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|Nascimento||20 de maio de 1961 (58 anos)|
The Bronx, New York City, New York, United States
Pedro H. Diamandis ( /diːʌˈmændɪs/; nascido em 20 de Maio de 1961) é um engenheiro, médico, e empresário greco-americano mais conhecido por ser o fundador e presidente da X Prize Foundation, o co-fundador e presidente executivo da Singularity University e co-autor de The New York Times best-sellers Abundância: O Futuro É Melhor do Que Você Pensa e BOLD. Ele também é o ex-CEO e co-fundador da Zero Gravity Corporation, o co-fundador e vice-presidente da Space Adventures Ltd., o fundador e presidente do Rocket Racing League, o co-fundador da International Space University, o co-fundador da Planetary Resources, fundador dos Alunos para a Exploração e Desenvolvimento do Espaço, e o vice-presidente e co-fundador da Human Longevity, Inc.
- 1Início da vida
- 2.1International Space University (ISU)
- 2.2International MicroSpace, Inc. (IMI)
- 2.3Constellation Comunications
- 2.4X PRIZE Foundation
- 2.5Zero Gravity Corporation
- 2.6Angel Technologies Corporation
- 2.7Space Adventures, Ltd.
- 2.8BlastOff! Corporation
- 2.9Rocket Racing League (RRL)
- 2.10Singularity University (SU)
- 2.11Planetary Resources Inc.
- 2.12Human Longevity Inc. (HLI)
- 5Realizações Notáveis Adicionais
- 6Prêmios e reconhecimento
- 8Links externos
Início da vida[editar | editar código-fonte]
Marina nasceu no Bronx, Nova York. Seus pais, ambos imigrantes gregos, foram da área médica; seu pai era um médico (obstetrícia e ginecologia). A partir de uma idade muito precoce, Diamandis manifestou um grande interesse na exploração do espaço. aos 8 anos de idade, ele começou a dar palestras sobre o espaço para sua família e amigos. aos 12 anos de idade, Diamandis conquistou o primeiro lugar no ‘Concurso de Design de Foguetes Estes’ para a construção de um sistema de lançamento capaz de, simultaneamente, lançar três foguetes.
Depois de se formar na Great Neck North High School, em 1979, Diamandis ficou matriculado no Hamilton College por 1 ano, em seguida, transferiu-se para o Instituto de Tecnologia de Massachusetts para o estudo de biologia e física. Durante seu segundo ano no MIT em 1980, Diamandis co-fundou os Alunos para a Exploração e Desenvolvimento do Espaço.
Diamandis se formou no MIT, em 1983 com um diploma de bacharel em genética molecular. em seguida, Ele entrou na Escola Médica de Harvard para avançar em um mestrado. Durante o seu segundo ano na escola de medicina, ele co-fundou a Fundação da Geração Espacial para promover projetos e programas que ajudariam a Geração Espacial (todos os nascidos desde o vôo da Sputnik) a sair do planeta.
Durante seu último ano na escola de medicina em 1989, Diamandis estava atuando como diretor da International Space University e CEO da Micro Espaço Internacional, uma empresa de lançamento de microsatellites.
Em 1986, Diamandis colocou em espera seu mestrado em medicina e voltou para o MIT para começar um curso de mestrado em aeronáutica e astronáutica, realizando pesquisas no Johnson Space Center da NASA, no laboratório Homem-Veículo do MIT e no Instituto de Biomedicina Whitehead do MIT. Depois de completar o seu mestrado no MIT, Diamandis voltou a Harvard e completou segundo mestrado lá.
Carreira[editar | editar código-fonte]
International Space University (ISU)[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em 1987, durante o seu terceiro ano na escola de medicina, Diamandis co-fundou a International Space University ao lado de Todd B. Hawley e Robert D. Richards. Diamandis foi diretor executivo e diretor de operações da universidade até 1989. Hoje, a ISU oferece um Programa de Estudos do Espaço e duas titulações de Mestre de Estudos do Espaço. A ISU cresceu para se tornar um campus universitário com valor de $30 milhões, sediado em Estrasburgo, França.
International MicroSpace, Inc. (IMI)[editar | editar código-fonte]
Diamandis co-fundadou Sistemas de Lançamento Microsat, mais tarde renomeado International MicroSpace Inc., em 1989, durante o seu quarto ano na escola de medicina e atuou como CEO da empresa. IMI projetou um pequeno lançador chamado de Orbital Express para levar 100 kg de cargas para a órbita baixa da Terra, colaborando com a Bristol Aerospace para a fabricação. A empresa conseguiu um contrato SDIO $100 milhões de dólares para um lançamento, além de nove opções e foi vendido para o CTA Inc Rockville, MD, em 1993, por $250.000 dólares. Diamandis se juntou a CTA por um ano como vice-presidente de Programas Espaciais Comerciaos após a aquisição.
Constellation Comunications[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em 1991, Diamandis fundou a Constellation Communications, Inc., um dos cinco constelações de satélites na órbita baixa da Terra para telefonia de voz. A empresa foi financiada para implantar um anel equatorial, de 10 de satélites para fornecer comunicações, principalmente, para o Brasil e a Indonésia. Constellation foi vendida para a E-Systems and Orbital; Diamandis continuou como diretor até 1993.
X PRIZE Foundation[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em 1994, Diamandis fundou a X PRIZE Foundation, após a falha do International MicroSpace, Inc e a leitura do livro O Espírito de St. Louis de Charles Lindbergh. Ele atua como presidente e CEO da fundação. A X PRIZE foi criada para financiar e operar uma competição de incentivo de $10 milhões de dólares destinado a inspirar uma nova geração de transportes espaciais particulares de passageiros. O prêmio foi anunciado em 18 de Maio de 1996, em St. Louis, Montana, sem qualquer dinheiro arrecadado ou qualquer equipe já cadastrada. O prêmio foi, em última análise, financiado através de uma apólice de seguro feita pelas famílias Anousheh e Hamid Ansari e renomeado como Ansari X PRIZE, em homenagem a elas.
O prêmio de $10 milhões de dólares atraiu 26 equipes de sete países e foi vencida em 4 de outubro de 2004 pela Mojave Aeroespacial Ventures, uma equipa dirigida pelo famoso designer de aviação Burt Rutan e financiado pelo co-fundador da Microsoft, Paul Allen. O veículo vencedor, SpaceShipOne, foi pilotado ao espaço duas vezes dentro de duas semanas para ganhar a competição. O primeiro voo foi feito em 29 de setembro de 2004, pilotado por Mike Melvill e o segundo voo que garantiu a vitória foi feito em 4 de outubro de 2004 pelo piloto Brian Binnie. SpaceShipOne foi a primeira nave espacial pilotada não-governamental do mundo e agora está pendurado no National Air and Space Museum adjacente ao avião Espírito de St. Louis.
Em janeiro de 2005, o Conselho de Curadores da X PRIZE Foundation ampliou o foco da X PRIZE para lidar com quatro diferentes áreas: Exploração (dos oceanos e do espaço), Ciências da Vida, Energia e meio Ambiente, e Educação e de Desenvolvimento Global.
Desde sua concepção, a fundação lançou o prêmio de $10 milhões de dólares Ansari X PRIZE (já premiado), o prêmio de $10 milhões de dólares Automotive X Prize (já premiado), o prêmio de $10 milhões de dólares Arconte X Prize (em andamento), o prêmio de $30 milhões de dólares Google Lunar X PRIZE (em andamento), o prêmio de $10 milhões de dólares Qualcomm Tricorder X PRIZE(já premiado), o prêmio de $2 milhões de dólares Lunar Lander Challenge (já premiado), o prêmio de $1,4 milhões de dólares Wendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup X Challenge (já premiado), e o prêmio Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health X PRIZE (em andamento). Em Maio de 2012, a Robin Hood Foundation anunciou os seus planos para uma parceria com a X PRIZE Foundation para vários desafios baseados no cenário de Nova York orientados para a erradicação da pobreza.
A X PRIZE Foundation tem uma equipe de aproximadamente 50 pessoas e está sediada em Culver City, Califórnia. Dispõe de um conselho de curadores cheio de estrelas, incluindo Larry Page, Elon Musk, James Cameron, Dean Kamen, Ratan Tata, Ray Kurzweil, Jim Gianopulos, Naveen Jain, Arianna Huffington, Will Wright e Craig Venter.
Zero Gravity Corporation[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em 1994, Diamandis co-fundadou a ZERO-G, com Byron Lichtenberg e Ray Cronise. A empresa de entretenimento espacial oferece experiências em gravidade zero a bordo de seu Boeing 727 certificado pela FAA e fornece à NASA serviços de vôos parabólicos para fins de pesquisa, educação e treinamento. A empresa já voou mais de 10.000 clientes.
Em 2007, o físico Stephen Hawking experimentou oito rodadas de ausência de gravidade em um voo ZERO-G. Diamandis disse que o resultado bem sucedido daquele voo era a prova de que “todos podem participar neste tipo de experiência de ausência de gravidade.” Ele narraria a experiência de levar o Dr. Hawking para a atmosfera superior na conferência TED2008.
Angel Technologies Corporation[editar | editar código-fonte]
Entre 1995 e 1999, Diamandis foi o presidente da Angel Technologies Corporation, uma empresa de comunicação comercial que desenvolve redes de comunicação banda larga sem fio.
Space Adventures, Ltd.[editar | editar código-fonte]
Fundada em 1998, a Space Adventures é uma empresa de turismo espacial que já voou oito missões particulares de clientes para a Estação Espacial Internacional desde 2001. Diamandis é o co-fundador e vice-presidente da Space Adventures.
BlastOff! Corporation[editar | editar código-fonte]
Entre 2000 e 2001, Diamandis foi o CEO da BlastOff! Corporation, que se propôs a voar uma missão privada para pousar um rover na Lua, como uma mistura de entretenimento, Internet e espaço. A empresa perdeu financiamento e cessou as atividades em 2001.
Rocket Racing League (RRL)[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em 2005, Diamandis co-fundou o Rocket Racing League. O esporte a motor, que foi desenvolvido como um cruzamento entre corrida de fórmula Indy e foguetes, imaginada para permitir que o público desfrutasse de velocidade, foguetes e espírito competitivo. Diamandis continua a ser o presidente da RRL.
