HARVARD UNIVERSITY – ->´´Harvard’s endowment is valued at $40.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution.[4] The Harvard Library is the world’s largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.[15][16][17][18] Harvard’s alumni include 8 U.S. presidents, more than 30 foreign heads of state, 188 living billionaires, 369 Rhodes Scholars, and 252 Marshall Scholars.[19][20][21] As of March 2020, 160 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, and 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers.[22] In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold, 41 silver, and 21 bronze), and founded many notable companies worldwide.[23][24][25]´´ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_University & OTHER VERY IMPORTANT INFORMATION LIKE SOME LINKS, WEBSITES AND IMAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_University

http://www.gmail.com http://www.google.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.wordpress.com http://www.harvard.edu http://www.facebook.com/scientificblog http://www.princeton.edu http://www.facebook.com http://www.twitter.com http://www.youtube.com http://www.linkedin.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.stanford.edu http://www.nobelprize.org http://www.nasa.gov http://www.mit.edu http://www.famerp.br http://www.unicamp.br http://www.ucla.edu http://www.caltech.edu http://www.michigan.edu http://www.cornell.edu http://www.yale.edu http://www.columbia.edu http://www.ox.ac.uk/ https://www.cam.ac.uk/ https://www.karolinska.se/ https://www.manchester.ac.uk/ http://cnpq.br/ 

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Rolls-Royce ACCEL, all-electric aircraft is expected to reach 480 km/h https://www.inceptivemind.com/rolls-royce-accel-electric-aircraft-expected-reach-480-km-h/10906/?fbclid=IwAR2pFuPJ8VDMxolR9V54UyXXbvnvea3w9-wQibZRcNulBe79rRS1ui-EY6w

BYAMIT MALEWARDECEMBER 21, 2019 INVENTION

Facebook Is Building Its Own Operating System To Replace Android

By Kavita Iyer -December 21, 2019 https://www.techworm.net/2019/12/facebook-operating-system-android.html?fbclid=IwAR3IAqT6gMdimetwVTd-qALNyGIAHW5Kj6uWx1chs-BJyBEu1VOeRHR4sps

Build a Stunning Website With WordPress Offline

The Absolute Beginners Guilde

Ratings 4.74 / 5.00 https://skillenhance.in/build-a-stunning-website-with-wordpress-offline?fbclid=IwAR1c-Omr722vr8S_hY2PLHYoUGa2_WGAC78eh4Sik4GbdOdHBQ-ksuNgQ7o

Boston Heart settles kickback allegations with $26.7M payment

Boston Heart Diagnostics of Framingham, Mass., agreed on Dec. 9 to pay $26.67 million to resolve False Claims Act allegations suggesting it paid for patient referrals and improperly billed federal programs for lab testing, U.S. Attorney McGregor W. Scott announced. https://www.cardiovascularbusiness.com/topics/healthcare-economics/boston-heart-settles-kickback-allegations

A new Gene Therapy Strategy, courtesy of Nature https://lifeboat.com/blog/2019/12/a-new-gene-therapy-strategy-courtesy-of-nature?fbclid=IwAR3hwwjE-7ceo5HIg4A8yjrDZyok89SSGhjzOtGLDzCN2GnmVwj0-y5Eh_Y

Categories

December 19, 2019,   UncategorizedSpread the love https://scitechupdates.com/a-new-gene-therapy-strategy-courtesy-of-nature/

Dec 20, 2019

New boson appears in nuclear decay, breaks standard model

Posted by Genevieve Klien in category: futurism https://lifeboat.com/blog/2019/12/new-boson-appears-in-nuclear-decay-breaks-standard-model?fbclid=IwAR0vY8VRjMe_sV5wIprQ8ACFzRlBBwTfxsrRL8CTr4Y5bX4Cjtj4jv0XCuU

DECEMBER 20, 2019

Boeing sends ‘Rosie’ dummy to space in key crewless mission

by Ivan Couronne https://phys.org/news/2019-12-boeing-rosie-dummy-space-key.html?fbclid=IwAR3NenUXD9yqGEx2ugzROUauzQOK8De0M8CiWhXF6d9sbAsq7avOInY0pOo

HEALTH

With A New Microscope, Researchers May Be Able to See DNA Activity

#33 in our top science stories of 2019.

By Karen WeintraubDecember 21, 2019 3:00 PM https://www.discovermagazine.com/health/with-a-new-microscope-researchers-may-be-able-to-see-dna-activity?fbclid=IwAR2Xokzz2wAWqo1C2qnuOD-8aAwgyHWR-TLRD2YhcQr9btAr9BCxyQgHavU

IBM develops a heavy metal-free battery using seawater materials

BYAMIT MALEWARDECEMBER 20, 2019 EMERGING TECH https://www.inceptivemind.com/ibm-heavy-metal-free-battery-seawater-materials/10884/?fbclid=IwAR30SDuyhaeQZqUcWiEwZRkI5iNT5WMTngfZc83Y9TSuTNpGR9e79DaFzxI

Biosensors could save future astronauts before they’re in danger

There are no urgent care centers on Mars.

By David Grossman on December 19, 2019 https://www.inverse.com/article/61722-astronaut-health?fbclid=IwAR0VztgZ82en40ciK720P9uLBWahVIRti-Zv7guCAW1OvOyriU65EMWa-LM

DEC 22, 2019 11:56 AM PSTShare 

Viruses Can Escape the Effects of CRISPR by Shielding Their Genomes

WRITTEN BY: Carmen Leitch https://www.labroots.com/trending/microbiology/16418/viruses-escape-effects-crispr-shielding-genomes?fbclid=IwAR2whCaIWFRHOz4duQKtlr1rPsFK1xUYYhwR7W5FajXERUL9fKxts8p8lgQ

 

Microsoft Announces Azure Quantum, An Open Cloud Ecosystem

Navin Bondade https://techgrabyte.com/microsoft-azure-quantum-cloud-ecosystem/?fbclid=IwAR25s7uif66l4ySLhsf8vASp16kwCtfEjNFcTmeiL7hwpZzOvBHndUqlb_w

How to Use Tradeoffs to Create Value in Your Negotiations

Through cooperation and compromise, you can increase the value of negotiations

BY PON STAFF — ON DECEMBER 19TH, 2019 / WIN-WIN NEGOTIATIONS https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/win-win-daily/get-off-on-the-right-foot/?fbclid=IwAR0symKEr0GTrsLMvnSnEIuMimuVpJqFaLBlqAowi3I_ORsTTq2PWKje0jU

  •  

Arizona: Mumps outbreak in Maricopa County, 1st in decades

by NEWS DESKDecember 19, 2019 http://outbreaknewstoday.com/arizona-mumps-outbreak-in-maricopa-county-1st-in-decades-99985/?fbclid=IwAR01Y5eQNxFgQVnXCVY_fYguR6JNazunyR-MrF2ZCyGODF_Ru853M7khbCw

Boeing Starliner to Land Sunday Morning https://blogs.nasa.gov/commercialcrew/2019/12/21/boeing-starliner-to-land-sunday-morning/?utm_source=FBPAGE&utm_medium=NASA+-+National+Aeronautics+and+Space+Administration&utm_campaign=NASASocial&linkId=79472016&fbclid=IwAR1cCHexuf3WdvXwua6WiiQkpljM6EB9yYk38oMl4F6rK0ItGGWxyqbJTeo

Space Tourism Is About to Push Civilian Astronaut Medicine Into the Final Frontier

By Meghan Bartels May 21, 2019

Are you healthy enough for spaceflight, or just wealthy enough? https://www.space.com/space-tourism-flights-health-risks.html?fbclid=IwAR21y_0gd3rrkSU7dDKRwpZWI_8yBrCUVAtMpGVrzDp3eYeunZv-rkYWAYg

Discovering a new fundamental underwater force

 December 20, 2019 , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill https://m.phys.org/news/2019-12-fundamental-underwater.html?fbclid=IwAR0aerb_E4IQZnIw3cbi_AKrVJDm5DL407KXN1gm_UrofsKQyJSoBBjbus4

The Science of Consciousness, a hypothesis https://evadeli.blogspot.com/2015/10/the-science-of-consciousness-hypothesis.html?fbclid=IwAR1SPRDcc3syeDcX1BFDBjrhbkr36kZ3bYhbRMOuwkkit8FSZd8_tW7hcV4

http://www.google.com http://www.physicsmindboggler.co/how-quantum-computers-work/?fbclid=IwAR1Oh-o2CvgVlIFS7rUxZpI7UKIxOSOD7wQGVx2IM72pKu_-Y-gwg6yAOIY

