. The tuberculosis bacterium causes TB. It is the extent through the air from person to person, when people with TB affecting the lungs cough, sneeze, spittle, laugh or talk. TB is infectious, but it is not easy to catch. The chances of catching TB from someone remain alive or work with are much higher than from a stranger. The symptoms include Coughing, chills, tiredness, Fever, Loss of Weight, Loss of appetite.

Respiratory Diseases | Tuberculosis 2020 | Pulmonary Meetings | Pulmonology Events | Infectious Diseases MeetingsChronic Disease Conferences

Session 4: Lung Problems

Lung disease is any problem in the lungs that avert the lungs from working properly. There are three main types of lung disease:

Airway diseases: These diseases have an effect the tubes (airways) that carry oxygen and other gases into and out of the lungs. They generally cause a narrowing or blockage of the airways. Airway diseases include respiratory disease, emphysema, bronchiectasis, and   bronchitis.

Lung tissue diseases: These diseases affect the structure of the lung tissue. Scarring or swelling of the tissue makes the lungs unable to expand fully (restrictive lung disease). This makes it hard for the lungs to take in oxygen and let go carbon dioxide As a result, they are not able to breathe deeply. Pulmonary fibrosis is example of lung tissue disease.

Tuberculosis 2020 | Chronic Disease Conferences | Pulmonary Meetings | Pulmonology Events | Infectious Diseases MeetingsRespiratory Diseases

Session 5: Asthma

To understand asthma, it helps to understand however the airways work. The airways are tubes that carry air into and out of your lungs. People who have respiratory disease have inflamed airways. The inflammation makes the airways swollen and very sensitive. The airways tend to react powerfully to certain inhaled substances.

When the airways react, the muscles around them tighten. This becomes the airways, inflicting less air to flow into the lungs. The swelling can also worsen, creating the airways even narrower. Cells in the airways would possibly create more mucus than usual. Secretion is a sticky, thick liquid that can further slender the airways. This chain reaction can result in respiratory disease symptoms. Symptoms can happen whenever the airways square measure inflamed.

Infectious Diseases Meetings | Chronic Disease Conferences | Pulmonary Meetings | Pulmonology Events | Tuberculosis 2020 | Respiratory Diseases

Session 6: Pulmonary function test (PFT)

Pulmonary function test is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical examinations, and tests of pulmonary function. The primary purpose of pulmonary function testing is to identify the severity of pulmonary impairment.[1] Pulmonary function testing has diagnostic and therapeutic roles and helps clinicians answer some general questions about patients with lung disease. PFTs are normally performed by a respiratory therapist, physiotherapist, pulmonologist, and/or general practitioner.

Pulmonary function testing is a diagnostic and management tool used for a variety of reasons, such as:

Chronic shortness of breath

Asthma

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Restrictive lung disease

Preoperative testing

Impairment or disability

Infectious Diseases Meetings | Pulmonology Events | Pulmonary Meetings | Chronic Disease Conferences | Tuberculosis 2020 | Respiratory Diseases

Session 7: Lung Cancer

Types of respiratory organ Cancer: There are 2 major sorts of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and tiny cell carcinoma staging carcinoma relies on whether or not the cancer is native or has unfold from the lungs to the humour nodes or other organs. Because  the lungs are giant, tumours will grow in them for a protracted time before they’re found. Even once symptoms like coughing and fatigue do occur, folks suppose they’re attributable to alternative causes. For this reason, early-stage carcinoma is troublesome to sight. The majority with carcinoma are diagnosed at stages III and IV.

If a routine physical communication reveals swollen humour nodes on top of mass within the abdomen, weak respiration, abnormal sounds within the lungs, dullness once the chest is tapped, abnormalities of the pupils, weakness or swollen veins in one in every of the arms, or perhaps changes within the fingernails, a doctor could suspect a respiratory organ tumour. Some respiratory organ cancers turn out abnormally high blood levels of bound hormones or substances, like Ca. If an individual shows such proof and no alternative cause is clear, a doctor ought to take into account carcinoma. 