Singularity University (SU)[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em 2008, ao lado do autor, inventor e futurista americano Ray Kurzweil, Diamandis co-fundou a Singularity University. Hoje, Diamandis atua como co-fundador e presidente-executivo da universidade. SU é uma universidade interdisciplinar, cuja missão é formar, educar e inspirar um grupo de líderes que se esforçam para entender e facilitar o desenvolvimento de tecnologias de avanço exponencial para atacar os grandes desafios da humanidade. Com o apoio de uma ampla gama de líderes na academia, no mercado e em governos, a SU espera estimular o pensamento inovador e disruptivo e soluções que visam solucionar alguns dos desafios mais urgentes do planeta. A SU é baseada no campus Ames, da NASA no Vale do Silício e apoiada por um número de fundadores e parceiros do mundo corporativo, incluindo o Google, Autodesk, Cisco, Nokia, a Kauffman Foundation e ePlanet Ventures. A universidade executa um programa de graduação de 10 semanas, um Programa Executivo de sete dias, e uma conferência de cinco dias sobre Medicina Exponencial.
Além disso, desde 2016 a SU passou a ter um programa de embaixadores, onde ex-alunos poderiam se candidatar e ter acesso à marca da SU para fazer ações locais. Esses grupos locais intitulados Capítulos estão espalhados pelo mundo em mais de 73 localidades, seis delas no Brasil (Recife, Belo Horizonte, São Paulo, Uberlândia, Brasília e Porto Alegre). Cada capítulo precisa escolher um foco para suas ações antes de existir, foco esse que é escolhido pelo embaixador e aprovado pela Singularity. O corpo docente da instituição é formado por vários especialistas do mundo todo, havendo apenas um brasileiro entre os professores da universidade, o futurista Tiago Mattos que ensina as matérias de Estudos de Futuro e Futuro do Trabalho.
Planetary Resources Inc.[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em abril de 2012, Diamandis co-fundou a Planetary Resources Inc., uma organização que se dedica à identificação, detecção remota e prospecção de asteróides se aproximando da terra, com Eric Anderson. Investidores bilionários incluem Eric E. Schmidt e Larry Page da Google, bem como Ross Perot, Jr. e Charles Simonyi. Entre os conselheiros temos o cineasta e explorador James Cameron, e vários cientistas de renome.
Human Longevity Inc. (HLI)[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em Março de 2014, Diamandis co-fundadou a Human Longevity Inc., uma empresa de estudos do genôma e diagnóstico e terapia celular focada em estender o espectro de vida humana saudável, com Craig Venter e Robert Hariri. Ele também tem dado suporte à SENS Research Foundation, uma organização sem fins lucrativos, que procura tratar e curar as doenças do envelhecimento, através da reparação dos danos subjacentes causados pelo envelhecimento.
Livros[editar | editar código-fonte]
Em 2012, ao lado de Steven Kotler, Diamandis co-autorou Abundância: O Futuro É Melhor do Que Você Pensa. A obra de não-ficção aborda o potencial da tecnologia exponencial e de três outras forças de mercado emergentes para elevar significativamente os padrões globais de vida dentro dos próximos 25 anos.
O livro foi bem recebido; foi número 2 no Lista de best-sellers do New York Times e manteve-se na lista por nove semanas. Foi número 1 nas listas de best-seller de não-ficção da Amazon e a Barnes and Noble.
Na Iniciativa Global Clinton 2014, o ex-presidente dos Estados Unidos Bill Clinton recomendou o livro para os leitores, como um antídoto para a notícias negativas.
Em 2015, novamente ao lado de Steven Kotler, Diamandis co-autorou outro livro que ficou entre os mais venedidos do New York Times: BOLD. Este livro de não-ficção fornece análises e instruções para os empreendedores interessados em aprender sobre tecnologias exponenciais, moon-shot thinking e financiamento coletivo.
Este livro é dividido em três seções fáceis de digerir e é preenchido com valiosas informações que qualquer pessoa pode usar. Uma das melhores partes sobre o livro é que ele não só apresenta a visão dos autores, mas também tem entrevistas detalhadas e lições de outros grandes nomes para que os leitores possam obter o máximo possível de ideias e de pontos de vista únicos.
Conselhos[editar | editar código-fonte]
Diamandis atua nos seguintes conselhos:
- X PRIZE Conselho de Curadores (Presidente)
- Planetary Resources, Inc (Co-Presidente)
- Singularity University (Presidente)
- International Space University (Fundador)
- Space Adventures, Ltd (Vice-Presidente)
- Rocket Racing League (Presidente)
- Cogswell Polytechnical College (Membro do Conselho Diretor)
- Human Longevity Inc. (Co-Fundador e vice-presidente)
- Hyperloop Tecnologies
- Estudantes pela Exploração e Desenvolvimento do Espaço
- Abundância 360
Realizações Notáveis Adicionais[editar | editar código-fonte]
- Atuou como CEO da Desktop.tv, uma empresa spin-off da BlastOff! projetado para criar uma rede de televisão global no formato peer-to-peer para a transmissão de conteúdo exclusivo para a área de trabalho dos computadores.
- Atuou como Presidente do Conselho da Starport.com, um canal de Internet para a exploração do espaço voltado para crianças de todas as idades. O site representa mais de 20 astronautas e dispõe de heróis do espaço, missões e simulações. Foi vendido para a Space.com.
- Co-fundou e atuou como diretor da Space Generation Foundation, uma organização sem fins lucrativos iniciada em 1985, para criar, em todas as pessoas nascidas desde o advento da era Espacial em 4 de outubro de 1957, um senso de identidade—uma conscientização de que eles nasceram como membros de uma corrida para viajar ao espaço . A fundação apoia inúmeros projetos de ensino e pesquisa.
- Fundou a SpaceFair em 1983. SpaceFair é uma conferência nacional sobre o espaço que foi organizada pelo MIT em 1983, 1985 e 1987.
- Foi um entrevistado chave, no documentário de 2007 Órfãos da Apolo.
- É membro do Xconomists, uma equipe editorial esporádica de assessores para a empresa de notícias de tecnologia e media, Xconomy.
Prêmios e reconhecimento[editar | editar código-fonte]
- Prêmio John Asinari do MIT de 1983 pela melhor de pesquisa em Ciências biológicas.
- Prêmio William L. Stewart Jr do MIT de 1984 pela fundação da SEDS.
- Edital Estudantil da Escola De Medicina De Harvard de 1985-1986, dado pela Associação Americana Do Coração
- Edital de suporte à pesquisa Biomédica em 1986-1987 dado pelo NIH.
- Filiação da Industrialização Espacial dado em 1986 pela Space Foundation .
- Láurea dada em 1988 da Aviation Week & Space Tech. Em reconhecimento pela fundação da ISU.
- Prêmio Pioneiro de 1993 da Space Frontiers Foundation dado pelo trabalho acumulado feito na comercialização e desenvolvimento do cenário espacial.
- Prêmio Konstantine E. Tsiolkovsky de 1995 dado pelo governo russo pela criação da ISU (prêmio dado também aos outros co-fundadores Hawley e Richards).
- Prêmio do “Mérito Especial” de 1996 dado pela National Space Society pelo excelente trabalho feito como pioneiro do espaço abaixo de 40 anos de idade.
- Prêmio Neil Armstrong de 2006 dado pelas suas realizações e lidenraça na área da indústria Aeroespacial
- Prêmio Mundial de Tecnologia de 2003, dado pelo World Technology Counsel 
- Doutorado de Realizações do Espaço dado em 2005 (Honoris Causa) pela ISU
- Prêmio Lindbergh de 2006
- Prêmio RAVE da revista Wired de 2006
- Prêmio Heinlein (inalgural em 2006) for Advances in Space Commercialization
- Prêmio Arthur C. Clarke de Inovação em 2007
- Prêmio “No Boundaries” de Inovador do Ano do The Economist de 2010
Notas[editar | editar código-fonte]
- ↑ Predefinição:Triangulation
- ↑ Krol, Aaron (4 de março de 2014). «J. Craig Venter’s Latest Venture Has Ambitions Across Human Lifespan». BioIT World. Consultado em 5 de março de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 3 de agosto de 2014
- ↑ Miller, John J. (julho–agosto de 2005). «Extraordinary Feats of an X-Man». Philanthropy Magazine. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 14 de março de 2013
- ↑ Caulfield, Brian (13 de fevereiro de 2012). «Peter Diamandis: Rocket Man». Forbes. Consultado em 2 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 16 de julho de 2012
- ↑ Ruhling, Nancy (2012). «Eyes on the Prize» (PDF). Lifestyles Magazine (Pre-Spring 2012). Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Arquivado do original (PDF)em 22 de fevereiro de 2015
- ↑ Greenwald, Ted (17 de julho de 2012). «Peter Diamandis launched the X Prize, now he plans to mine asteroids». Wired. Consultado em 2 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 29 de outubro de 2013
- ↑ Lightman, Alex (19 de junho de 2009). «From X PRIZE to Singularity University». H Plus Magazine. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 17 de junho de 2012
- ↑ «Peter Diamandis LinkedIn». Consultado em 30 de julho de 2017
- ↑ «About Peter Diamandis» (em inglês). Peter H. Diamandis LLC. Consultado em 30 de julho de 2017
- ↑ Daniel, Patrick (25 de junho de 2015). «A Conversation With Peter Diamandis». HuffPost. Consultado em 30 de julho de 2017. Cópia arquivada em 24 de janeiro de 2016
- ↑ Brekke, Dan (janeiro de 2000). «Who Needs NASA?». Wired. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 20 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Greenwald, Ted (22 de junho de 2012). «X Prize Founder Peter Diamandis Has His Eyes on the Future». Wired. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 17 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ «Space Studies Program». International Space University. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Arquivado do original em 4 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ «Overview of MSc Programs». International Space University. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Arquivado do original em 8 de fevereiro de 2014
- ↑ Geoffrey V. Hughes, The Orbital Express Project of Bristol Aerospace and MicroSat Launch Systems, AIAA (J1997) ISBN 978-1563471926
- ↑ Pike, John. «ORBEX [“ORBital EXpress”]». GlobalSecurity.org. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 13 de março de 2012
- ↑ «Directors». Angel Technologies Corporation. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 16 de maio de 2012
- ↑ Kozlowski, Lori (27 de abril de 2012). «Lessons in Radical Philanthropy». Forbes. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 30 de abril de 2012
- ↑ Diamandis, Peter. «Prepared Statement by Peter Diamandis at a House Science Committee Hearing on NASA Aerospace Prizes». SpaceRef. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Pitta, Julie (13 de junho de 2012). «Visionary Peter Diamandis’ Five Best Reasons the Future is Better Than You Think». Forbes. Consultado em 2 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 13 de junho de 2012
- ↑ «Prize Development». X PRIZE Foundation. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 5 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Anders, George (11 de março de 2012). «X Prize Founder Aims to Fix Education; Anyone Have Some Ideas?». Forbes. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 26 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Vallance, Chris (12 de janeiro de 2012). «Star Trek-style ‘tricorder’ invention offered $10m prize». BBC News. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 15 de outubro de 2012