Novartis in talks with patients upset about lottery-like gene therapy giveaway

The company said on Friday that it will be open to refining the process in the future, but it is not making any changes at this time.Reuters  |  December 21, 2019, 07:57 IST https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/pharma/novartis-in-talks-with-patients-upset-about-lottery-like-gene-therapy-giveaway/72910731

https://www.scientificworldinfo.com/

Learn Immuno-oncology Online

Advance your career with a Harvard Medical School certificate. https://onlinelearning.hms.harvard.edu/hmx/hmx-pro/immuno-oncology/?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=sponsored&utm_campaign=fbconv_pimmonc__oncnurs_maus&fbclid=IwAR1y_RXhGhANsmQQCai5zrh5iRSaxYwwYAkrIYavpmWPoLW7_sEx2AAimNs

First Images of an “Upgraded” CRISPR Tool

NewsDecember 18, 2019 https://www.cuimc.columbia.edu/news/first-images-upgraded-crispr-tool?fbclid=IwAR362XRG-qVp6RnsFUb9b1Vh5apNgYn63_11EjC90wFQKuRaOkXbg3tSBZg

WHY WE DON´T THINK LIKE COMPUTERS If we thought like computers, we would repeat package directions over and over again unless someone told us to stop https://mindmatters.ai/2019/12/why-we-dont-think-like-computers/?fbclid=IwAR3mBIIky-XEGX6AoIFSUMemDU_K9Dhd9GPUhGumSkOcjp3JsVSI0F182ko

“Oumuamua” a messenger from interstellar space! https://www.spacedocumentary.com/2019/03/oumuamua-messenger-from-interstellar.html?m=1&fbclid=IwAR054YRmBg1AAg_9eO-h4LpoBqHNnRV5Tvp2yarUnnHncS427uqSvdqGVl8

The Standard Model


The Standard Model explains how the basic building blocks of matter interact, governed by four fundamental forces. https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model?fbclid=IwAR0c0pcnTqaA700s6mfDg4luNqCVHvVgA1yOzMod-i4iSkpG1nZzo1n1Ggs

Japan will build the world’s largest neutrino detector https://lifeboat.com/blog/2019/12/japan-will-build-the-worlds-largest-neutrino-detector?fbclid=IwAR3PFItfZu5rO2ui8nRt9Roo8Ccl9rft9ux5j506oe6o6GbZduQcDT9OaNI

The best science images of the year: 2019 in pictures

A black hole’s perilous edge, anti-poaching warriors, whisky webs and more. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03839-z?fbclid=IwAR0UTXyLXg3ZQbtF-4Xy47JCser2RwmLcX6Mh_IPX_rtIZEWaAZRJ1DKXMU

Scientists Develop Liquid Fuel That Can Store The Sun’s Energy For Up to 18 Years https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-develop-liquid-that-sucks-up-sun-s-energy?fbclid=IwAR2SENhF4pOEpWE4D9cumChjg9K1QUAgxfaNz9E0XqGbvIo_CHIbxj4YzHU

É preciso perdoar: ciência confirma ligação da mágoa com infarto

Médicos dão dicas de como perdoar e, assim, ser mais saudável https://www.correio24horas.com.br/noticia/nid/e-preciso-perdoar-ciencia-confirma-ligacao-da-magoa-com-infarto/?fbclid=IwAR0Mx3heWiXONoAUfl4ylBb2rvQM_BF4v6iSAUSts3sxHDeNfsL5lvAfHzk

A Gentle Introduction to Probabilistic Programming Languages

Probabilistic programming is becoming one of the most active areas of development in the machine learning space. What are the top languages we should know about? https://towardsdatascience.com/a-gentle-introduction-to-probabilistic-programming-languages-ba9105d9cbce

The basis of the universe may not be energy or matter but information

In this radical view, the universe is a giant supercomputer processing particles as bits.   

PHILIP PERRY27 August, 2017 https://bigthink.com/philip-perry/the-basis-of-the-universe-may-not-be-energy-or-matter-but-information?utm_medium=Social&facebook=1&utm_source=Facebook&fbclid=IwAR17XNrRzvSs-Uoj6lSMP-z9rp6_NR1bRheuXEoItBtkNodr2KaRvXK457c#Echobox=1576959695

Ask Ethan: Can Black Holes Ever Spit Anything Back Out? https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2019/12/21/ask-ethan-can-black-holes-ever-spit-anything-back-out/?fbclid=IwAR3pvdfxG5ZFCADMauQQG2e80fSDCjggg2BiTjz0-iLJAAjursMwWTlE7JI#1f4bb4b1701a

US government lists fictional nation Wakanda as trade partner https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-50849559?SThisFB&fbclid=IwAR1jjdxciQcL-gMWiELA8qC6r2ieD84awrgwTHBjPu2Am3CW19d03_Vej7M

How to Make a Speech Emotion Recognizer Using Python And Scikit-learn Abdou Rockikz · 29 Jul 2019 https://www.thepythoncode.com/article/building-a-speech-emotion-recognizer-using-sklearn?fbclid=IwAR35Q2MKytBD5XHxzdolu15y1ytCcwh7vyp9pUtuWWF1RvJuROh0zrQUygI

BOOKS

IIT JEE Main Complete Mathematics by Ravi Prakash pdf http://xn--webducation-dbb.com/iit-jee-main-complete-mathematics-by-ravi-prakash-pdf/?fbclid=IwAR11iy7XssZUpsEBx1sCW3Z8Q_xoQvogGutnaIT6GXymFl69C-Pyb23_mpE

New algorithm estimates stroke risk from 1 blood drawAnicka Slachta | December 20, 2019 | Vascular & Endovascular https://www.cardiovascularbusiness.com/topics/vascular-endovascular/new-algorithm-estimates-stroke-risk-blood-draw

Jovem de 18 anos cria próteses para cães deficientes e ajuda eles a terem uma nova vida https://portalamigocao.com.br/jovem-de-18-anos-cria-proteses-para-caes-deficientes/?fbclid=IwAR1jWw2dWmJLhuv6vU6q4wn7RFv6MovziwHISiHd9LfMX8dujT2E-GUEiFo

 

Value Claiming in Negotiation

Prepare to get your fair share with value claiming when negotiating.

BY KATIE SHONK — ON JUNE 20TH, 2019 / NEGOTIATION SKILLS https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/negotiation-skills-daily/value-claiming-in-negotiation/?fbclid=IwAR22f-kNqmhBOuDeq4A9wOfkNTr-fW8Wnw02MCqKduS9jL75OjIiyGTxJyw

😀 Enlightened Beings on the Nature of Time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kW8CwGUW8vk&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR3vvauP5WMM1bs3w_adRaQA0M9ntuJp-M2OAUbVSqyZN-blV4-nz1kY-4w

sábado, 4 de enero de 2020

Aubrey de Grey Speaks on Organizing the Movement

Ira B.Hosted by
Ira B.
https://www.meetup.com/es-ES/The-Health-and-Life-Extension-Movement/events/266090850/?fbclid=IwAR2k_HjFtDqwaZ_SMsOT2Y-fJDoG0WK_QkuAOTGohg-Nj5duaTkiPxT2QHo

Portadores de autismo terão direito a identidade especial

Por CBN Curitiba -18 de dezembro de 2019 https://cbncuritiba.com/portadores-de-autismo-terao-direito-a-identidade-especial/?fbclid=IwAR1nP1uv7nXt-BkuAOQyS2RtSloXHsRFo_LxONsPX5l5fsqV0aIDagE6Cug

RNA-Seq Data Analysis Workshop
Quality Control, Read Mapping, Visualization and Downstream Analyses https://www.ecseq.com/workshops/workshop_2020-01-RNA-Seq-data-analysis?utm_source=Facebook&utm_medium=post&utm_campaign=Facebook_RNA-Seq_March_2020

When the Surgeon Is a Mom

Nearly 40 percent of pregnant surgery residents consider dropping out. Many wonder: Why can’t the system accommodate motherhood? https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/20/science/doctors-surgery-motherhood-medical-school.html?fbclid=IwAR0OvGD8H2VoZGtEr05k3h-cmMXjLhWVNKYXB_eeQ38-85wPreymClMQtJA

DECEMBER 18, 2019 BY EVAN GOUGH

NASA Will Be Building a Quiet, Supersonic Aircraft: the X-59

NASA’s X-Plane Program has been around for 70 years. Over the course of those decades, the agency has developed a series of airplanes and rockets to test out various technologies and design advances. Now NASA has cleared the newest one, the X-59, for final assembly. https://www.universetoday.com/144403/nasa-will-be-building-a-quiet-supersonic-aircraft-the-x-59/?fbclid=IwAR3HgAyUid8lVk6kO1eeDA-HZ58WZ2RZ1CCSlNPDZkn2C7lERq231pmmF-A

DPhil in Computational Discovery

About

The DPhil in Computational Discovery is a multidisciplinary programme spanning projects in Advanced Molecular Simulations, Machine Learning and Quantum Computing to develop new tools and methodologies for life sciences discovery.  