Tuberculosis 2020 | Chronic Disease Conferences | Pulmonary Meetings | Pulmonology Events | Infectious Diseases MeetingsRespiratory Diseases

Session 8: Respiratory and pulmonary therapies

A metabolism expert may be a specialised tending professional person UN agency has graduated from a university and passed a national board certifying examination. Metabolism therapists work most frequently in medical aid and operative rooms, however also are usually found in patient clinics and home-health environments.

Respiratory therapists are specialists and educators in medicine and pulmonology. Metabolism therapists also are advanced-practice clinicians in airway management; establishing and maintaining the airway throughout management of trauma, medical aid, and should administer physiological condition for surgery or aware sedation.

Infectious Diseases Meetings | Chronic Disease Conferences | Pulmonary Meetings | Pulmonology Events | Tuberculosis 2020 | Respiratory Diseases

Session 9: Paediatric Pulmonology & Critical care

Aspiratory implies the field of drug identifying with lung and respiratory issue. Working with general paediatrics, respiratory paediatricians treat an extensive variety of pneumonic issue. Aspiratory implies the field of solution identifying with lung and respiratory issue. Working with general paediatrics, respiratory paediatricians treat an extensive variety of pneumonic issue. It incorporates Asthma, Sleep Disorder, Chronic Cough, Exercise initiated Asthma, Congenital Lung Problem and Paediatric Pneumonia.

A great part of the focal point of aspiratory recovery, look into and pneumonic solution goes toward the most youthful individuals from society-the babies. With a sound aspiratory stenosis finding the heart valve can be supplanted or repaired and kids can develop to lead ordinary solid lives. Rest apnea influences untimely infants. A circumstance called apnea of rashness exists when the tyke doesn’t breath for 20 seconds or more. It’s a pneumonic illness that can be treated with ventilation machines and medicines.

Paediatric Critical Care

Paediatric crises

Pneumonia

Respiratory disappointment

Paediatric in-tolerant and basic care

Sepsis

Head Trauma and Concussion

Infectious Diseases Meetings | Pulmonology Events | Pulmonary Meetings | Chronic Disease Conferences | Tuberculosis 2020 | Respiratory Diseases

Session 10: Cardio Pulmonary Disorders

Cardiovascular and pneumonic illnesses are conditions that influence the lungs and heart. Cardiovascular recovery may profit the individuals who have encountered an on-going heart assault or cardiovascular medical procedure, and also other heart-related medical issues. Aspiratory recovery might be valuable to people with asthma, perpetual bronchitis, endless obstructive pneumonic illness (COPD), emphysema, or other lung conditions.

Presentation to tobacco smoke has for quite some time been perceived as an unmistakable hazard factor for Cardio Vascular Disease. Correspondingly limiting presentation to tobacco smoke is the main compelling approach to counteract COPD.

These new items convey nicotine and concoction flavourings aerosolized in a base of propylene glycol as well as glycerine by means of inward breath. Studies have demonstrated that they create ultra-fine particulate issue and cytotoxic synthetic substances, which are known to contrarily affect heart and lung work, separately. Nicotine itself is known to impede lung work, especially in teenagers.

Respiratory Diseases | Tuberculosis 2020 | Pulmonary Meetings | Pulmonology Events | Infectious Diseases MeetingsChronic Disease Conferences

Session 11: Emphysema

Emphysema is a long haul, dynamic malady of the lungs that fundamentally causes shortness of breath due to over-swelling of the alveoli (air sacs in the lung). In individuals with emphysema, the lung tissue associated with trade of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) is disabled or crushed. Emphysema is incorporated into a gathering of sicknesses called endless obstructive aspiratory illness or COPD (pneumonic alludes to the lungs).Emphysema typically grows gradually. It Might not have any intense scenes of shortness of breath.

Emphysema is called an obstructive lung malady since wind stream on exhalation is impeded or halted in light of the fact that over-expanded alveoli don’t trade gases when a man breaths because of almost no development of gases out of the alveoli. Analysis and TestsAlpha-1 Antitrypsin Test, Pulmonary Function Tests and Spirometers .Treatment for the emphysema incorporates COPD drug, lung transplant, and medical procedure.