- ↑ «Incentivized Competition Heritage». X PRIZE Foundation. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Arquivado do original em 15 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Kozlowski, Lori (23 de abril de 2012). «Attention Heroes: Who Will Save The World’s Oceans?». Forbes. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 23 de janeiro de 2013
- ↑ Upbin, Bruce (15 de maio de 2012). «Robin Hood And X Prize Join Forces To Fight Poverty in NYC». Forbes. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 23 de janeiro de 2013
- ↑ «Board of Trustees». X PRIZE Foundation. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 5 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ «Space Adventures Announces the Acquisition of Zero Gravity Corporation». Space Adventures. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Boyle, Alan. «Hawking Goes Zero-G: ‘Space, Here I Come’». MSNBC. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 12 de maio de 2012
- ↑ Platt, Charles (junho de 2006). «Ethernet at 60,000 Feet». Wired. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 1 de janeiro de 2007
- ↑ Vergano, Dan (27 de maio de 2012). «An ‘Abundance’ of targets for asteroid miners». USA Today. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 17 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Diamandis, Peter (7 de dezembro de 2009). «Commercial Spaceflight for the Rest of Us – Congratulations to Virgin Galactic». HuffPost. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 27 de fevereiro de 2013
- ↑ Diamandis, Peter. «Google Lunar X PRIZE – The BlastOff Story». X PRIZE Foundation. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 6 de abril de 2014
- ↑ «X-Prize man launches rocket race». BBC News. 4 de outubro de 2005. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 24 de outubro de 2012
- ↑ Boyle, Alan (3 de outubro de 2005). «’Rocket racing league’ gets its start». MSNBC. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 16 de setembro de 2012
- ↑ Grover, Ronald (23 de setembro de 2007). «Gentlemen, Start Your Rockets». Bloomberg Businessweek Magazine. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 2 de novembro de 2012
- ↑ «Board of Trustees». Singularity University. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 23 de julho de 2012
- ↑ Takahashi, Dean (28 de agosto de 2011). «Peter Diamandis sounds the alarm on embracing exponential technologies». VentureBeat. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 11 de setembro de 2012
- ↑ «Graduate Studies Program». Singularity University. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 6 de julho de 2012
- ↑ «Executive Program». Singularity University. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 7 de julho de 2012
- ↑ «Exponential Medicine». Singularity University. Consultado em 4 de maio de 2015. Cópia arquivada em 1 de junho de 2015
- ↑ «SingularityU Global». singularityuglobal.org. Consultado em 4 de janeiro de 2018
- ↑ Klotz, Irene (24 de abril de 2012). «Tech billionaires bankroll gold rush to mine asteroids». Reuters. Consultado em 2 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 5 de julho de 2012
- ↑ Mann, Adam (23 de abril de 2012). «Tech Billionaires Plan Audacious Mission to Mine Asteroids». Wired. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 20 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ «Team». Planetary Resources. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 20 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Kowalski, Heather. «Human Longevity Inc. (HLI) Launched to Promote Healthy Aging Using Advances in Genomics and Stem Cell Therapies». Consultado em 6 de março de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 6 de março de 2014
- ↑ Steenhuysen, Julie (4 de março de 2014). «For his next act, genome wiz Craig Venter takes on aging». Reuters. Consultado em 6 de março de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 6 de março de 2014
- ↑ http://www.sens.org/outreach/celebrity-reimagine-aging-campaign
- ↑ Diamandis, Peter; Kotler, Steven (21 de fevereiro de 2012). Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think. [S.l.]: Free Press. ISBN 978-1451614213
- ↑ Gertner, Jon (30 de março de 2012). «Plenty to Go Around: ‘Abundance,’ by Peter H. Diamandis and Steven Kotler». The New York Times. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 5 de novembro de 2012
- ↑ «Best Sellers: Hardcover Nonfiction». The New York Times. 11 de março de 2012. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 5 de maio de 2012
- ↑ «Dr. Peter H. Diamandis». X PRIZE Foundation. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 25 de agosto de 2012
- ↑ Diamandis, Peter (22 de fevereiro de 2012). «New book by Peter Diamandis and Steven Kotler, Abundance, debuts #1 on Amazon and Barnes & Noble». Kurzweil. Consultado em 17 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 26 de fevereiro de 2012
- ↑ Diamandis, Peter; Kotler, Steven (fevereiro de 2015). Bold: How To Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World. [S.l.]: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781476709567
- ↑ Sykes, Timothy (22 de junho de 2016). «5 Key Books Every Entrepreneur Should Read». Entrepreneur (em inglês). Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2017
- ↑ Board of Trustees Arquivado em outubro 5, 2013[Erro data trocada], no Wayback Machine.. XPRIZE (November 8, 2011). Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ↑ Planetary Resources – The Asteroid Mining Company – Team Arquivado em maio 1, 2012[Erro data trocada], no Wayback Machine.. Planetaryresources.com. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ↑ Our Team | Singularity University Arquivado em agosto 5, 2013[Erro data trocada], no Wayback Machine.. Singularityu.org. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ↑ Greenwald, Ted. «X Prize Founder Peter Diamandis Has His Eyes on the Future». Cópia arquivada em 21 de setembro de 2012
- ↑ Peter Diamandis Arquivado em julho 19, 2013[Erro data trocada], no Wayback Machine.. Xconomy. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ↑ Introducing ISU – International Space University Arquivado em agosto 9, 2013[Erro data trocada], no Wayback Machine.. Isunet.edu (April 12, 1995). Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ↑ Astronaut Advisors & Board Members Arquivado em agosto 7, 2013[Erro data trocada], no Wayback Machine.. Space Adventures. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ↑ Intelius – Peter Diamandis Arquivado em abril 6, 2014[Erro data trocada], no Wayback Machine.. Corp.intelius.com. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ↑ «Archived copy». Consultado em 16 de maio de 2014. Arquivado do originalem 2 de julho de 2014. Rocket Racing League chairman
- ↑ «Archived copy». Consultado em 22 de maio de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 22 de maio de 2014. Cogswell Polytechnical College. Retrieved 2014-05-21.
- ↑ «Archived copy». Consultado em 19 de maio de 2014. Arquivado do originalem 25 de janeiro de 2012
- ↑ «Hyperloop». hyperlooptech.com. Consultado em 24 de abril de 2015. Arquivado do original em 24 de abril de 2015
- ↑ «SEDS Advisors». Consultado em 31 de março de 2017. Cópia arquivada em 6 de junho de 2017
- ↑ «Exceptional Creativity in Science & Technology Participants». John Templeton Foundation. Consultado em 21 de maio de 2014
- ↑ «Peter Diamandis: Executive Profile & Biography». Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Consultado em 3 de agosto de 2012. Cópia arquivada em 28 de julho de 2013
- ↑ «Welcome Dr. Diamandis». Penn State Advanced Vehicle Team. Consultado em 21 de maio de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 22 de maio de 2014
- ↑ «High Ambitions: Peter Diamandis Keeps His Eyes on the Prize». Airport Journals. Consultado em 21 de maio de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 22 de maio de 2014
- ↑ Webber, Gwen. «Orphans of Apollo». Blueprint Magazine. Consultado em 30 de janeiro de 2013. Arquivado do original em 10 de novembro de 2011
- ↑ «Leadership Lunches – Fall 2008». Consultado em 22 de maio de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 25 de maio de 2014
- ↑ «Award Recipients Archive». Consultado em 22 de maio de 2014
- ↑ «NSS Space Pioneer Awards». Consultado em 22 de maio de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 29 de junho de 2014
- ↑ «Archived copy». Consultado em 16 de maio de 2014. Arquivado do originalem 8 de março de 2015
- ↑ «2003 World Technology Award Winners and Finalists – The World Technology Network». wtn.net. Cópia arquivada em 16 de março de 2015
- ↑ Welf, Kelley. «Lindbergh Foundation to Present 2006 Lindbergh Awards». Consultado em 16 de maio de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 17 de maio de 2014
- ↑ «2006 Rave Awards». Consultado em 16 de maio de 2014. Arquivado do original em 17 de maio de 2014
- ↑ Heinlein Prize Arquivado em junho 22, 2013[Erro data trocada], no Wayback Machine.. The Heinlein Prize. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ↑ Carreau, Mark (25 de maio de 2006). «Leader in space tourism wins prize». Houston Chronicle. Cópia arquivada em 15 de julho de 2007
- ↑ «Arthur C. Clarke Awards». Consultado em 16 de maio de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 17 de maio de 2014
- ↑ «And the winners were…». Technology Quarterly. Consultado em 16 de maio de 2014. Cópia arquivada em 19 de maio de 2014
Links externos[editar | editar código-fonte]
Videos[editar | editar código-fonte]
- MIT Vídeo: Pedro Diamandis fala sobre o X PRIZE e o futuro das viagens espaciais
- Paletra de Abertura da SSP08 : Pedro Diamandis fala sobre o X PRIZE, gravidade Zero, a Rocket Race League, SSP08 podcast
- Perímetro Instituto: Peter Diamandis palestra no Quantum para o Festival CosmosPredefinição:TED speaker
- Nascidos em 1961
- Norte-americanos de ascendência grega
- Alunos da Harvard Medical School
- Alunos do Instituto de Tecnologia de Massachusetts
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|Born||May 20, 1961 (age 58)|
The Bronx, New York City, New York, United States
|Education||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
Harvard Medical School
|Employer||X Prize Foundation|
|Known for||Personal spaceflight industry|
Peter H. Diamandis (/ˌdiːəˈmændɪs/; born May 20, 1961) is a Greek American engineer, physician, and entrepreneur best known for being founder and chairman of the X Prize Foundation, cofounder and executive chairman of Singularity University and coauthor of The New York Times bestsellers Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think and BOLD: How to Go Big, Create Wealth, and Impact the World. He is former CEO and cofounder of the Zero Gravity Corporation, cofounder and vice chairman of Space Adventures Ltd., founder and chairman of the Rocket Racing League, cofounder of the International Space University, cofounder of Planetary Resources, cofounder of Celularity, founder of Students for the Exploration and Development of Space, vice chairman and cofounder of Human Longevity, Inc.
- 1Early life
- 2.1International Space University
- 2.2International MicroSpace, Inc.
- 2.3Constellation Communications
- 2.4X PRIZE Foundation
- 2.5Zero Gravity Corporation
- 2.6Angel Technologies Corporation
- 2.7Space Adventures, Ltd.