This innovative course has been developed in close partnership between Oxford University and IBM Research. Each research project has been co-developed by Oxford academics working with IBM scientists. Students will have a named IBM supervisor/s and many opportunities for collaboration with IBM throughout the studentship. https://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/graduate/courses/dphil-computational-discovery?wssl=1&fbclid=IwAR2tf03jckbU7GJoRhqx3waDmKOkg8G6hp-8SBN3kVhgMUMHtRRrK8qZs3A

Mapping Up and Coming Artificial Intelligence Trends in 2020

Sanam Malhotra | 3rd December 2019 https://artificialintelligence.oodles.io/blogs/artificial-intelligence-trends-2020/?fbclid=IwAR1t4bcODgsUh6pDgq2N2j0xo8TMjkjelgz6qi5asFGcQ8T74MJqQVfkV6k

Facing the Future: New Applications and Trends in 3D Facial Recognition

Posted byNil sDecember 20, 2019Posted inUncategorized

3D face recognition is one of the facial recognition methods in which the 3D geometry of the human expression is used. The 3D face recognition methods achieve considerably higher accuracy than the 2D. The technology has been gaining importance due to the benefits it provides over traditional surveillance techniques such as biometrics. Governments across the globe are investing significant resources in 3D facial recognition technology. https://aqua6.water.blog/2019/12/20/facing-the-future-new-applications-and-trends-in-3d-facial-recognition/?fbclid=IwAR3VKwNT8vUJtdaZ81MwOJN7rZ9bVrGd_NQoDJcEqnc-5JjaOHS7G_3MrQc

Giant Black Hole at the Center of Our Galaxy May Have a Friend

By Smadar Naoz 5 days ago https://www.space.com/supermassive-black-hole-hiding-milky-way.html?fbclid=IwAR1YrZdwdTjnB5Zj5J2b9zNNzkE04aFxea_AXKYmOpjGtZ0NPxdoayKYa2Y

Technology

Google goes offline after fibre cables cut

  • 19 December 2019

 

PHYSICS MINDBOGGLER

HOW QUANTUM COMPUTERS WORK?

HOW QUANTUM COMPUTERS WORK?

Posted: 15th December 2019/Under: Quantum Physics/By: Pradyumn

HOW QUANTUM COMPUTERS WORK?

In the classical computation model, the computer has access to memory which can be found in one of a finite set of possible states, each of which is physically distinct. The state of this memory is generally represented as a string of symbols 0 and 1. In the classical computation model, the fundamental unit of memory is called bit and the size of the memory can be measured in terms of the number of bits required to represent fully the state of the memory.  If the memory obeys laws of quantum physics, the state of memory could be found in a superposition of the possible bit strings and these strings could be found entangled with other bit strings. In the quantum computation model, the fundamental unit of memory is called a qubit which gives quantum computers its superior computing powers. In classical computers, two bits represent only two bits of information, however, in quantum computers, two qubits represent four bits of information. In quantum computers, N qubits represent 2N classical bits of information, whereas, in classical computers, N bits represent only N bits of information. Therefore, quantum computers could arrive at a result more efficiently than classical computers.

Figure 1: Flow chart of information processed in computers

Figure 1 represents a flow chart of information processed in computers. A circuit chip comprises of basic modules which contain logic gates which contain transistors. A transistor is a fundamental data processor that behaves like a switch that controls the flow of information. I discussed the working of transistors in much detail in my previous blog post. The flow of information in transistors could be represented as a string of symbols that I discussed earlier. More complex information could be represented in more number of bits. Many transistors combine to form logic gates that combine with other logic gates to form basic modules. These modules process mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc. With many such modules, we can process any data in computers. However, as I discussed in my previous blog post about the reduction in the size of transistors every two years, soon a limit will be reached where a classical transistor will be useless as quantum effects will take over.

The charge carriers in transistors will tunnel across the p-n junction through a phenomenon called quantum tunneling. Thus, to solve this problem scientists across the globe are building and studying quantum computers.  These quantum computers use qubit which could be in a superposition state of possible bite strings and could be entangled with other qubits. Unlike classical logic gates which get a classical set of inputs and produce a definite classical output, a quantum gate could manipulate input of superposition, rotate probabilities and produce another superposition at its output.  Many quantum gates could be combined to form a quantum module that sets up some qubits, applies quantum gates and measures the outcome which collapses superposition into classical bits. These classical bits could then be used to process mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.  Thus, allowing scientists to explore the applications of quantum computers.

Cryptography is one of the important fields of applications of quantum computers. Unlike classical computers which can take N years to find prime factors of a number, a quantum computer could take N1/2 years to find the same. Thus making quantum computers the most efficient way to encrypt the private key in cryptography. Another application of quantum computers is simulating quantum phenomena which would be way more efficient than simulating in classical computers. This could revolutionize the field of physics, chemistry, medicine, etc. With such amazing implications, quantum computer faces lots of challenges like maintaining extreme cold temperatures, removing quantum decoherence, etc. Thus, making quantum computers inconvenient to use in day to day life.     Liked it? Take a second to support Pradyumn on Patreon!

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aquaNS

Facing the Future: New Applications and Trends in 3D Facial Recognition

Posted byNil sDecember 20, 2019Posted inUncategorized

3D face recognition is one of the facial recognition methods in which the 3D geometry of the human expression is used. The 3D face recognition methods achieve considerably higher accuracy than the 2D. The technology has been gaining importance due to the benefits it provides over traditional surveillance techniques such as biometrics. Governments across the globe are investing significant resources in 3D facial recognition technology.

DOWNLOAD SAMPLE PDF COPY

3D Facial Recognition

Some of the leading players in global market are Ayonix Face Technologies, Cognitec Systems, DAON, Gemalto NV, Innovatrics, NEC, Nviso SA, Sensetime, Stereovision Imaging, Zkteco biometrics

The growth in data security initiatives by the government and growing demand for fraud detection is driving the global 3D facial recognition market. Nevertheless, errors in the technology might hinder the growth of the global 3D facial recognition market. Furthermore, secure identification and regulatory compliances are anticipated to create opportunities for the 3D facial recognition market during the forecast period.

The global 3D facial recognition market is segmented on the offering, application, and industry. On the basis of offering, the 3D facial recognition market is segmented into software and services. On the basis of application, the 3D facial recognition market is segmented attendance tracking and monitoring, emotion recognition, access control, and law enforcement. On the basis of industry, the 3D facial recognition market is segmented into BFSI, healthcare, retail, government, and others.

GET PDF BROCHURE

The “Global 3D facial recognition Market Analysis to 2027” is a specialized and in-depth study with a special focus on the global market trend analysis. The report aims to provide an overview of the global 3D facial recognition market with detailed market segmentation by offering, application, industry and geography. The global 3D facial recognition market is expected to witness high growth during the forecast period. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the leading 3D facial recognition market players and offers key trends and opportunities in the market.

Source:- The Insight Partners

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The science of consciousness

MONDAY, OCTOBER 5, 2015

The Science of Consciousness, a hypothesis

‘The Science of Consciousness’ details the first scientific hypothesis that includes theoretical physics, cosmology, consciousness, and evolution. Its conclusions on the organic unity of the universe is a shocking idea, which started with an intuition about gravity. What does gravity have to do with consciousness? It is a fascinating and twisted story that goes back six years from the conception of the idea to the publication of the book in 2015.

 

Gravity is the most elemental force in the universe. No place can be insulated from it: it transverses space as it forms its very fabric. Gravity appears to pull us toward the Earth, but it is the result of two opposing forces, which operate like a seesaw between gravity and anti-gravity. The closer we are to the center point on the seesaw, the smaller gravity is. This is why flying out into free space reduces gravity until it seems to disappear altogether. Gravity ‘free’ space is only gravity neutral. But shockingly, our emotional attachments operate similarly over time. Therefore, just as gravity gets weaker with increasing distance, the pain we feel over losses gets weaker over time. Emotional attachments to loved ones and even things makes losses so painful, the emotional difficulty of separation is due to emotional gravity. Recognizing the analogy between these seemingly different phenomena formed my first intuition, which grew into an overarching hypothesis through diligent study and work. The fundamental knowledge base is as wide as an ocean: theoretical physics, neurology, physiology, cosmology, evolutionary biology, economy, sociology and everything else that seem to provide an answer for the pressing questions I had. During all this time the original intuition has not changed. The hypothesis, supported by contemporary scientific research, grew into an encompassing whole with intricate details.