Pulmonology Events | Respiratory Diseases | Infectious Diseases Meetings | Chronic Disease Conferences | Pulmonary Meetings | Tuberculosis 2020

Session 12: Allergic diseases

Allergies, also called allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the system to one thing within the surroundings that typically causes little problem in the general public. These diseases include allergic rhinitis, food allergies, atopic eczema, allergic respiratory illness, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, Associate in Nursing itchy rash, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and sickness area unit separate conditions.

Tuberculosis 2020 | Respiratory Diseases | Pulmonary Meetings | Chronic Disease Conferences | Infectious Diseases MeetingsPulmonology Events

Market Analysis:

According to the latest research by PMR, the global interventional pulmonology market is expected to account for US$ 1,665.4 MN by the end of 2026. The interventional pulmonology market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.6% through the forecast period 2018-2026. There was a drop in the number of bronchoscopy tests from 1990 to 2005. However, according to many studies, this trend reversed after 2005. It has also been observed that, there has been a rise in reimbursements for interventional pulmonology procedures such as trans bronchial needle aspiration, whose outpatient hospital payment from Medicare in 2017 increased by US$ 800 per patient over 2012. Such factors are driving the growth of the interventional pulmonology market.

The global market for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prescription drugs was valued at $34.9 billion in 2011. This figure is expected to reach $38 billion in 2012 and $47.1 billion in 2017, growing at a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.4%.

Why to attend???

International Conference on Respiratory and Pulmonary medicine  to bring together worldwide distinguished academics in the field of Pulmonologists, Pulmonary specialists, Respiratory specialist , Chest medicine specialist, Respirologist,  Public Health professionals, Scientists, Academic scientists, Industry researchers, Scholars to exchange about state of the art Research and Technologies and to bring discoveries of cancer to Patients. To understand the current state of research and the challenges to future discovery. Attending International conference is for the Professional Development.

The aim of the Conference is to provide a platform to academicians and practitioners from multiple disciplines to debate and deliberate on social change that is encompassed by innovation and technology.

Target Audience:

• Directors, Board Members, Presidents, Vice Presidents, Deans and Head of the Departments

• COPD Students, Scientists, Faculty

• Medical Colleges

• COPD Associations and Societies

• Business Entrepreneurs, Pharmaceutical companies

Associations of pulmonology in Hong Kong:

Hong Kong Lung Foundation 

Hong Kong & Macau Chapter of the American College of Chest Physicians

Hong Kong Tuberculosis, Chest & Heart Disease Association

Ho Chi Minh City Respiratory Society

Associations in Asia:

Bangladesh Lung foundation, Bangladesh 

Chinese Society of respiratory Disease, China 

Global initiative of Asthma

Indian Chest Society, India

Indonesian Society of Respirology, Indonesia 

Singapore Thoracic Society, Singapore 

Taiwan Society of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Taiwan 

Mlaysian association for broncology and interventional pulmonology, Malayasia 

Malaysian thoriac society, Malaysia 

Lung Foundation of Malaysia,Malaysia 

Academy of medicine of Malaysia, Malaysia 

Institution of Respiratory Medicine, Malaysia 

Thoracic Society of Thailand, Thailand 

Associations in Worldwide

Algerian Society of Pneumology, Algeria

Asociación Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria, Argentina 

Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand, New Zealand 

Austrian Society for Pneumology, Austria 

Belgian Thoracic Society, Belgium

Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, Brazil

Bulgarian Respiratory Society, Bulgaria 

Canadian Thoracic Society, Canada 

Universities in Hong Kong:

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The University of Hong Kong

Hong Kong Baptist University

City University of Hong Kong

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

The Open University of Hong Kong

Shue Yan University

Community College of City University of Hong Kong

St. John’s College, University of Hong KongUniversity Health Centre Universities in Asia: University Malaya, Malaysia

University Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia

The University of Tokyo, Japan

National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore

The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), Hong Kong.