- 2.8BlastOff! Corporation
- 2.9Rocket Racing League
- 2.10Singularity University
- 2.11Planetary Resources Inc.
- 2.12Human Longevity Inc.
- 4Additional notable achievements
- 6External links
Diamandis was born in The Bronx, New York. His parents, both Greek immigrants, were in the medical business. His father was a physician. From a very early age, Diamandis expressed a keen interest in space exploration. At age 8, he began giving lectures on space to his family and friends. At age 12, Diamandis won first place in the Estes Rocket Design Competition for building a launch system able to simultaneously launch three rockets.
After graduating from Great Neck North High School in 1979, Diamandis attended Hamilton College for his first year, then transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to study biology and physics. During his second year at MIT in 1980, Diamandis cofounded Students for the Exploration and Development of Space.
Diamandis graduated from MIT in 1983 with a B.S. in molecular genetics. He then entered Harvard Medical School to pursue his M.D. During his second year of medical school, he cofounded the Space Generation Foundation to promote projects and programs that would help the Space Generation—all those born since the flight of Sputnik—get off the planet.
During his last year of medical school in 1989, Diamandis was acting as managing director of the International Space University and CEO of International Micro Space, a microsatellite launch company.
In 1986, Diamandis put his medical degree on hold and returned to MIT to pursue a master’s degree in aeronautics and astronautics, conducting research at NASA Johnson Space Center, the MIT Man Vehicle Laboratory and MIT’s Whitehead Biomedical Institute. After completing his M.S. at MIT, Diamandis returned to Harvard completing his M.D.
Diamandis has participated on the boards of several companies throughout his career, including Hyperloop  and Cogswell Polytechnical College. He has also won several awards in his field, including Economist “No Boundaries” Innovator of the Year,  the Neil Armstrong Award for Aerospace Achievement and Leadership, the World Technology Award, presented by the World Technology Counsel, and  the Arthur C. Clarke Award for Innovation, among others.
International Space University
In 1987, during his third year of medical school, Diamandis cofounded International Space University with Todd Hawley, Walter Anderson and Robert Richards. Diamandis served as the managing director and chief operating officer of the university until 1989. Today, ISU offers a Space Studies program and two accredited Master of Space Studies degrees. It has grown into a $30 million university campus headquartered in Strasbourg, France.
International MicroSpace, Inc.
Diamandis cofounded Microsat Launch Systems, later renamed International MicroSpace Inc., in 1989 during his fourth year of medical school and served as the company’s CEO. IMI designed a small launcher called Orbital Express for taking 100-kg payloads to low-Earth orbit, collaborating with Bristol Aerospace for the manufacture. The company won a $100 million SDIO contract for one launch plus nine options and was sold to CTA Inc of Rockville, MD in 1993 for $250,000. Diamandis joined CTA for one year as VP of Commercial Space Programs post-acquisition.
In 1991, Diamandis founded Constellation Communications, Inc., one of five low-Earth orbit satellite constellations for voice telephony. The company was funded to deploy an equatorial ring of 10 satellites to provide communications primarily to Brazil and Indonesia. Constellation was sold to E-Systems and Orbital; Diamandis remained director until 1993.
X PRIZE Foundation
Main article: X Prize Foundation
In 1994, Diamandis founded the X PRIZE Foundation after the failure of International MicroSpace, Inc and reading Charles Lindbergh‘s The Spirit of St. Louis. He serves as chairman and CEO of the foundation. X PRIZE was created to fund and operate a $10 million incentive competition intended to inspire a new generation of private passenger-carrying spaceships. The prize was announced on May 18, 1996 in St. Louis, MO without any purse money or any teams. The prize was ultimately funded through an insurance policy underwritten by the Anousheh and Hamid Ansari Family and renamed the Ansari X PRIZE in their honor.
The $10 million competition attracted 26 teams from seven countries as teams and was won on October 4, 2004 by Mojave Aerospace Ventures, a team run by famed aviation designer Burt Rutan and funded by Microsoft cofounder Paul Allen. The winning vehicle, SpaceShipOne, was piloted to space twice within two weeks to win the competition. The first flight was made on September 29, 2004, piloted by Mike Melvill, and the winning, second flight was made on October 4, 2004, by pilot Brian Binnie. SpaceShipOne was the world’s first non-government piloted spacecraft and is now hanging in the National Air and Space Museum adjacent to the Spirit of St. Louis aircraft.
In January 2005, the X PRIZE Foundation Board of Trustees expanded the focus of the X PRIZE to address four different group areas: Exploration (oceans and space), Life Sciences, Energy and Environment, and Education and Global Development.
Since inception, the foundation has launched the $10M Ansari X PRIZE (awarded), the $10M Automotive X Prize (awarded), the $10M Archon X Prize (in progress), the $30M Google Lunar X PRIZE (in progress), the $10M Qualcomm Tricorder X PRIZE, the $2M Lunar Lander Challenge (awarded), the $1.4M Wendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup X Challenge (awarded), and the Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health X PRIZE. In May 2012, the Robin Hood Foundation announced its plans to partner with the X PRIZE Foundation for several New York-based challenges targeted at eradicating poverty.
The X PRIZE Foundation has a staff of approximately 50 individuals and is headquartered in Culver City, California. Its board of trustees includes Larry Page, Elon Musk, James Cameron, Dean Kamen, Ratan Tata, Ray Kurzweil, Jim Gianopulos, Naveen Jain, Arianna Huffington, Will Wright and Craig Venter.
Zero Gravity Corporation
In 1994, Diamandis cofounded ZERO-G with Byron Lichtenberg and Ray Cronise. The space entertainment company offers weightless experiences aboard its FAA-certified Boeing 727 aircraft and provides NASA with parabolic flight services for research, education and training. The company has flown over 10,000 customers.
In 2007, physicist Stephen Hawking experienced eight rounds of weightlessness on a ZERO-G flight. Diamandis said that the successful outcome of that flight was proof that “everyone can participate in this type of weightless experience.” He would recount the experience of taking Dr. Hawking into the upper atmosphere at TED2008.
Angel Technologies Corporation
Between 1995 and 1999, Diamandis was the president of Angel Technologies Corporation, a commercial communications company that develops wireless broadband communications networks.
Space Adventures, Ltd.
Founded in 1998, Space Adventures is a space tourism company that has flown eight private customer missions to the International Space Station since 2001. Diamandis is the cofounder and vice chairman of Space Adventures.
Between 2000 and 2001, Diamandis was the CEO of BlastOff! Corporation, which proposed to fly a private rover mission to land on the Moon as a mix of entertainment, Internet and space. The company lost funding and ceased business in 2001.
Rocket Racing League
In 2005, Diamandis cofounded the Rocket Racing League. Developed as a cross between IndyCar racing and rockets, it envisioned enabling the public to enjoy speed, rockets and competitive spirits. Diamandis was the chairman of RRL until it ceased business.
In 2008, alongside American author, inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil, Diamandis cofounded Singularity University (SU). Today Diamandis serves as the university’s cofounder and executive chairman. SU is an interdisciplinary university with the mission to assemble, educate and inspire a cadre of leaders who strive to understand and facilitate the development of exponentially advancing technologies to address humanity’s grand challenges. With the support of a broad range of leaders in academia, business and government, SU hopes to stimulate groundbreaking, disruptive thinking and solutions aimed at solving some of the planet’s most pressing challenges. SU is based on the NASA Ames campus in Silicon Valley and supported by a number of corporate founders and partners including Autodesk, Cisco, Nokia, Kauffman Foundation and ePlanet Ventures. The university runs a 10-week Graduate Studies Program, a seven-day Executive Program and a five-day Exponential Medicine conference.
Planetary Resources Inc.
In April 2012, Diamandis cofounded Planetary Resources Inc., an organization dedicated to the identification, remote sensing and prospecting of near-Earth approaching asteroids, with Eric Anderson. He has also served on the company’s board. and Charles Simonyi. Following financial troubles, it was announced in October 2018 that the company’s human assets were purchased by the blockchain software technology company ConsenSys, Inc.
Human Longevity Inc.
In March 2014, Diamandis cofounded Human Longevity Inc. (HLI), a genomics and cell therapy-based diagnostic and therapeutic company focused on extending the healthy human lifespan, with Craig Venter and Robert Hariri. He also has supported SENS Research Foundation, a nonprofit organization that seeks to treat and cure the diseases of aging by repairing the underlying damage caused by aging. After internal disputes about management, Venter left Human Longevity to return to the Venter Institute.
In February 2018, Diamandis launched Celularity, a biotechnology company productizing allogeneic cells and tissues derived from the postpartum placenta.
In 2012, alongside Steven Kotler, Diamandis coauthored Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think. The nonfiction work discusses the potential for exponential technology and three other emerging market forces to significantly raise global standards of living within the next 25 years.
Abundance was well-received; it was #2 on The New York Times Best Seller list and remained on the list for nine weeks. It was #1 on the non-fiction bestseller lists of Amazon and Barnes and Noble.
At the 2014 Clinton Global Initiative, former US president Bill Clinton recommended Abundance to readers as an antidote to negative news.
In 2015, again alongside of Steven Kotler, Diamandis coauthored another New York Times best selling book, Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth, and Impact the World. This nonfiction book provides analysis and instruction for entrepreneurs interested in learning about exponential technologies, moon-shot thinking and crowdsourcing.
Additional notable achievements
- Served as CEO of Desktop.tv, a spin-off company from BlastOff! designed to provide a global peer-to-peer television network for broadcasting unique content to the desktop.
- Served as chairman of Starport.com, an Internet channel for space exploration for kids of all ages. The site represents over 20 astronauts and features space heroes, missions and simulations. Sold to Space.com.
- Cofounded and served as director of the Space Generation Foundation, a nonprofit organization established in 1985 to create, in all people born since the advent of the Space Age on October 4, 1957, a sense of identity and awareness that they are born as members of a space-faring race. The foundation supports numerous educational and research projects.
- Founded SpaceFair in 1983. SpaceFair is a national space conference that was hosted by MIT in 1983, 1985 and 1987.
- Was a key subject in the 2007 documentary film, Orphans of Apollo.
- Is a member of the Xconomists, an ad hoc team of editorial advisors for the tech news and media company, Xconomy.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Peter Diamandis interviewed on the TV show Triangulation on the TWiT.tv network
- ^ Krol, Aaron (March 4, 2014). “J. Craig Venter’s Latest Venture Has Ambitions Across Human Lifespan”. BioIT World. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved March 5,2014.