You can read ‘The Science of Consciousness‘ on Amazon.
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Copyright © 2017 by Eva DeliPosted by evadeli.com/blog at 8:00 AMEmail ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to PinterestLabels: consciousness interdisciplinary scienceconsciousness symmetric to physical worldemotional attachment over timegravity is spatial fabricgravity- anti-gravity spaceorganic unity of universe

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Discovering a new fundamental underwater force

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Discovering a new fundamental underwater force

 December 20, 2019 , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Discovering a new fundamental underwater force

A team of mathematicians from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Brown University has discovered a new phenomenon that generates a fluidic force capable of moving and binding particles immersed in density-layered fluids. The breakthrough offers an alternative to previously held assumptions about how particles accumulate in lakes and oceans and could lead to applications in locating biological hotspots, cleaning up the environment and even in sorting and packing.

How matter settles and aggregates under gravitation in fluid systems, such as lakes and oceans, is a broad and important area of scientific study, one that greatly impacts humanity and the planet. Consider “marine snow,” the shower of organic matter constantly falling from upper waters to the deep ocean. Not only is nutrient-rich marine snow essential to the global food chain, but its accumulations in the briny deep represent the Earth’s largest carbon sink and one of the least-understood components of the planet’s carbon cycle. There is also the growing concern over microplastics swirling in ocean gyres.

Ocean particle accumulation has long been understood as the result of chance collisions and adhesion. But an entirely different and unexpected phenomenon is at work in the water column, according to a paper published Dec. 20 in Nature Communications by a team led by professors Richard McLaughlin and Roberto Camassa of the Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics in the College of Arts & Sciences, along with their UNC-Chapel Hill graduate student Robert Hunt and Dan Harris of the School of Engineering at Brown University.

In the paper, the researchers demonstrate that particles suspended in fluids of different densities, such as seawater of varying layers of salinity, exhibit two previously undiscovered behaviors. First, the particles self-assemble without electrostatic or magnetic attraction or, in the case of micro-organisms, without propulsion devices such as beating flagella or cilia. Second, they clump together without any need for adhesive or other bonding forces. The larger the cluster, the stronger the attractive force.Ocean particle accumulation has long been understood as the result of chance collisions and adhesion. But an entirely different and unexpected phenomenon is at work in the water column. Like so many discoveries, this one began accidentally. A graduate student intended to show a favorite parlor trick — how spheres dumped into a tank of salt water will “bounce” on their way to the bottom, as long as the fluid is uniformly stratified by density. But the student in charge of the experiment made an error in setting up the density of the lower fluid. The spheres bounced and then hung there, submerged but not sinking to the bottom. Credit: Robert Hunt/UNC-Chapel Hill

Like so many discoveries, this one began accidentally, a couple years ago, during a demonstration for VIPs visiting the Joint Applied Mathematics and Marine Sciences Fluids Lab that Camassa and McLaughlin run. The pair, long fascinated with stratified fluids, intended to show a favorite parlor trick—how spheres dumped into a tank of salt water will “bounce” on their way to the bottom, as long as the fluid is uniformly stratified by density. But the graduate student in charge of the experiment made an error in setting up the density of the lower fluid. The spheres bounced and then hung there, submerged but not sinking to the bottom.

“And then I made what was a good decision,” said McLaughlin, “to not clean up the mess.” Go home, he told the grad student. We’ll, deal with it later. The next morning, the balls were still suspended, but they had begun to cluster together—to self-assemble for no apparent reason.

The researchers eventually discovered the reason, though it took more than two years of benchmark experimental studies and lots of math.

You can see the phenomenon at work in a video the researchers produced. Plastic microbeads dropped into a container of salt water topped with less dense fresh water are pulled down by the force of gravity and thrust upward by buoyancy. As they hang suspended, the interplay between buoyancy and diffusion—acting to balance out the concentration gradient of salt—creates flows around the microbeads, causing them to slowly move. Rather than moving randomly, however, they clump together, solving their own jigsaw-like puzzles. As the clusters grow, the fluid force increases.

“It’s almost like we discovered an effective new force,” Camassa said.

The discovery of this previously unknown first-principle mechanism opens the doors of understanding for how matter organizes in the environment. In highly stratified bodies of water, such as estuaries and the deep ocean, being able to mathematically understand the phenomenon may allow scientists to model and predict the location of biological hotspots, including feeding grounds for commercial fish or endangered species. Harnessing the power of the phenomenon might also lead to better ways to locate ocean microplastics or even petroleum from deep-sea oil spills. Or, in an industrial-sized version of the Fluids Lab experiment, the mechanism might be used to sort materials of different densities, for example different colors of crushed recyclable glass.

“We’ve been working for years with stratified systems, typically looking at how stuff falls through them,” McLaughlin said. “This is one of the most exciting things I’ve encountered in my career.”

More information: Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-13643-y

Journal information: Nature Communications

Provided by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Space Tourism Is About to Push Civilian Astronaut Medicine Into the Final Frontier

By Meghan Bartels May 21, 2019

Are you healthy enough for spaceflight, or just wealthy enough?

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Virgin Galactic's suborbital vehicle made its second flight to space on Feb. 22, 2019.

Virgin Galactic’s suborbital vehicle made its second flight to space on Feb. 22, 2019.(Image: © Virgin Galactic)

For decades, access to space has been limited based on a set of preconceived beliefs about human bodies — but capitalism is chipping away at those restrictions.

Soon, people with enough money will be able to buy trips into space. And as wealth redefines the traditional “right stuff,” the field of space medicine will need to rethink its approach. The discipline will still need to evaluate and support human health within the context of spaceflight, but specialized space medicine professionals will exert much less control over who flies and who doesn’t. In a new paper, a trio of space medicine experts kickstart that process by reviewing some critical aspects of the field for general practitioners who may find themselves caring for patients planning flights.

“Historically, space medicine was the purview of doctors that took care of highly selected populations of astronauts — individuals that are exceptionally healthy, exceptionally fit, exceptionally stress-tolerant, have no medical conditions of any sort,” lead author Jan Stepanek, a physician specializing in space medicine at the Mayo Clinic, told Space.com.

Related: Second NASA Astronaut to Spend Nearly a Year in Space — For ScienceClick here for more Space.com videos…Human Spaceflight Hazards Explained – Part 1: Space RadiationVolume 0% PLAY SOUND

But when it comes to space tourism, none of those superlatives is guaranteed.

That’s the entire point of space tourism, after all: Simple wealth will allow someone to become an astronaut without needing to deal with all the pesky screening and training and limited seating built into governmental spaceflight programs.

NASA’s approach to spaceflight has always been to ground anyone the agency’s experts believe may not be able to physically or psychologically handle spaceflight. “The trouble that [Stepanek and his co-authors] identify, and I think they’re absolutely right, is at NASA we can screen out pathology,” Richard Scheuring, a flight surgeon at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Texas, told Space.com. “That makes the practice of space medicine an order of magnitude more straightforward and less complicated.”

Not so for space tourists. That isn’t necessarily a bad thing; space medicine could use a perspective change and papers like this one may push the field that direction, Ashley Shew, an expert in disability studies and the intersection of science, technology and society at Virginia Tech, told Space.com. She noted that the new paper, like most research in medicine and particularly space medicine, starts from the premise that bodies that don’t conform to certain ideals are problematic, rather than different.

Space medicine has never confronted the possibility that different could be beneficial, she said, despite occasional glimmers that suggest just that. “The bodies that we’ve always chosen have been what we consider the best bodies, but those aren’t the best bodies for space usually,” Shew said. “We have these ideas of what a perfect specimen is supposed to be, we recruit on these categories that you have to satisfy in a certain way.”

British astronaut Tim Peake checked his eyes during his time on board the space station. Eye health has frequently stopped would-be astronauts from qualifying for spaceflight.
British astronaut Tim Peake checked his eyes during his time on board the space station. Eye health has frequently stopped would-be astronauts from qualifying for spaceflight. (Image credit: NASA)

Who has gone to space

Nearly 600 people have flown in space, but just seven of those have been paying customers, Stepanek and his co-authors wrote. Thousands more have briefly experienced zero-gravity conditions during parabolic flights. And plenty of companies — SpaceXVirgin Galactic and Blue Origin among them — have set their sights on making space the next hot tourist destination.

So Stepanek and his co-authors wanted to write a paper for general physicians, serving as a summary of existing scientific literature and alerting these doctors to issues they need to consider if a patient is planning to buy a spaceflight. To that end, they sketched out the different levels of expected risk for different types of flight, from very brief suborbital flights all the way up to long-duration planetary missions.

Scientists and doctors still have plenty of questions about how long-term spaceflight in microgravity and beyond affects even the most traditionally “ideal” of astronaut bodies. No NASA astronaut has ever spent a full year in space, and just three have exceeded 200 straight days in orbit, although the would-be fourth, Christina Koch, is living on the space station now.