Fudan University, China

Seoul National University (SNU), South Korea.

Taipei Medical University, Taiwan.

Mahidol University, Thailand.

Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Indonesia.

Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia, Malaysia 

Universites in Worldwide:

Harvard University, USA

University of Oxford, UK

Leiden University, Netherlands

Linnaeus University, Sweden

McGill University, Canada

Medi7 Bent Leigh, Australia

Tufts University, United States

University of California, San Francisco

University of California Los Angeles, United States

University of Colorado Boulder, United States

University of Groningen, Netherlands

University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

University of Toronto, Canada

University of Washington, United States

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DECEMBER 18, 2019

Researchers create functional mini-liver by 3-D bioprinting

by Maria Fernanda Ziegler, FAPESP

Researchers create functional mini-liver by 3D bioprinting
Technique developed at Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center, funded by FAPESP and hosted by the University of São Paulo, produced hepatic tissue in the laboratory in only 90 days and could become an alternative to organ transplantation in future. Credit: Daniel Antonio/Agência FAPESP

Using human blood cells, Brazilian researchers have obtained hepatic organoids (“mini-livers”) that perform all of the liver’s typical functions, such as producing vital proteins, storing vitamins and secreting bile, among many others. The innovation permits the production of hepatic tissue in the laboratory in only 90 days and may in the future become an alternative to organ transplantation. The study was conducted at the Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center (HUG-CELL).

This study combined bioengineering techniques, such as cell reprogramming and the cultivation of pluripotent stem cells with 3-D bioprinting. Thanks to this strategy, the tissue produced by the bioprinter maintained hepatic functions for longer than reported by other groups in previous studies.

“More stages have yet to be achieved until we obtain a complete organ, but we’re on the right track to highly promising results. In the very near future, instead of waiting for an organ transplant, it may be possible to take cells from the patient and reprogram them to make a new liver in the laboratory. Another important advantage is zero probability of rejection, given that the cells come from the patient,” said Mayana Zatz, director of HUG-CELL and last author of the article published in Biofabrication.

The innovative part of the study resided in how the cells were included in the bioink used to produce tissue in the 3-D printer. “Instead of printing individualized cells, we developed a method of grouping them before printing. These ‘clumps’ of cells, or spheroids, are what constitute the tissue and maintain its functionality much longer,” said Ernesto Goulart, a postdoctoral fellow in USP’s Institute of Biosciences and first author of the article.

The researchers thereby avoided a problem faced by most human tissue bioprinting techniques, namely, the gradual loss of contact among cells and hence loss of tissue functionality.

Spheroid formation in this study already occurred in the differentiation process, when pluripotent cells were transformed into hepatic tissue cells (hepatocytes, vascular cells, and mesenchymal cells). “We started the differentiation process with the cells already grouped together. They were cultured in agitation, and groups formed spontaneously,” Goulart told Agência FAPESP.

A liver in 90 days

According to the researchers, the complete process from collection of the patient’s blood to functional tissue production takes approximately 90 days and can be divided into three stages: differentiation, printing, and maturation.

Initially, the blood cells are reprogrammed to regress to a stage of pluripotency characteristic of stem cells, becoming induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine for developing this technique.

The next stage consists of inducing differentiation into liver cells. The spheroids are then mixed with bioink, a hydrogel-like fluid, and printed out. The resulting structures mature in culture for 18 days.

“The printing process entails the deposition of spheroids along three axes, which is necessary for the material to gain volume and give the tissue proper support,” Goulart said. “The gel-like bioink is crosslinked to make the structures more rigid so that they can be manipulated and even sutured.”

Most of the available methods for printing live tissue use immersion and cell dispersion in a hydrogel to recapitulate the microenvironment and ensure tissue functionality. However, experiments have shown that loss of cell contact and functionality tends to occur when dispersion is performed cell by cell.