- ^ Miller, John J. (July–August 2005). “Extraordinary Feats of an X-Man”. Philanthropy Magazine. Archived from the original on March 14, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Caulfield, Brian (February 13, 2012). “Peter Diamandis: Rocket Man”. Forbes. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Ruhling, Nancy (2012). “Eyes on the Prize” (PDF). Lifestyles Magazine (Pre-Spring 2012). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Greenwald, Ted (July 17, 2012). “Peter Diamandis launched the X Prize, now he plans to mine asteroids”. Wired. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- ^ Lightman, Alex (June 19, 2009). “From X PRIZE to Singularity University”. H Plus Magazine. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “Peter Diamandis LinkedIn”. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
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- ^ Daniel, Patrick (June 25, 2015). “A Conversation With Peter Diamandis”. HuffPost. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c “Peter Diamandis: Executive Profile & Biography”. Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ Brekke, Dan (January 2000). “Who Needs NASA?”. Wired. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “Bloomberg – Are you a robot?”. http://www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
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- ^ “2003 World Technology Award Winners and Finalists – The World Technology Network”. wtn.net. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015.
- ^ “Arthur C. Clarke Awards”. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Greenwald, Ted (June 22, 2012). “X Prize Founder Peter Diamandis Has His Eyes on the Future”. Wired. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “Space Studies Program”. International Space University. Archived from the original on August 4, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ “Overview of MSc Programs”. International Space University. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Geoffrey V. Hughes, The Orbital Express Project of Bristol Aerospace and MicroSat Launch Systems, AIAA (J1997) ISBN 978-1563471926
- ^ Pike, John. “ORBEX [“ORBital EXpress”]”. GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ “Directors”. Angel Technologies Corporation. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Kozlowski, Lori (April 27, 2012). “Lessons in Radical Philanthropy”. Forbes. Archived from the original on April 30, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Diamandis, Peter. “Prepared Statement by Peter Diamandis at a House Science Committee Hearing on NASA Aerospace Prizes”. SpaceRef. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Pitta, Julie (June 13, 2012). “Visionary Peter Diamandis’ Five Best Reasons the Future is Better Than You Think”. Forbes. Archived from the original on June 13, 2012. Retrieved August 2,2012.
- ^ “Prize Development”. X PRIZE Foundation. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ Anders, George (March 11, 2012). “X Prize Founder Aims to Fix Education; Anyone Have Some Ideas?”. Forbes. Archivedfrom the original on August 26, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Vallance, Chris (January 12, 2012). “Star Trek-style ‘tricorder’ invention offered $10m prize”. BBC News. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “Incentivized Competition Heritage”. X PRIZE Foundation. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ Kozlowski, Lori (April 23, 2012). “Attention Heroes: Who Will Save The World’s Oceans?”. Forbes. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Upbin, Bruce (May 15, 2012). “Robin Hood And X Prize Join Forces To Fight Poverty in NYC”. Forbes. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “Board of Trustees”. X PRIZE Foundation. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ “Space Adventures Announces the Acquisition of Zero Gravity Corporation”. Space Adventures. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Boyle, Alan. “Hawking Goes Zero-G: ‘Space, Here I Come'”. NBC News. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Diamandis, Peter. “Peter Diamandis on Stephen Hawking in Zero G”. TED2008. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Platt, Charles (June 2006). “Ethernet at 60,000 Feet”. Wired. Archived from the original on January 1, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Vergano, Dan (May 27, 2012). “An ‘Abundance’ of targets for asteroid miners”. USA Today. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Diamandis, Peter (December 7, 2009). “Commercial Spaceflight for the Rest of Us – Congratulations to Virgin Galactic”. HuffPost. Archived from the original on February 27, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Diamandis, Peter. “Google Lunar X PRIZE – The BlastOff Story”. X PRIZE Foundation. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “X-Prize man launches rocket race”. BBC News. October 4, 2005. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Boyle, Alan (October 3, 2005). “‘Rocket racing league’ gets its start”. NBC News. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Grover, Ronald (September 23, 2007). “Gentlemen, Start Your Rockets”. Bloomberg Businessweek Magazine. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Leone, Dan (December 21, 2014). “Q&A With Rep. Jim Bridenstine (R-Okla.)”. SpaceNews. Retrieved March 5, 2016. Although the Rocket Racing League held demonstration flights at a 2010 air show in Tulsa that Bridenstine helped organize, the venture failed to take off. ‘It was before its time,’ [Bridenstine] lamented
- ^ “Board of Trustees”. Singularity University. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ Takahashi, Dean (August 28, 2011). “Peter Diamandis sounds the alarm on embracing exponential technologies”. VentureBeat. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “Graduate Studies Program”. Singularity University. Archivedfrom the original on July 6, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ “Executive Program”. Singularity University. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- ^ “Exponential Medicine”. Singularity University. Archived from the original on June 1, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- ^ Klotz, Irene (April 24, 2012). “Tech billionaires bankroll gold rush to mine asteroids”. Reuters. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- ^ Mann, Adam (April 23, 2012). “Tech Billionaires Plan Audacious Mission to Mine Asteroids”. Wired. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “A blockchain firm bought asteroid mining company Planetary Resources”. TechCrunch. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- ^ https://www.space.com/42324-asteroid-mining-company-planetary-resources-acquired.html
- ^ Kowalski, Heather. “Human Longevity Inc. (HLI) Launched to Promote Healthy Aging Using Advances in Genomics and Stem Cell Therapies”. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- ^ Steenhuysen, Julie (March 4, 2014). “For his next act, genome wiz Craig Venter takes on aging”. Reuters. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- ^ http://www.sens.org/outreach/celebrity-reimagine-aging-campaign
- ^ Clifford, Catherine (February 15, 2018). “Will 100 be the new 60? Stem cell start-up that raised $250 million could extend lifespan by decades, help cure cancer”. CNBC. Retrieved November 21,2019.
- ^ Diamandis, Peter; Kotler, Steven (February 21, 2012). Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think. Free Press. ISBN 978-1451614213.
- ^ Gertner, Jon (March 30, 2012). “Plenty to Go Around: ‘Abundance,’ by Peter H. Diamandis and Steven Kotler”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “Best Sellers: Hardcover Nonfiction”. The New York Times. March 11, 2012. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ “Dr. Peter H. Diamandis”. X PRIZE Foundation. Archivedfrom the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Diamandis, Peter (February 22, 2012). “New book by Peter Diamandis and Steven Kotler, Abundance, debuts #1 on Amazon and Barnes & Noble”. Kurzweil. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Diamandis, Peter; Kotler, Steven (February 2015). Bold: How To Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781476709567.
- ^ “Exceptional Creativity in Science & Technology Participants”. John Templeton Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- ^ “Welcome Dr. Diamandis”. Penn State Advanced Vehicle Team. Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- ^ “High Ambitions: Peter Diamandis Keeps His Eyes on the Prize”. Airport Journals. Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- ^ Webber, Gwen. “Orphans of Apollo”. Blueprint Magazine. Archived from the original on November 10, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- ^ “About Our Mission, Team, and Editorial Ethics”. Xconomy. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
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Scientists create contact lenses that zoom when you blink twice
Me: Accidentally blinks twice while driving.Mark SerrelsJuly 28, 2019 7:05 PM PDT
It is absolutely the stuff of science fiction: a contact lens that zooms on your command.
How is this possible? In the simplest of terms, the scientists measured the electrooculographic signals generated when eyes make specific movements (up, down, left, right, blink, double blink) and created a soft biomimetic lens that responds directly to those electric impulses. The lens created was able to change its focal length depending on the signals generated.
Therefore the lens could literally zoom in the blink of an eye.
Incredibly, the lens works regardless of whether the user can see or not. It’s not about the sight, it’s about the electricity produced by specific movements.
Why create this? Why the hell not. The researchers believe this innovation could be used in “visual prostheses, adjustable glasses, and remotely operated robotics in the future,” but I’m waiting for them to turn up on CSI Miami. Could you imagine the crimes Ice-T could solve on Law and Order wearing these things?
Watch this: Microsoft tech teaches children who are blind how to… 4:33Test-driving Vuzix Blade on my face before CES16 PHOTOSBY TABOOLASPONSORED LINKSYOU MAY ALSO LIKESusan Boyle is So Skinny Now and Looks Gorgeous! (Photos)MORTGAGE AFTER LIFEComo os personagens da Disney se pareceriam na vida real24/7 MIRRORMost Expensive Dogs in the World, RankedWORK + MONEYO segredo para comprar na Americanas que as pessoas não sabemCUPONOMIA5COMMENTSCulturePersonal careSci-TechUp Next: Major tech companies want a standard for smart…Large play-pause toggleiPhone 11 and 11 Pro: 2 months later, here’s…AutoplayOn00:0110:12Play Sound CLOSE
Discuss: Scientists create contact lenses that zoom when you blink twice
Cancer-related gene research leads to $2.6M grant
- December 17, 2019
- Nana Ohkawa
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded a five-year, $2.6-million grant to University of Hawaiʻi Cancer Center researchers to study the role of the BAP1 gene in human cancer development and cell metabolism.
The research team is led by Michele Carbone and Haining Yang.
“This grant adds to our two already funded NIH grants and one grant from the Department of Defense, confirming the leadership of the Hawaiʻi team as the top federally-funded research team in the U.S. to conduct research on mesothelioma, a cancer developed frequently in those exposed to asbestos,” said Carbone.
Carbone discovered the role of genetics in mesothelioma while studying a cancer epidemic in remote villages in Turkey. Carbone, Yang and collaborators continued studying genetics in mesothelioma by conducting molecular genetic studies of U.S. families with high incidence rates of cancer and found a condition they named “BAP1 cancer syndrome.”
Individuals with BAP1 cancer syndrome inherit a BAP1 gene mutation, leading to at least one and often several cancers in their lifetime. The BAP1 mutation greatly increases an individual’s susceptibility to environmental carcinogens such as asbestos, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiations, increasing the risk of the individual developing mesothelioma, melanoma and other cancers.
Carbone recently discovered that BAP1 mutations change cell metabolism. “On one hand, BAP1 mutations cause cancer, and on the other hand, mesotheliomas that develop in carriers of BAP1 mutations are less aggressive, probably because of the altered cell metabolism,” said Carbone. The funds of the most recent grant will be used to investigate the ways in which BAP1 regulates cancer cell metabolism.
Added Carbone, “We hope that by learning how BAP1 mutations slow down the growth of mesothelioma we find a way to make all cancers less aggressive. Our discoveries, confirmed by numerous research teams in more than 700 research and medical articles, have led to preventive and early detection measures that have and continue to save lives.”