But the typical space tourism flight, at least in the near future, will be a suborbital journey that lasts just minutes, which poses a much narrower suite of risks to the human body. That’s the theory, anyway. Right now, Stepanek and his colleagues don’t have nearly the amount of data they need to be confident in their findings. (Their review was published March 14 in the New England Journal of Medicine.)

Richard Branson, who leads Virgin Galactic, has discussed opening flights to customers sometime after he flies, which he is hoping to do in July.
Richard Branson, who leads Virgin Galactic, has discussed opening flights to customers sometime after he flies, which he is hoping to do in July. (Image credit: Mark Greenberg/Virgin Galactic)

“What I’m sharing with you is merely extrapolation. The real data will come in when individuals are actually flown,” Stepanek said. “I think the only honest answer is that this is going to be and is expected to be a very safe endeavor for the majority of individuals.”

Stepanek and his co-authors looked at the challenges that different types of flight may involve. For suborbital flights, those challenges include anxiety, space motion sickness, loud noises, small spaces and g-forces. The authors also cite the results of three ground-based studies conducted by the Federal Aviation Administration using centrifuges that suggest 4 of 5 people drawn from the general population between ages 19 and 89 could tolerate the g-forces associated with a suborbital flight.

Those guinea pigs didn’t leave the ground, but other people without the “perfect” bodies of traditional astronauts have already flown. The handful of space tourists who have already flown are the rare example here, and they have brought with them issues like poor vision and lung trouble.

Many more tourists have already experienced zero-gravity conditions for brief snippets of time during parabolic flights. ZERO-G has flown more than 15,000 passengers — including Stephen Hawking before his death last year of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Michelle Peters, director of research and education at ZERO-G, said her company is mimicking the approach of commercial airliners: Passengers need their own physician’s approval to fly and each ZERO-G flight is staffed by flight attendants with basic first-responder skills. (When Hawking, who used a wheelchair, flew, he was accompanied by physicians, but that was arranged independently, not by the company.)

Physicist Stephen Hawking experienced fleeting moments of weightlessness during a 2007 ZERO-G parabolic flight.
Physicist Stephen Hawking experienced fleeting moments of weightlessness during a 2007 ZERO-G parabolic flight. (Image credit: Kim Shiflett/NASA)

What space tourism may look like

That matches an assumption built into the paper, in which Stepanek and his co-authors posit that space tourism companies aren’t likely to staff flights with doctors given that they will last just minutes — too short to allow for much medical intervention, even if in the unexpected case that it’s necessary.

That isn’t to say it would be wise to simply hop on a flight on a whim: Passengers would need to prepare for the experience. Eric Stallmer, president of the Commercial Spaceflight Federation, a group of more than 80 organizations focused on commercial spaceflight, compares the prospect to the checks and preparation people conduct on their own initiative before setting out to climb Mount Everest or run a marathon. “I would look at it from that perspective,” he said. “I would want to be in the best physical shape that I can be in.”

Right now, there aren’t any rules requiring space tourism companies to set or meet any health criteria for accepting passengers — they just need to have each customer sign a statement saying they understand the risks of such a flight. (Although Scheuring notes that there’s no guarantee scientists have identified all of those risks to date, especially for passengers without NASA’s prerequisite “perfect” body.)

Stallmer believes there’s a role for glamorizing the training that can help commercial space flyers get a taste for what their body will experience and how they will handle it, as well as emergency procedures.

Stallmer pointed to Virgin Galactic’s plan for customer flight preparations as an example of how companies should look to teach passengers what they need to know to stay safe in flight. “It’s this total astronaut experience … that’s what brings the allure,” he said. “It’s like trying to make reading a book fun for a teenager.” (Virgin Galactic, which is preparing to fly commercial passengers — at $250,000 a seat — with launches expected to begin later this year, did not respond to requests for comment.)

But chances are that by getting a few key organ systems checked, sampling different gravity conditions and understanding what to do in an emergency, a space tourist brushing the boundary of space should face smooth sailing. Scheuring agreed that during suborbital tourism flights, there likely isn’t much that can go wrong. “It’s not a big deal,” he said.

And the more people fly, the more confident doctors can be in their risk assessments about tourist flights. “The more data we have, the stronger the database and the evidence for decisionmaking becomes,” Stepanek said. “Right now, it’s zero, it’s based on orbital spaceflights and the limited exposure we’ve had to professional test pilots.”

As more people with more varied health backgrounds pass beyond the bounds of gravity, that will change, and doctors could learn a lot about how human bodies respond to spaceflight in the process.

“One of the fascinating things about medical discoveries is we find about a lot of things by people with disease states being exposed to novel environments,” Marsh Cuttino, a former physician consultant to NASA who has flown on parabolic flights with ZERO-G, told Space.com. “I think we are going to learn a lot because these are not the average astronauts of years past.”

Who may never go to space

Chances are, some barriers to spaceflight will never disappear, and not necessarily ones that are particularly fair, even beyond the massive price tag.

When it comes to short, suborbital flights — the sort of flights space tourism companies are currently targeting — space medicine experts have narrowed their worries to a few key red flags. Those areas of concern include the heart, lungs and spine, doctors who spoke with Space.com said. Those health issues don’t necessarily line up with some of the conditions doctors are most concerned about on Earth, like diabetes or high cholesterol, Stepanek noted, which would likely not be problematic for suborbital flights.

But still, and particularly so for longer flights, sheer money may not be a clean pass into space. “It’s not for everybody,” Scheuring said. “I think that’s something that folks are going to have to get out in the community, is that just because you’ve got a lot of money doesn’t mean you’re necessarily going to be able to handle the factors and environments of spaceflight.”

That’s particularly true for longer flights with conditions that would make having specialized equipment available wise. There are plenty of medical devices that can’t fly in space — there aren’t versions that work in microgravity or they’re simply too large to make launch feasible. Take, for example, ventilators, bulky machines that keep people breathing when something goes wrong. Understandably, NASA has never bothered to develop this sort of medical technology. “We don’t send that kind of pathology in space, so why would we need that,” Scheuring said.

But pragmatism aside, preconceptions about who will be flying may also block would-be space tourists, Shew said — just as they have for decades.

During the late 1950s, NASA recruited 11 men who were born deaf and therefore didn't experience motion sickness to be subjects of experiments aimed at spaceflight.
During the late 1950s, NASA recruited 11 men who were born deaf and therefore didn’t experience motion sickness to be subjects of experiments aimed at spaceflight. (Image credit: U.S. Navy/Gallaudet University collection)

Thinking ahead

In the late 1950s, the agency recruited 11 men born deaf for a series of experiments designed to probe their lack of motion sickness, a side effect of their lack of hearing. NASA never intended to make these men astronauts, of course: Scientists instead wanted to take the resulting data and apply it to ease the spaceflights of traditional, “perfect”-bodied astronauts.

Space tourism companies may do well to rethink that last bit, Shew said. “Are you going to advertise at Gallaudet [a university for the deaf and hard of hearing]? That would make sense to me, right — you don’t have to worry about people puking in your cabin and ruining it on its first flight,” she said.

And that makes the broadening of eligibility for spaceflight an opportunity — if it’s done right. But there’s plenty of potential for it to be done wrong. “I’m afraid that, like other things before it, people will try to sell disabled people spaceflight as a curative measure … maybe it will start to be seen as sort of a quacky medical situation,” Shew said — and for an experience with six-digit price tags, that’s particularly troubling, as employers can legally pay disabled workers less than the minimum wage.

Or, space tourism companies could take the opposite approach, accepting some preexisting conditions but banning people with other conditions that they feel could make the company vulnerable. “Disabled bodies are often viewed as riskier bodies, not only to have but also to include in things,” Shew said.

Space tourism is most frequently compared to commercial airliners — and Shew is concerned that may remain the case. Airports and airplanes assume people can navigate long hallways, boarding stairs, and narrow corridors between built-in seats. “Even casually how you get on a spacecraft will matter,” Shew said. “I feel like businesses should be recruiting disabled people to avoid so many of the technological disasters we’ve seen.”

The way space tourism companies choose to balance inclusion and exclusion, safety and risk, will shape how normal people — not just carefully tuned astronauts — leave the bounds of Earth. Where they choose to fall along those spectra will also shape what happens next in the industry itself.

“I don’t think any of the commercial space practitioners are going to take any unreasonable risks with people,” Scheuring said. “I think they’ll find out really quickly, if they try to take shortcuts, they’re going to get burned.”

And the more that can be sorted out before launch — of individual flights and of whole programs — the better. “Once the rocket fires, there’s no such thing as raising your hand and saying, ‘I change my mind,'” Stepanek said. “You’re going.”