“It’s a somewhat traumatic process for the cells, which need time to get used to the environment and acquire functionality,” Goulart said. “At this stage, they aren’t tissue yet because they’re dispersed, but as shown by our study, they already have the capacity to clear the blood of toxins and to produce and secrete albumin [a protein produced only by the liver], for example.”

In this study, researchers developed mini-livers using blood cells from three volunteers as raw material and compared markers relating to functionality, such as the maintenance of cell contact and protein production and release. “Our spheroids worked much better than those obtained from single-cell dispersion. As expected, during maturation, the markers of hepatic function were not reduced,” Goulart said.

Although the study was limited to producing miniature livers, the technique can be used in the future to produce complete organs suitable for transplantation, according to Goulart. “We did it on a small scale, but with investment and interest, it can easily be scaled up,” he said.


Explore furtherComplex organ models grown in the lab


More information: Ernesto Goulart et al, 3D bioprinting of liver spheroids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells sustain liver function and viability in vitro, Biofabrication (2019). DOI: 10.1088/1758-5090/ab4a30Journal information:BiofabricationProvided by FAPESP214 shares

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DECEMBER 20, 2019

New technique increases 3-D printing speed by 1,000 to 10,000 times

by The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)

New technique increases 3-D printing speed by 1,000-10,000 times
FP-TPL based on spatial and temporal focusing. Credit: CUHK

Ultraprecise 3-D printing technology is a key enabler for manufacturing precision biomedical and photonic devices. However, the existing printing technology is limited by its low efficiency and high cost. Professor Shih-Chi Chen and his team from the Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), collaborated with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop the Femtosecond Projection Two-photon Lithography (FP-TPL) printing technology.

By controlling the laser spectrum via temporal focusing, the laser 3-D printing process is performed in a parallel layer-by-layer fashion instead of point-by-point writing. This new technique substantially increases the printing speed by 1,000—10,000 times, and reduces the cost by 98 percent. The achievement has recently been published in Science, affirming its technological breakthrough that leads nanoscale 3-D printing into a new era.

The conventional nanoscale 3-D printing technology, i.e., two-photon polymerization (TPP), operates in a point-by-point scanning fashion. As such, even a centimeter-sized object can take several days to weeks to fabricate (build rate ~ 0.1 mm3/hour). The process is time-consuming and expensive, which prevents practical and industrial applications. To increase speed, the resolution of the finished product is often sacrificed. Professor Chen and his team have overcome the challenging problem by exploiting the concept of temporal focusing, where a programmable femtosecond light sheet is formed at the focal plane for parallel nanowriting; this is equivalent to simultaneously projecting millions of laser foci at the focal plane, replacing the traditional method of focusing and scanning laser at one point only. In other words, the FP-TPL technology can fabricate a whole plane within the time that the point-scanning system fabricates a point.