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December 11, 2019
In a first, researchers sequence single bacterial cells, paving path for rapid sepsis test
By Susan Murphy
For the first time, Mayo Clinic researchers are sequencing the genomic contents of single bacterial cells. The technique may pave the way for a potential lifesaving test for sepsis, a serious and sometimes deadly condition caused by the body’s response to an infection. Rather than waiting for days to identify the source of a patient’s infection, the new test could provide an answer in hours and help pinpoint an effective therapy.
“When you’re dealing with bacteria, it only takes a few resistant cells to give a patient a bad outcome,” says Marina Walther-Antonio, Ph.D., associate consultant in the department of Surgery, and assistant professor in the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine Microbiome Program, with a joint appointment in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
“In principle, the research will enable the identification of pathogens within a few hours, buying precious time in what is often a life threatening battle,” Dr. Walther-Antonio says.
Rocketed to space
Mayo Clinic’s vast achievement of extracting DNA and RNA from single bacterial cells started as a study on the International Space Station as part of a large multidisciplinary team effort designated as BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment), where three types of tiny microorganisms spent almost two years in orbit. Once back on Earth, Dr. Walther-Antonio, an astrobiologist who worked with NASA Astrobiology Institute during her training, set out to investigate whether the cells had mutated in order to survive in space, away from Earth’s protection. She believed the study would play a key role in understanding how to treat diseases in humans.
The only thing missing was the tool needed to retrieve the genomic details that were locked tightly inside the cells.
Dr. Walther-Antonio turned to Mayo Clinic senior research fellow Yuguang Liu, Ph.D., an electrical engineer from Shanghai, China, who received her Ph.D. in biological applications at the University of Cincinnati.
“Dr. Liu is one of the only engineers in the world with this kind of expertise,” Dr. Walther-Antonio says.
Dr. Liu, an expert in microfluidic platforms, recalls when she eagerly accepted the challenge.
“I knew it had never been done before, but I came here to identify problems that needed to be solved,” she says.
Bacterial cells, found in every habitat on Earth, are generally smaller than a pinhead, with a thick protective outer wall to enable survival in harsh environments, such as the human gut, bloodstream, soil and waters in extreme temperatures or under high radiation. Some bacterial cells help plants absorb nitrogen, others assist with human digestion. Many cause diseases. All can divide and multiply exponentially, with mutations occurring throughout the process.
A unique tool
“Genomic sequencing has been done in human cells, but there is tremendous difficulty to do it in bacterial cells because they are very hard to break down without damaging the minute amount of DNA inside with methods compatible with downstream processing,” Dr. Liu explains.
Against great odds and in just months, Dr. Liu accomplished the unprecedented task by formulating a chemical-based “cocktail” to help break down the strong cell wall while keeping its fragile ingredients intact. She also made a special microfluidic platform — a credit card-sized piece of plastic with short, pin-like plastic spikes and raised lines that form a grid design for controlling and manipulating fluids. The chip contains nano-sized chambers for compartmentalizing single bacterial cells.
“This tool can take the bacterial single cells and extract the DNA and RNA and amplify them and sequence them to see exactly what they are and what they are doing,” Dr. Liu explains, as she connects the chip to a machine with dozens of clear thin tubes that distribute gas pressure to operate the chip for isolating the cells and DNA/RNA amplification.
“We are now able to look at the genome to understand what drugs they are resistant to,” Dr. Liu explains.
Dr. Walther-Antonio says she was amazed with how quickly Dr. Liu accomplished the task.
“She came to me with the results and said, ‘I think it kind of worked,’” Dr. Walther-Antonio recalls. “And I said, ‘Did you try it again?’ And she said, ‘Yes, 10 times.’”
Rapid sepsis diagnosis
Dr. Walther-Antonio says her team is now able to expand the technique to develop a real-time test for sepsis, which is often hard to diagnose and difficult to determine the most effective antibiotics to use on a patient. Without rapid treatment, sepsis can lead to septic shock, organ failure and death. In 2018, nearly 270,000 people in the U.S. died as a result of sepsis, according to the Centers for Disease Control.
“The standard of care for sepsis currently involves culturing a patient’s blood sample and that always takes at least a couple of days,” she says. “In the meantime, you’re given a cocktail of antibiotics to try to save your life, and those who survive suffer lifelong side effects.”
Dr. Walther-Antonio envisions an automated process for identifying bacterial pathogens in sepsis within a few hours for time sensitive intervention, with an overall goal of saving lives.
At the heart of the project, called “Answers in Hours,” is another microfluidic platform made by Dr. Liu — this one will separate human cells from bacterial cells.
“In a blood sample, there are very low amounts of bacteria,” Dr. Liu says. “Most are human cells, which overwhelmingly hide the bacterial cells. So in this platform, we have a measure to remove the human component so we are only detecting the bacteria.”
Dr. Walther-Antonio says knowing the genomic makeup of a tiny single bacterial cell opens the door to a world of discoveries, such as detecting the recurrence of pathogens early, and for basic science to understand what promotes the emergence of resistant strains.
She says research of patient sample testing is estimated to start in 2020, with plans to eventually incorporate the test into a clinical setting if success is reached.
The project was originally conceptualized by Heidi Nelson, M.D., and is also led by Nicholas Chia, Ph.D., Bernard and Edith Waterman co-director for the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine Microbiome Program, and Robin Patel, M.D., chair of the Division of Clinical Microbiology and director of the Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory.
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Four Conflict Negotiation Strategies for Resolving Value-Based Disputes
Four conflict negotiation strategies for bridging the divide at the negotiation table
In many negotiations, both parties are aware of what their interests are, and are willing to engage in a give-and-take process with the other party to come to agreement. In conflicts related to personal identity, and deeply-held beliefs or values, however, negotiation dynamics can become more complex and require alternative dispute resolution tactics for conflict negotiation. Parties may not be willing to make any concession that helps the other side, even if it would bring about a reciprocal concession that would be in their own favor.
Discover how to improve your dispute resolution skills in this free report, Dispute Resolution, Working Together Toward Conflict Resolution on the Job and at Home, from Harvard Law School.
In these value-based disputes, there are four practical steps that negotiators can take to tone down particularly contentious negotiations, and help talks move forward in a constructive manner. Here are four conflict negotiation strategies for resolving values-based disputes:
- Consider interests and values separately: Separate the person from the problem and engage issues individually at the negotiation table. Determine what worth your counterpart attaches to her positions and bargain accordingly.
- Engage in relationship-building dialogue: Build relationships through establishing rapport or common cause, bringing your counterpart to your side while helping yourself to understand her interests and values at the negotiation table.
- Appeal to overarching values: Appealing to common or shared values can help bridge the gap at the bargaining table by bringing you and your counterpart closer together in terms of bargaining interests. By establishing a common negotiating ground, you can begin to create value (and claim more value) using integrative negotiation strategies.
- Confront value differences directly: The areas where you and your counterpart do not see eye-to-eye are areas of growth and opportunities for value creation. Understanding your differences, you can best work to reconcile them in order to achieve bargaining success.
Even in cases where resolution of a dispute is not possible, these four approaches will allow for greater understanding between parties, and clarify where the differences of identity and values lie. In many cases, however, following these steps will help ensure that a values-based dispute can be negotiated successfully.
Why Conflict Negotiation Works
In the realm of global politics, there have been numerous occasions when groups with diametrically opposed values and identities have, through the therapeutic effects of truth-telling, cast aside generations of hatred and mistrust and transitioned into the long, slow process of reconciliation. When we think about the divided societies that have managed to build a workable peace after decades or even generations of bloodshed, such as South Africa and Ireland, we ought to be encouraged.
In the diversity-campaign case, someone with experience managing difficult conversations could help to promote a more productive exchange at the empathetic level. Empathic understanding goes deeper than the cognitive understanding described above, as it aims to enhance trust, reduce defensiveness, and potentially change relationships for the better. The point of empathetic understanding is not to transform parties’ identities or values, but rather to help them engage with each others’ beliefs and move past stereotypes. Ideally, they will be able to overcome misconceptions and find a path to cooperation.
Negotiators caught up in values-based disputes need not aim for settlement in the traditional sense. Increasing our respect for views contrary to our own and learning to live with fundamental differences in values and beliefs are themselves laudable goals. When we engage in values-based dialogue, we may not resolve our disagreements, yet we can strive to learn more about one another so that we can more easily live side by side.
Which conflict negotiation solutions have worked for you in the past? Let us know in the comments.
Related Article: Relationship Rules and Business Negotiations
Discover how to improve your dispute resolution skills in this free report, Dispute Resolution, Working Together Toward Conflict Resolution on the Job and at Home, from Harvard Law School.
Originally posted in 2012.
Adapted from “How to Negotiate When Values Are at Stake” by Lawrence Susskind (Ford Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology), published in the Negotiation newsletter, October 2010.
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Tags: alternative dispute resolution, bargaining table, Business Negotiations, conflict negotiation, conflict negotiation strategies, difficult conversations, dispute resolution, how to negotiate, integrative negotiation, integrative negotiation strategies, Lawrence Susskind, managing difficult conversations, negotiation, negotiation briefings, negotiation dynamics, negotiation newsletter, negotiation strategies, negotiation table, negotiators, value creationComments
6 Responses to “Four Conflict Negotiation Strategies for Resolving Value-Based Disputes”
- NEGOTIATION S. APRIL 1, 2012Excellent post. I used to be checking continuously this blog and I’m impressed! Very useful info specially the ultimate phase I handle such info much. I was seeking this certain information for a very lengthy time. Thank you and best of luck.REPLY
- GREG W. JULY 2, 2017The problem of with value based disputes is they quickly become a zero sum game. What you give up the other receives. Easily measured and the resulting win lose outcome is unpalatable. My strategy in relation to this sort of problem is 1. there must be an over riding intention to continue or develop a working relationship between the parties. 2. That all financial issue are connected to technical matters. I park the discussion on cost and focus on finding the best engineering/ technical solution. 3. Once you have the best solution you can consider the implication of costs. These discussion will identify options and provide the basis of commercial discussions. steps are: Relationship-rapport-options- commercial discussions.REPLY
- ADEBAYO J. JULY 25, 2018I wants daily news on negotiation and leadership events.REPLY
- TEBOGO D. JULY 25, 2019How much is the course?REPLY
- GAIL O. JULY 29, 2019You can find pricing https://www.pon.harvard.edu/category/courses-and-training/3-day/REPLY
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Understanding how to arrange the meeting space is a key aspect of preparing for negotiation. In this video, Professor Guhan Subramanian discusses a real world example of how seating arrangements can influence a negotiator’s success. This discussion was held at the 3 day executive education workshop for senior executives at the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School.