Editor’s note: This article has been updated to correct the past affiliation of Marsh Cuttino.

Email Meghan Bartels at mbartels@space.com or follow her @meghanbartels. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.

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Boeing Starliner to Land Sunday Morning

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Boeing, in coordination with NASA and the U.S. Army, is working to return its CST-100 Starliner to land in White Sands, New Mexico, on Sunday Dec. 22. NASA TV will air live coverage of the deorbit and landing beginning at 6:45 a.m. EST. The deorbit burn is scheduled for 7:23 a.m. EST, landing for 7:57 a.m. EST.

The uncrewed Boeing Starliner spacecraft launched on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket at 6:36 a.m. Friday, from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida on a flight test to the International Space Station. The Starliner did not reach the planned orbit and will not dock to the space station. Teams worked quickly to ensure the spacecraft was in a stable orbit and preserved enough fuel for a landing opportunity.

Continuing updates on the Starliner flight:

AuthorMarie LewisPosted onDecember 21, 2019CategoriesBoeingCCtCapCommercial Spaceflight

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COMMERCIAL CREW BASICS

NASA’s Commercial Crew Program has worked with several American aerospace industry companies to facilitate the development of U.S. human spaceflight systems since 2010. The goal is to have safe, reliable and cost-effective access to and from the International Space Station and foster commercial access to other potential low-Earth orbit destinations.

NASA selected Boeing and SpaceX in September 2014 to transport crew to the International Space Station from the United States. These integrated spacecraft, rockets and associated systems will carry up to four astronauts on NASA missions, maintaining a space station crew of seven to maximize time dedicated to scientific research on the orbiting laboratory.

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How to Use Tradeoffs to Create Value in Your Negotiations

Through cooperation and compromise, you can increase the value of negotiations

BY PON STAFF — ON DECEMBER 19TH, 2019 / WIN-WIN NEGOTIATIONS

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How do expectations of fairness and reciprocity at the bargaining table impact negotiator decisions regarding the strategies and tactics they use during bargaining? Sometimes talks get off on the wrong foot. Maybe you and your partner had a different understanding of your meeting time, or one of you makes a statement that the other misinterprets. Such awkward moves at the beginning of interaction can lead one party to question the other side’s motives.


Discover how to handle complicated, high-level business negotiations in this free report, Win-Win or Hardball? Learn Top Strategies from Sports Contract Negotiations, from Harvard Law School.


In their research, Robert Lount, Chen-Bo Zhong, J. Keith Murnighan, and Niro Sivanathan, all of the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, examined trust building in negotiation (for more information on tactics for building trust in negotiations, see also Negotiation Skills and Negotiation Tactics for Building Trust in Negotiations).

When talks begin, the researchers found, both sides are likely to be apprehensive about being exploited if they are too cooperative, if they reveal too much information, and so on.

Trust: Building Relationships, One Bargain at a Time

Over time, trust serves as a useful social process that helps both sides overcome initial uncertainty. In most new, successful negotiation relationships, positive developments accumulate slowly, creating trust, and the dialogue improves. Essentially, through a set of reciprocal moves, trust evolves naturally during the negotiation process. Trust, being foundational to a working relationship, makes tradeoffs easier and insures future cooperation. Opportunities for value creation and value claiming, as well as sustained dialogue, are best facilitated by an atmosphere of honesty and reciprocity at the negotiation table. For more information on building relationships at the bargaining table in business negotiations, see also Dealmaking: Relationship Rules for Dealmakers.

Restoring Trust at the Bargaining Table

When talks get off on the wrong foot, restoring trust becomes essential. Lount and his colleagues distinguished among three stages of interaction: initial, early, and late. During the initial stage, the negotiators don’t necessarily expect cooperation, nor have they yet committed to the relationship. It’s in the early stage, once the negotiators have begun to trust one another, that the relationship becomes vulnerable. During the early stage, violating trust can be especially damaging because the nature of the relationship still is not fully established. Later, the parties may have built enough trust to overcome what appears to be a violation. But if the violation is strong enough, it may do more harm late in the process, due to the sense of betrayal felt by the injured party. For more tactics about grappling with a dishonest negotiator, read the article Dealing with a Dishonest Negotiator.

One careless move can have a profound influence on dealmaking. Recognizing this fact and avoiding missteps and dealing with them if they do occur are critical skills for negotiators.

How do you handle dishonest bargaining situations? Let us know in the comments below.

Related Win Win Article:  Negotiation Case Studies: Reciprocity at the Bargaining Table – How to Use Tradeoffs to Create Value in Integrative Negotiation Scenarios – Each negotiators’ willingness to make tradeoffs at the bargaining table depends, in many respects, on her expectations that her tradeoffs will be met with equal, reciprocal moves. In integrative negotiations, where creating value for yourself and your opponents trumps purely distributive motivations often found in haggling, using tradeoffs to create value not only signals a negotiator’s earnestness for a negotiated agreement, but also leads to more reciprocal moves on the part of her counterpart.

Be a Better Mind Reader for a Win-Win Situation in Negotiations – Negotiation research has demonstrated that body language, at and away from the bargaining table, often has a greater impact on the course of negotiations and daily life than most people know. Learn how to interpret your counterpart’s moves, body language, and speech in order to find value creating opportunities during negotiation scenarios and beyond. Powerful when used correctly, body language can also help a negotiator convey her confidence, honesty, and willingness to reach a negotiated agreement through careful monitoring of her body language in negotiations.


Discover how to handle complicated, high-level business negotiations in this free report, Win-Win or Hardball? Learn Top Strategies from Sports Contract Negotiations, from Harvard Law School.


Adapted from an article first published in “Negotiation Briefings.”

Originally published in 2012.

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Microsoft Announces Azure Quantum, An Open Cloud Ecosystem

Microsoft Announces Azure Quantum, An Open Cloud Ecosystem

Navin Bondade  0 Comments

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In the leadership of Satya Nadella, Microsoft has grown from just window company to a whole new dominant player of every other industry, whether it’s cloud computing, social media or hardware products.

This week, Microsoft has taken a bold move, the company has announced that their cloud computing platform Microsoft Azure will soon offer access to the most exotic hardware of all, the quantum computers.

The company is planning to release an open cloud quantum computing service, Microsoft has already released its Quantum Development Kit and Q# compilers and simulators for developers this summer.

The Quantum Development Kit (QDK) is interoperable with Python, and it aims to abstract differences that exist between different types of quantum computers. Both the Q# and the Quantum Development Kit can be tested on simulators as well as on a variety of quantum hardware.

Microsoft has a three-pronged goal with Azure Quantum. It can be used for learning, developers can write programs with Q# and the QDK and test their codes against simulators and organizations can use them to solve complex business problems using solutions and algorithms running in Azure.

In its developer conference, the company has made a partnership with Honeywell and two startups, IonQ, from the University of Maryland, and QCI from Yale, to achieve quantum computing capabilities.

A partnership with the startup IonQ will enable developers to use existing Microsoft products, like Visual Studio or the Quantum Development Kit (QDK) along with quantum computers.

IonQ uses an approach to quantum computing that focuses on trapping ions. “IonQ brings a unique approach to quantum computing, with tremendous potential,” said Microsoft quantum systems general manager.

“This partnership brings world-class quantum computing capabilities to Azure Quantum, and we’re excited to continue working together to realize the full benefits of quantum computers.”

In this team of three, Honeywell and IonQ encode data using individual ions trapped in electromagnetic fields, while QCI uses superconducting metal circuits, an approach also favored by IBM and Google.

Microsoft calls these upgrades a major breakthrough in quantum engineering and believes they will open up possibilities of scaling beyond the physical limitations of current quantum systems.

Microsoft said, “With one program, you’ll be able to target a variety of hardware through Azure Quantum – Azure classical computer, quantum simulators and resource estimators, and quantum hardware from our partners, as well as our future quantum system being built on the revolutionary topological qubit.”

Microsoft has also made collaboration with Dow, to identify the problem in which the molecular energy of a ring of hydrogen atoms had to be evaluated. Using 1QBit’s problem decomposition solution expressed in Q#, the team was able to run a computation in Azure against IonQ’s quantum computer based on trapped ions.

Microsoft Announces Azure Quantum, An Open Cloud Ecosystem

To power the Azure Quantum, Microsoft claims to have made some major upgrades to its quantum computing systems under the leadership of David Reilly, scientific director, and professor at the University of Sydney. Reilly will publish further details on the subject in the coming months.

Mircosoft collaborates with the University of Sydney in controlling 50,000 qubits through 3 wires, as well as a cryogenic CMOS design, and a one square-centimeter chip operating at near-absolute-zero temperatures.