  • Fig. 2. Printed nanowires demonstrating nanoscale resolution of FP-TPL. (A) Width (along lateral direction) and (B) height (along axial direction) of suspended nanowires printed under different conditions. Width of lines in the projected DMD pattern was varied from 3 to 6 pixels with a fixed period of 30 pixels. Each pixel (px) maps to 151 nm in the projected image. Labels HP, MP, and LP refer to high (42 nW/px), medium (39 nW/px), and low (35 nW/px) power levels, respectively. All markers of a specific shape represent data points generated at the same power level, and all markers of a specific colour represent the same line width. Printing was performed with a femtosecond laser that had a center wavelength of 800 nm and a nominal pulse width of 35 fs and with a 60 × 1.25 numerical aperture objective lens. (C and D) Scanning electron microscope images of the suspended nanowire features. Credit: The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)
  • Fig. 1. Printing of complex 3D structures with submicron resolution via FP-TPL. (A to C) Millimeter-scale structure with submicrometer features supported on a U.S. penny on top of a reflective surface. The 2.20 mm × 2.20 mm × 0.25 mm cuboid was printed in 8 min 20s, demonstrating a 3D printing rate of 8.7 mm3/hour. In contrast, point-scanning techniques would require several hours to print this cuboid. (D) A 3D micropillar printed through stacking of 2D layers, demonstrating uniformity of printing that is indistinguishable from that of commercial serial-scanning systems. (E and F) Spiral structures printed through projection of a single layer demonstrating the ability to rapidly print curvilinear structures within single-digit millisecond time scales without any stage motion. (G to J) Overhanging 3D structures printed by stitching multiple 2D projections demonstrating the ability to print depth-resolved features. The bridge structure in (G), with 90° overhang angles, is challenging to print using point-scanning TPL techniques or any other technique owing to its large overhang relative to the size of the smallest feature and the submicron feature resolution. Credit: The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)
  • Fig. 2. Printed nanowires demonstrating nanoscale resolution of FP-TPL. (A) Width (along lateral direction) and (B) height (along axial direction) of suspended nanowires printed under different conditions. Width of lines in the projected DMD pattern was varied from 3 to 6 pixels with a fixed period of 30 pixels. Each pixel (px) maps to 151 nm in the projected image. Labels HP, MP, and LP refer to high (42 nW/px), medium (39 nW/px), and low (35 nW/px) power levels, respectively. All markers of a specific shape represent data points generated at the same power level, and all markers of a specific colour represent the same line width. Printing was performed with a femtosecond laser that had a center wavelength of 800 nm and a nominal pulse width of 35 fs and with a 60 × 1.25 numerical aperture objective lens. (C and D) Scanning electron microscope images of the suspended nanowire features. Credit: The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)
  • Fig. 1. Printing of complex 3D structures with submicron resolution via FP-TPL. (A to C) Millimeter-scale structure with submicrometer features supported on a U.S. penny on top of a reflective surface. The 2.20 mm × 2.20 mm × 0.25 mm cuboid was printed in 8 min 20s, demonstrating a 3D printing rate of 8.7 mm3/hour. In contrast, point-scanning techniques would require several hours to print this cuboid. (D) A 3D micropillar printed through stacking of 2D layers, demonstrating uniformity of printing that is indistinguishable from that of commercial serial-scanning systems. (E and F) Spiral structures printed through projection of a single layer demonstrating the ability to rapidly print curvilinear structures within single-digit millisecond time scales without any stage motion. (G to J) Overhanging 3D structures printed by stitching multiple 2D projections demonstrating the ability to print depth-resolved features. The bridge structure in (G), with 90° overhang angles, is challenging to print using point-scanning TPL techniques or any other technique owing to its large overhang relative to the size of the smallest feature and the submicron feature resolution. Credit: The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)

 

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What makes FP-TPL a disruptive technology is that it not only greatly improves the speed (approximately 10—100 mm3/hour), but also improves the resolution (~140 nm / 175 nm in the lateral and axial directions) and reduces the cost (US$1.5/mm3). Professor Chen pointed out that typical hardware in a TPP system includes a femtosecond laser source and light scanning devices, e.g., digital micromirror device (DMD). Since the main cost of the TPP system is the laser source with a typical lifetime of ~20,000 hours, reducing the fabrication time from days to minutes can greatly extend the laser lifetime and indirectly reduce the average printing cost from US$88/mm3 to US$1.5/mm3 – a 98 percent reduction.

Due to the slow point-scanning process and lack of capability to print support structures, conventional TPP systems cannot fabricate large complex and overhanging structures. The FP-TPL technology has overcome this limitation by its high-printing speed, i.e., partially polymerized parts are rapidly joined before they can drift away in the liquid resin, which allows the fabrication of large-scale complex and overhanging structures, as shown in Figure 1 (G). Professor Chen said that the FP-TPL technology can benefit many fields; for example, nanotechnology, advanced functional materials, micro-robotics, and medical and drug delivery devices. Because of its significantly increased speed and reduced costs, the FP-TPL technology has the potential to be commercialized and widely adopted in various fields in the future, fabricating meso- to large-scale devices.


Explore further3-D printing technique accelerates nanoscale fabrication 1000-fold


Journal information:ScienceProvided by The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)266 shares

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