Guhan Subramanian is the Professor of Law and Business at the Harvard Law School and Professor of Business Law at the Harvard Business School.
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Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,800 undergraduate students and about 14,000 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States’ oldest institution of higher learning and one of the most prestigious in the world.
The Massachusetts Great and General Court authorized Harvard’s founding. In its early years, Harvard College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot‘s long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. A. Lawrence Lowell, who succeeded Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard’s land holdings and physical campus. James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II; he began to liberalize admissions after the war.
The university is composed of eleven principal academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout Greater Boston: its 209-acre (85 ha) original undergraduate campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Boston; the business school and many athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical, dental, and public health schools are in Boston’s Longwood Medical Area. Harvard’s endowment is valued at $40.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. While the nominal cost of attendance is high, the university’s endowment allows it to offer generous, no-loan financial aid packages and use need-blind admission. The Harvard Library is the world’s largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.
Harvard’s alumni include 8 U.S. presidents, more than 30 foreign heads of state, 188 living billionaires, 369 Rhodes Scholars, and 252 Marshall Scholars. As of March 2020, 160 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, and 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold, 41 silver, and 21 bronze), and founded many notable companies worldwide.
Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America‘s first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.
A 1643 publication gave the school’s purpose as “to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust”; in its early years trained many Puritan ministers. It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.
Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.
In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties.:1–4 When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas (defined by traditionalists as Unitarian ideas).:4–5:24
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz’s approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans’ “participation in the Divine Nature” and the possibility of understanding “intellectual existences.” Agassiz’s perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the “divine plan” in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time. The popularity of Agassiz’s efforts to “soar with Plato” probably also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the “official philosophy” of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school.
Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions. Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God in each person.
In 1876, Harvard became the first American university to award a PhD in economics.
During the 20th century, Harvard’s international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university’s scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominantly “old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians,” a group later called “WASPs.” A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from Harvard Yard, writing that “forcing” blacks and whites to live together “would increase a prejudice that … is most unfortunate and probably growing.”
President James Bryant Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard’s preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education.
Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from rich alumni of select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college was now open to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse.
Harvard’s graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard classes alongside men. Women were first admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945. Since 1971, Harvard has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard.
Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard’s first woman president on July 1, 2007. She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018.
In February 2020, the United States Department of Education started an investigation into whether Harvard University failed to properly report hundreds of millions of dollars in foreign gifts and contracts. This investigation is part of a growing probe by US federal agencies into whether China and other countries gained inappropriate influence and access into American higher education.
With the launch of the Harvard Financial Aid Initiative in 2004, the 21st century also saw an increased emphasis on providing financial aid to promote access for students from all economic backgrounds. Since 2004, there have been several significant expansions of Harvard’s financial aid program. As of 2020, more than half of Harvard College students receive loan-free scholarship aid from the university.
Harvard’s 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about 3 miles (5 km) west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard itself contains key administrative offices such as University Hall and Massachusetts Hall; libraries such as Widener, Pusey, Houghton, and Lamont; Memorial Church; academic buildings such as Sever Hall and Harvard Hall; and most freshman dormitories. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the “Quad”) which housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. Each residential house is a community with undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall, library, and recreational spaces. The houses were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness.
Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now home to Harvard’s Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common.
Between 2014 and 2016, Harvard University reported crime statistics for its main Cambridge campus that included 141 forcible sex offenses, 33 robberies, 46 aggravated assaults, 151 burglaries, and 32 cases of motor vehicle theft.
Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge and Allston, on which it pays property taxes. This includes the Allston Doubletree Hotel, The Inn at Harvard, and the Harvard Square Hotel.
Harvard Business School and many athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358-acre (145 ha) campus in Allston, a Boston neighborhood just across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses.
Intending a major expansion, Harvard now owns more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge. A ten-year plan calls for 1.4 million square feet (130,000 square meters) of new construction and 500,000 square feet (50,000 square meters) of renovations, including new and renovated buildings at Harvard Business School, a hotel and conference center, a multipurpose institutional building, renovations to graduate student housing and Harvard Stadium, new athletics facilities, new laboratories and classrooms for the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), expansion of the Harvard Education Portal, and a district energy facility.
In 2020–2021, SEAS will expand into the new, 500,000+ square foot Science and Engineering Complex (SEC) in Allston. The SEC will be adjacent to the Enterprise Research Campus in synergy with Harvard Business School and the Harvard Innovation Lab to encourage technology- and life science-focused startups as well as collaborations with mature companies.
Harvard Medical School, the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health are located on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus. Several of Harvard’s affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also in Longwood, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Additional affiliates, most notably Massachusetts General Hospital, are located throughout the Greater Boston area.
Harvard also owns and operates the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection in Washington, D.C., the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts, the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts, the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy, the Harvard Shanghai Center in Shanghai, China, and the Arnold Arboretum in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston.
Organization and administration
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Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University. There are 16,000 staff and faculty, including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors.
The Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest Harvard faculty and has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are nine other graduate and professional faculties as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.
Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX.
Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world, valued at about $40.9 billion as of 2019. During the Great Recession, it suffered significant losses that forced large budget cuts, but the endowment has since recovered. One of the most visible results of Harvard’s attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting of construction of the $1.2 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents.
Since 2016, Narv Narvekar has been the CEO of the endowment. Almost $2 billion annually is distributed from the endowment to fund operations. Harvard’s ability to fund its degree and financial aid programs is highly dependent on the performance of its endowment; a poor performance in fiscal year 2016 led to a 4.4% cut in the number of graduate students funded by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Endowment income is critical as only 22% of revenue is from tuition, fees, room, and board.
Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard’s endowment from holdings the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa, the tobacco industry, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, the fossil fuel industry, and the private prison industry.
During the divestment from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic “shantytown” on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown. But the Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, responding that “operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups.” Eventually, the university reduced its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.
Harvard’s undergraduate admissions process is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation as “more selective, lower transfer-in.” Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities, and personal qualities. For the undergraduate class of 2022, Harvard had 42,749 applicants, accepting 2,024 (4.7%) and enrolling 1,653. The middle 50% range of SAT scores of enrolled freshmen was 720–780 for reading and writing and 740–800 for math, while the middle 50% range of the ACT composite score was 33–35. The average high school grade point average (GPA) was 4.18.
Harvard College ended its early admissions program in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and minority applicants applying to selective universities, but for the class of 2016 and beyond, an early action program was reintroduced. The freshman class that entered in the fall of 2017 was the first to be predominantly (50.8%) nonwhite.
A federal lawsuit alleges that Harvard’s admissions policies discriminate against Asian Americans, who tend to be overrepresented among students with high academic achievement. A 2019 district court decision in the case (which has since been appealed) found no evidence of explicit racial bias but did not rule out a small amount of implicit bias. Harvard has implemented more implicit bias training for its admissions staff in accordance with the court’s recommendations.
Harvard’s admissions preference for children of alumni, employees, and donors has been criticized as favoring white and wealthy candidates. One study based on data made public by the lawsuit found that from 2014 to 2019, 43% of white students admitted were children of alumni or employees, relatives of donors, or recruited athletes. The authors estimated about three-quarters of these students would have been rejected had they been considered as white students not falling into one of these categories.
As of the 2019–2020 academic year, Harvard College tuition was about $48,000, contributing to about $70,000 in billed costs. Harvard’s extensive fundraising allows it to offer one of the most generous financial aid programs in the country, with need-blind admission and 100% of demonstrated financial need met for both domestic and international students. Families with incomes below $65,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, while families earning between $65,000 and $150,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes. Financial aid is solely based on need; no merit or athletic scholarships are offered.
Teaching and learning
Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929 and offers 50 undergraduate concentrations (majors), 134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees. For the 2018–2019 academic year, Harvard granted 1,665 baccalaureate degrees, 1,013 graduate degrees, and 5,695 professional degrees.
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has an arts and sciences instructional focus. Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration. Between 2008 and 2019, undergraduate students were required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies of the World, and United States in the World. In 2019, a new General Education program was implemented with four categories: “Aesthetics and Culture,” “Ethics and Civics,” “Histories, Societies, Individuals,” and “Science and Technology in Society.” Although some introductory courses have large enrollments, most courses are small: the median class size is just 12 students.
Harvard’s academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early September and ending in mid-May. Undergraduates typically take four courses per term to graduate on time. In most concentrations, students can pursue either a basic program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and advanced coursework. Harvard hosts chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa as well as various committees and departments that award hundreds of named prizes annually. Along with other universities, Harvard has been accused of grade inflation, although there is evidence that the quality of its student body has also increased. The number of students who receive Latin honors was reduced from 90% to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the honors of “John Harvard Scholar” and “Harvard College Scholar” are now given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class.
University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage a “culture of cheating.” In 2012, dozens of students were expelled for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students. In 2013, a survey suggested that 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the university. These incidents prompted the university to adopt an honor code, and the number of alleged academic violations has since decreased.
Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and remains a preeminent research university with “very high” research activity (R1) and comprehensive doctoral programs across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine according to the Carnegie Classification.
With Harvard Medical School consistently ranking first among medical schools for research, biomedical research is an area of particular strength for the university. More than 11,000 faculty members and over 1,600 medical and graduate students contribute to discovery and innovation at Harvard Medical School as well as its 15 affiliated hospitals and research institutes. Harvard Medical School and its affiliates attracted $1.65 billion in competitive research grants from the National Institutes of Health in 2019, more than twice as much as any other university.
Research opportunities are available to undergraduates as well, as early as their freshman year. Numerous mechanisms for funding and faculty mentorship are available during both term-time and the summer.
Libraries and museums
The Harvard Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the world.
Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America’s oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.
The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum covers Asian, Mediterranean, and Islamic art, the Busch–Reisinger Museum (formerly the Germanic Museum) covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, the Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier and housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Harvard Museum of the Ancient Near East featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.
Reputation and rankings
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Among overall rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has ranked Harvard as the world’s top university every year since it was released. When QS and Times Higher Education collaborated to publish the Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009, Harvard held the top spot every year and continued to hold first place on THE World Reputation Rankings ever since it was released in 2011. In 2019, it was ranked first worldwide by SCImago Institutions Rankings.
Among rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance (2019–2020) and Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities (2011), which measured universities’ numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies. According to annual polls done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named “dream colleges” in the United States, both for students and parents. Additionally, having made significant investments in its engineering school in recent years, Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by Times Higher Education.
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The Harvard Crimson fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the NCAA Division I Ivy League, more than any other NCAA Division I college in the country. Every two years, the Harvard and Yale track and field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University and Cambridge University team, a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships.