“It’s fair to say the chip we have developed is one of the most sophisticated micro-devices ever made. It has miniaturized the complex support networks that are making early-stage quantum computers possible.”

“This means the next step, which is to scale-up to devices that actually solve real-world problems, enters the realm of possibility,” David Reilly said in a press statement.

“The field is evolving. I took my first quantum computing class in the late 90s, and it felt really far away then. Even in the last five, six years, things continue to accelerate,” said Julie Love, senior director for quantum business development at Microsoft.

“This is really a brand new technology. We’re building quantum systems that leverage the power of quantum physics, and it takes a new approach, innovations across the entire stack.”

“We don’t have that scalable quantum system now. Technology always happens this way, things always feel like they’re really far away, and then we get exponentials, which are hard for humans to grok this pace of change, we’re starting to see that impact now with quantum.”

“We’re seeing the work on the quantum-inspired side, we’ve had breakthroughs across the entire stack with our program, and each of those breakthroughs really gets us closer to that realization of true quantum impact,” Love added.

Microsoft’s Azure Quantum is very similar to IBM’s service that offered free and paid access to prototype quantum computers since 2016, Azure Quantum differs by offering access to a variety of several different quantum computing technologies.

The launch date of Azure Quantum has not revealed yet, Microsoft, on its official website, said that the Azure Quantum will be launched in private preview in the coming months.

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Trending > MicrobiologyDEC 22, 2019 11:56 AM PSTShare 

Viruses Can Escape the Effects of CRISPR by Shielding Their Genomes

WRITTEN BY: Carmen Leitch

Our world is filled with microbes, and in every kind of environment, they compete for supremacy, a competition that dates back to the origins of life. People have been able to take advantage of a bacterial defense against viruses called CRISPR, which has been used to rapidly advance gene-editing technology along with a DNA-cutting enzyme called Cas. In turn, viruses have found ways to get around that bacterial defense, and viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages, can often kill bacteria despite CRISPR. Scientists have now learned more about how viruses outsmart CRISPR.

The findings, reported in Nature, showed that bacteriophages can protect their DNA with a kind of safe room. It is similar to a nucleus and is the best defense against the bacterial CRISPR system that researchers have identified.

In this work, the scientists infected common bacteria that were engineered to produce the Cas DNA-cutter with viruses from five different families of phages. While the bacteria were able to overcome most phages, two very large phages with genomes up to ten times larger than most well-studied phages were unaffected by the CRISPR defense.

“In our experiments, these phages didn’t succumb to any of the DNA-targeting CRISPR systems they were challenged with. This is the first time that anyone has found phages that exhibit this level of pan-CRISPR resistance,” said the research leader Joseph Bondy-Denomy, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UCSF.

The researchers tested the viruses more by exposing them to bacteria that utilized a different CRISPR system as well as a DNA-cleaving enzyme. Still, the phages emerged victorious.

“It was really surprising because we engineered the bacteria to massively overproduce components of the immune system, but none of them could cut the phage DNA. On petri dishes, these phages were resistant to all six bacterial immune systems tested. No other phage even comes close,” said Bondy-Denomy. However, in test tubes, it seemed that these jumbo phages were vulnerable to the CRISPR system.

The investigators finally found their answer when they looked under a microscope. The jumbo phages were found to be keeping antiviral enzymes away from the DNA by using a protective compartment. This shell had already been discovered in 2017, and it was known that phage DNA replicated there, but now it’s been revealed as a safe room. Researchers still don’t know how this structure is built, however.

“This was one of many hypothetical proteins that was found when these phages were sequenced. It seems like it’s unique to phages, but it’s not common. It’s not even found in some closely related phages. We also don’t know what the protein structure looks like at the atomic level,” said Bondy-Denomy.

The viral genome somehow stays safe even before this viral safe room is built, however, a process that takes about thirty minutes. “We think some kind of pre-shell is protecting the injected DNA early on. It’s like an armor that’s shed once the shell is finally assembled. But we don’t know what that armor is,” explained Bondy-Denomy, who wants to continue this work to learn more.

The research team has also found that this protective shell is not impenetrable; the lead study author, graduate student Senén Mendoza, was able to bypass it by linking a DNA-cutting enzyme to a protein in the shell. As the structure was being assembled, the enzyme got inside and chopped up the viral genome and the phage-infected bacteria were able to survive.

“We’re looking for ways that bacteria get around the shell. There’s no way this is the be-all and end-all in this fight,” said Bondy-Denomy. “Maybe there are bacteria that fuse an immunity enzyme to a phage protein and finds its way into the shell. Or maybe bacteria steal a phage gene and use it against the phage. I think we’ll eventually find that bacteria have come up with lots of ways to fight against phages that build these shells, and we’ll probably be surprised by how they do it.”

The video above contains an animation of bacteriophages attacking a bacterium.


Sources: AAAS/Eurekalert! via University of California San FranciscoNatureShare About the Author

  • Carmen LeitchExperienced research scientist and technical expert with authorships on 28 peer-reviewed publications, traveler to over 60 countries, published photographer and internationally-exhibited painter, volunteer trained in disaster-response, CPR and DV counseling.

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Biosensors could save future astronauts before they’re in danger

There are no urgent care centers on Mars.

By David Grossman on December 19, 2019Filed Under NASA3D PrintingBlue OriginDataElon MuskHealthInternational Space StationMarsSilicon Valley & SpaceX

astronaut on planet Mars, looking at a martian city (3d science illustration)

Anxious Astronaut has suffered an anxiety attack in space. It could be debilitating, they’re not sure. And unlike, say, a broken arm, it is not immediately visible to Anxious’ co-workers. Anxious Astronaut is good at hiding their problem, which is how they got through the screening process on Earth. But Anxious Astronaut needs to be operating at peak functionality, which Anxious Astronaut knows, which is making them more stressed, and they haven’t even acknowledged to themselves that they’re undergoing a silent crisis. Stress is tough.

Anxious Astronaut does not want to give up their duties, so they’re not taking time to self-evaluate. And besides, any human diagnosis is millions of miles of way, considering Anxious Astronaut and their team are halfway to Mars. So how can Anxious Astronaut’s team figure out what’s wrong? A biosensor. A small, nearly invisible biosensor placed on Anxious Astronaut’s forehead has detected unusually high cortisol, which the body releases when stressed. The data is shared with the medical staff on the mission, and Anxious is able to have their workloads reduced until they’re feeling up to snuff.

Thanks to developments in biosensors that NASA and outside group NextFlex are working on today, Anxious or Unhealthy Astronaut might be able to figure out what’s ailing them at speeds unimaginable today.

“They draw blood or urine,” Dr. Meyya Meyyappan is Chief Scientist for Exploration Technology at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley, tells Inverse, describing the typical method of checking in on crew lifesigns. “The way it’s been, periodically they draw a drop of blood, you store it, and when the next opportunity comes — I call it the next UPS opportunity, which whatever the opportunity is, be it either a Russian spaceship or a shuttle — you wait, bring it back to Johnson Space Center [in Houston, Texas].”

stars

Biosensors could make it easier for everyone in space to have access to the data they need, faster.

Health is complex in space. When humans are being sent to the International Space Station or on faraway missions, they have to pack light. Carrying heavy objects, like medical equipment, is a challenge. Nurse.org’s “How to Draw Blood Like a Pro” listicle mentions thirteen different items needed for a proper blood draw, ranging from gauze to “Bio-hazard leak-proof transportation bags.” Cutting down on travel items, in addition to not having any supply shops nearby, puts everything on board at a premium.

“Potentially, you can have cheaper sensors” through 3D printing, Meyyappan says. “We have the In-Space Manufacturing program. NASA has printed between 70 to 100 spare components. Obviously, a 3D printer is not going to make a biosensor, you need things like inkjet printing, other capabilities, which are in the cards right now.

It’s called the Fablab. We are in the process of getting ready, so when that lab is set up we can print biosensors as well.”

People who go into space are typically seen as having, as author Tom Wolfe put it in 1979, “the right stuff.” Astronauts are known for their physical as well as mental abilities, which means that there haven’t been that many health-related incidents in space.

The most common illness in space is Space adaptation Syndrome (SAS), or space sickness, which brings with it a feeling of disorientation and occasional nausea as the body adjusts to its new environs. 

biosensors

But it won’t always be like this. If entrepreneurs like Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos have their way, more and more people will go into space. And while the high standards of government will likely stand for some time, having more people in space makes it more likely that somebody will get sick. Having sensors that can passively probe astronauts without being a massive power draw offers a huge potential advantage.

“A single device basically has no value,” Dr. Meyyappan tells Inverse. It has to function within a system — a space station, for example — for it to be useful. So while NASA is working on crafting the perfect biosensor, stuffing as many as 16 sensitive carbon nanotubes onto a single chip, NextFlex is working at making sure these sensors can integrate into a system as a whole.