Harvard’s athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply “The Game.” While Harvard’s football team is no longer one of the country’s best as it often was a century ago during football’s early days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both Harvard and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. The stadium’s structure actually played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, Walter Camp, former captain of the Yale football team, suggested widening the field to open up the game. But the stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface, so other steps had to be taken. Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season. These included legalizing the forward pass, perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport’s history.
Even older than Harvard–Yale football rivalry, the Harvard–Yale Regatta is held each June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing. Other sports in which Harvard teams are particularly strong are men’s ice hockey, squash, and men’s and women’s fencing. Harvard’s men’s ice hockey team won the school’s first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989, and Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003. Harvard was the first Ivy League school to win an NCAA Championship in a women’s sport when its women’s lacrosse team won in 1990.
The school color is crimson, which is also the name of Harvard’s sports teams and the student newspaper, The Harvard Crimson. The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard’s 21st and longest-serving president (1869–1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta.
Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are “Ten Thousand Men of Harvard” and “Harvardiana.” While “Fair Harvard” is actually the alma mater, “Ten Thousand Men” is better known outside the university. The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs and other cheers at football and hockey games. These were parodied by Harvard alumnus Tom Lehrer in his song “Fight Fiercely, Harvard,” which he composed while an undergraduate.
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2nd President of the United States John Adams (AB, 1755; AM, 1758)
6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams (AB, 1787; AM, 1798)
19th President of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes (LLB, 1845)
26th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Theodore Roosevelt (AB, 1880)
32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (AB, 1903)
American author, political activist, and lecturer Helen Keller (AB, Radcliffe College, 1904)
35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy (AB, 1940)
45th Vice President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Al Gore (AB, 1969)
24th President of Liberia and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (MPA, 1971)
Minority Leader of the United States Senate Chuck Schumer (AB, 1971; JD, 1974)
11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto (AB, Radcliffe College, 1973)
43rd President of the United States George W. Bush (MBA, 1975)
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States John Roberts (AB, 1976; JD 1979)
Founder of Microsoft Bill Gates (COL, 1977; LLD, 2007)
Former Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon (MPA, 1984)
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Elena Kagan (JD, 1986)
Former First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama (JD, 1988)
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Neil Gorsuch (JD, 1991)
44th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama (JD, 1991)
Founder of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg (COL, 2006; LLD, 2017)
Harvard’s faculty includes numerous renowned scholars such as biologists E. O. Wilson and William Kaelin Jr.; biophysicists Adam Cohen and Xiaowei Zhuang; physicists Lisa Randall, Subir Sachdev, and Howard Georgi; astrophysicists Alyssa A. Goodman and John M. Kovac; mathematicians Shing-Tung Yau and Joe Harris; computer scientists Michael O. Rabin and Leslie Valiant; chemists Elias James Corey, Dudley R. Herschbach, and George M. Whitesides; literary critics Helen Vendler, Stephen Greenblatt, Louis Menand, and Stephanie Burt; composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands; lawyers Alan Dershowitz and Lawrence Lessig; historian Henry Louis Gates Jr.; psychologists Steven Pinker and Daniel Gilbert; economists Amartya Sen, Greg Mankiw, Robert Barro, Stephen Marglin, Jason Furman, Michael Kremer, Oliver Hart, Raj Chetty, Lawrence Summers, Eric Maskin, David Laibson, Andrei Shleifer, and Matthew Rabin; philosophers Harvey Mansfield, Shirley Williams, Cornel West, and Michael J. Sandel; and political scientists Robert Putnam, Steven Levitsky, Danielle Allen, and Joseph Nye.
Literature and popular culture
The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. “In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness,” film critic Paul Sherman has said.
- The Sound and the Fury (1929) and Absalom! Absalom! (1936) by William Faulkner both depict Harvard student life.
- Of Time and the River (1935) by Thomas Wolfe is a fictionalized autobiography that includes his alter ego’s time at Harvard.
- The Late George Apley (1937) by John P. Marquand parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century; it won the Pulitzer Prize.
- The Second Happiest Day (1953) by John P. Marquand Jr. portrays the Harvard of the World War II generation.
- The Accidental Billionaires (2009) by Ben Mezrich chronicles Mark Zuckerberg‘s time at Harvard College and his founding of Facebook.
Harvard’s policy since 1970 has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere.
- Love Story (1970) concerns a romance between a wealthy Harvard hockey player (Ryan O’Neal) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means (Ali MacGraw): it is screened annually for incoming freshmen.
- The Paper Chase (1973)
- With Honors (1994)
- Good Will Hunting (1997) was written by Matt Damon as a Harvard undergraduate in a playwriting class.
- Prozac Nation (2001)
- Legally Blonde (2001)
- Stealing Harvard (2002)
- Angels & Demons (2009)
- The Social Network (2010) is based on real events.
- 2012 Harvard cheating scandal
- Academic regalia of Harvard University
- Colonial colleges
- Gore Hall
- Harvard College
- Harvard University Police Department
- Harvard University Press
- Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society
- I, Too, Am Harvard
- List of oldest universities in continuous operation
- List of universities by number of billionaire alumni
- List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University
- Harvard College social clubs
- Outline of Harvard University
- President of Harvard University
- Secret Court of 1920
- Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology
- The Observatory of Economic Complexity
- Broad Institute
- Harvard’s Veritas appears on the university’s arms; heraldically speaking, however, a ‘motto’ is a word or phrase displayed on a scroll in conjunction with a shield of arms. Since 1692, University seals have borne Christo et Ecclesiae (for Christ and the Church) in this manner, arguably making that phrase the university’s motto in a heraldic sense. This legend is otherwise not in general use today.
- Julie A. Reuben (1996). The Making of the Modern University: Intellectual Transformation and the Marginalization of Morality. University of Chicago Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-226-71020-4.
- An appropriation of £400 toward a “school or college” was voted on October 28, 1636 (OS), at a meeting which convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28. Some sources consider October 28, 1636 (OS) (November 7, 1636 NS) to be the date of founding. Harvard’s 1936 tercentenary celebration treated September 18 as the founding date, though 1836 bicentennial was celebrated on September 8, 1836. Sources: meeting dates, Quincy, Josiah (1860). History of Harvard University. 117 Washington Street, Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co., p. 586, “At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month (October, 1636)… the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year….” Tercentenary dates: “Cambridge Birthday”. Time. September 28, 1936. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2006.: “Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding. This was Sept. 8, 1637 under the Julian calendar. Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept. 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;” “on Oct. 28, 1636 … £400 for that ‘school or college’ [was voted by] the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.” Bicentennial date: Marvin Hightower (September 2, 2003). “Harvard Gazette: This Month in Harvard History”. Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006. Retrieved September 15, 2006., “Sept. 8, 1836 – Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard’s Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres “Fair Harvard.” … guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr., Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, ‘that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8, 1936.'” Tercentary opening of Quincy’s sealed package: The New York Times, September 9, 1936, p. 24, “Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard. It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary”: “September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard’s tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the ‘mysterious’ package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836.”
- Zhang, Cindy. “Harvard Endowment Returns 6.5 Percent for Fiscal Year 2019”. The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
- “Harvard at a Glance”. Harvard University. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
- “Harvard Common Data Set 2018-2019, Part B” (PDF). Harvard University.
- Rudolph, Frederick (1961). The American College and University. University of Georgia Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8203-1285-1.
- Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America’s University. Oxford University Press. pp. 463–481. ISBN 0-19-514457-0.
Harvard’s professional schools… won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. […] Harvard’s age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes.
- Spaulding, Christina (1989). “Sexual Shakedown”. In Trumpbour, John (ed.). How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp. 326–336. ISBN 0-89608-284-9.
… [Harvard’s] tremendous institutional power and prestige […] Within the nation’s (arguably) most prestigious institution of higher learning …
- David Altaner (March 9, 2011). “Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports”. Bloomberg. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
- Collier’s Encyclopedia. Macmillan Educational Co. 1986.
Harvard University, one of the world’s most prestigious institutions of higher learning, was founded in Massachusetts in 1636.
- Newport, Frank. “Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place”. Gallup.
- Leonhardt, David (September 17, 2006). “Ending Early Admissions: Guess Who Wins?”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
The most prestigious college in the world, of course, is Harvard, and the gap between it and every other university is often underestimated.
- Hoerr, John (1997). We Can’t Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard. Temple University Press. p. 3.
- Wong, Alia (September 11, 2018). “At Private Colleges, Students Pay for Prestige”. The Atlantic.
Americans tend to think of colleges as falling somewhere on a vast hierarchy based largely on their status and brand recognition. At the top are the Harvards and the Stanfords, with their celebrated faculty, groundbreaking research, and perfectly manicured quads.
- Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America’s University. Oxford University Press. pp. 463–481. ISBN 0-19-514457-0.
- Story, Ronald (1975). “Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865”. Journal of Social History. 8 (3): 94–121. doi:10.1353/jsh/8.3.94.
- Farrell, Betty G. (1993). Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1593-7.
- “Member Institutions and years of Admission”. Association of American Universities. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- “Faculties and Allied Institutions” (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- “Faculties and Allied Institutions” (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- “How Aid Works”. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
- “Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013”. Harvard University Library. 2013. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- “The Nation’s Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held”. American Library Association. May 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- “Speaking Volumes”. Harvard Gazette. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. February 26, 1998. Archived from the original on September 9, 1999.
- Harvard Media Relations. “Quick Facts”. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
- “Five Harvard students named Rhodes Scholars”. The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
- Kathleen Elkins (May 18, 2018). “More billionaires went to Harvard than to Stanford, MIT and Yale combined”. CNBC. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- “Statistics”. http://www.marshallscholarship.org.
- “The complete list of Fields Medal winners”. areppim AG. 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- “Pulitzer Prize Winners”. Harvard University. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- “Harvard Olympians”. gocrimson.com. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- “Companies – Entrepreneurship – Harvard Business School”. entrepreneurship.hbs.edu. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- “The instrument behind New England’s first literary flowering”. Harvard University. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- “Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers, The First North American Printing Press” (PDF). Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- “John Harvard Facts, Information”. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
He bequeathed £780 (half his estate) and his library of 320 volumes to the new established college at Cambridge, Mass., which was named in his honor.
- Wright, Louis B. (2002). The Cultural Life of the American Colonies. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-486-42223-7.
- Grigg, John A.; Mancall, Peter C. (2008). British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-59884-025-4.
- Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs (July 26, 2007). “Harvard guide intro”. Harvard University. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved August 29,2010.
- John Leverett – History – Office of the President Archived June 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
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