NextFlex, which is based in San Jose, California, was founded in 2015 with partial funding from the Department of Defense. It’s focused on what it calls the “rapidly expanding field of Flexible Hybrid Electronics (FHE).”

Oxana Pantchenko, researcher at NextFlex, tells Inverse that NASA offered unique challenges for the company.

“We have to think it through in many different aspects, including disposal, and all the weight it could generate,” she says. “Astronauts should be able to apply the sensors themselves, so user point of view is rather different. Depending on the requirements, what do we power these sensors with? Are they rechargeable or they not rechargeable?”

NASA printed gas sensor

There are as many sensors as there are potential uses, Pantchenko says. Some sensors are made disposable, one-time measurement. Others don’t like temperature. Figuring out the right system for NASA, the International Space Station, and future missions is an ongoing challenge. NextFlex hopes to have a working prototype by next year. Dr. Meyyappan suggests that the stress sensors that help out Anxious Astronaut could be a reality in five years.

And they don’t have to be limited to people, or to space. The biosensors could also be used for vegetables, Dr. Meyyappan suggests. “Potentially it could expand to growing the food right there,” he says, talking about monitoring vegetables being grown on the International Space Station. “Every time you start growing these things, they’re a source of pathogens too.”

“And, then, of course,” Dr. Meyyappan says, picking up steam, “there’s water quality monitoring. Most of the water on the ISS is recycled. Every drop of fluid is recycled into drinking water. There’s a need to check the water quality, for bacteria, salmonella, whatever.”

At the end of the day, NASA wants more people to go into space. SpaceX wants more people to go into space. Blue Origin wants more people to go into space. More people, presumably, want to go into space. The big question is how to keep them all safe. Biosensors could make it easier for everyone in space to have access to the data they need, faster. And that could translate into making things easier on Earth, too.

Now read this: SpaceX Mars city: Here’s how much Elon Musk’s dream would costMedia via Shutterstock.com, Unsplash / Jacob Spence, NASA, NASA Ames Research Center

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IBM develops a heavy metal-free battery using seawater materials

BYAMIT MALEWARDECEMBER 20, 2019 EMERGING TECH

IBM develops a heavy metal-free battery using seawater
Maccor Coin Cell Test Equipment, which evaluates the electrochemical performance of the coin cells fabricated in-house in the lab. Credit: IBM

A team of researchers from IBM has announced a promising advance in the field of rechargeable batteries. They have developed a new battery using new materials for the cathode and electrolyte to eliminate the use of heavy metals and offer more efficient and safer batteries.

Complaints about battery performance are nothing new: lithium-ion batteries have long been one of the most frustrating parts of modern technology. They go wrong, they charge slowly, they are prone to explode, and they are horrible for the environment. Reportedly, the new IBM battery eliminates those exact headaches.

To avoid these problems, the researchers combined three new materials extracted from seawater. They were able to create a new cathode without nickel or cobalt, combined with a new electrolyte with a flashpoint.

A smaller, greener and safer battery

Respect for the environment is not the only thing that the new heavy metal-free battery has in its favor. IBM does not detail the materials used, but the firm announces that new batteries can be optimized to exceed the capabilities of lithium-ion batteries in a number of individual categories, starting with the largely reduced manufacturing cost. In addition, the combination of the cathode and the electrolyte prevents the formation of dendrites of the lithium anode, reducing the risk of fire.

This new battery could revolutionize electric cars, thanks to an extremely fast recharge time – less than five minutes are required for the battery to reach an 80% charge. It can reach an energy density of more than 800 watts hour per liter, which is comparable to modern lithium-ion batteries. Also, a power density (the capacity to provide high power) which exceeds 10,000 W/L outperforms the most powerful lithium-ion batteries available.

IBM develops a heavy metal-free battery using seawater
An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy system measures the amount of gas that is released from a battery during the charge and discharge cycles. Credit: IBM

Read more: Lightweight lithium-sulfur batteries double the range of electric aircraft

According to IBM, the tests on this heavy metal-free battery showed that it could be designed for a long-life cycle, making it an option for smart power grid applications and new energy infrastructures where longevity and stability are key. Finally, its energy efficiency exceeds 90%, meaning that it restores the energy stored with very little loss.

While IBM has not revealed whether its new battery technology has progressed beyond the experimental stage, its advance blog post uses promising language about its possible applications as a lithium-ion replacement. It is easy to get excited about advances in battery technology, especially if you are often affected by the bad life of current batteries. However, don’t get ahead: IBM may seem optimistic about its progress, but stories like this are nothing new.

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With A New Microscope, Researchers May Be Able to See DNA Activity

#33 in our top science stories of 2019.

By Karen WeintraubDecember 21, 2019 3:00 PM

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DNA microscopy allows scientists to look inside a tissue sample and map active genes, color-coded and in 3D. (Credit: Weinstein et al./Cell 2019 (3).)

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Joshua Weinstein spent hours in graduate school pulverizing zebrafish in a blender. That was a normal first step toward sequencing the fish’s genes, but it had a high “ick” factor — and he felt like it wasn’t very good science. Although his results would tell him about the fish’s overall genetic activity, they couldn’t reveal which genes were present and active in different places: like inside the fish’s immune tissue or its nerves, or within a cancerous tumor. And he wanted to know.

DSC-D0120 05

Joshua Weinstein (Credit: Jean Lachat/University of Chicago)

So Weinstein co-developed, and this year unveiled, what he calls a DNA microscope. It’s actually not a physical piece of lab equipment, but a technique that allows researchers to examine precisely what genetic activity is happening where. Although some colleagues quibble with calling the development a microscope, several agree that it could offer profound new insights into how cells function.

Je Lee, an assistant professor at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on New York’s Long Island, compares traditional gene sequencing techniques to looking at the ground from a satellite. You can see a lot of detail, but you can’t see what’s going on inside a shopping mall. Metaphorically, the DNA microscope can, Lee says.

The “coolest thing” about the new technique is that it allows scientists to see gene activity deep within cells because it doesn’t depend on the bright lights of a traditional microscope, says Justin Crocker, a synthetic developmental biologist at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany. “This is the first group to pull it off in a way that seems like it actually worked.”

Theoretically, the approach could be used to understand exactly what’s going on inside a tumor — such as how many cells are cancerous and how many more are likely to turn dangerous. “That’s a real strength of the technique,” Crocker says.

The technique works by assigning a unique tag to every copy of a given active gene across a tissue sample. These tagged segments of DNA, keeping their spatial orientation in the sample, are multiplied — doubling every minute. The molecules become so numerous that they spill out from their origin points and bump into the tagged bits of DNA overflowing from neighboring cells. The tags grab onto one another, so the DNA molecules pair up — creating a record of which genes originated near each other. 

Researchers then process this information using a combination of DNA sequencing and artificial intelligence to generate 3D maps of which genes were active in the sample, and where. This view could reveal previously unseen spatial relationships between genes across cells.

YIS cells

With the new technology, researchers can see gene activity across a tissue sample at a much higher resolution (B) than was possible with old, optical techniques (A). (Credit: Weinstein et al./Cell 2019)

Weinstein says he hopes his technique, published in June in the journal Cell, will become part of a wave of new approaches that move away from averaging genetic activity across whole organisms — like in those blenderized fish — and toward a more cell-specific view. “A lot of the stuff we need to pay attention to, to truly understand these systems,” he says, “needs to be learned by new methods — new ways of probing the inner workings of cells.”

One of the advantages of the DNA microscope, Weinstein says, is that it only requires lab pipettes and a standard DNA sequencer to yield results. 

But Lee and Crocker say it may not be as cheap and easy as Weinstein thinks. So far, Weinstein and his coauthors have only shown that their idea is theoretically possible. Applying it to larger-scale projects may prove more challenging, Lee says. “Their paper captures the imagination. It’s a completely new way of doing microscopy,” Lee says. “It’s up to the scientists to decide whether it’s practical.” 

And while it might be relatively inexpensive for Weinstein to sequence DNA at the major research institutions where he’s worked, Crocker says, “the computational firepower you need would be pretty extensive,” and not easily available, for example, at hospitals that wanted information on patients’ tumors.

This fall, Weinstein launched his own lab at the University of Chicago. Prior to that, he worked at the Broad Institute and MIT in the labs of Aviv Regev, who is leading an effort to map all the types of cells in the body, and of Feng Zhang, who was among the discoverers of the CRISPR gene editing tool. Regev and Zhang are the other two authors on the DNA microscope paper.

Despite making advances in the field of biology, Weinstein’s background is in physics. He still tries to understand the world by boiling it down to its simplest parts, as a physicist would. Biology, he says, can’t be broken down as easily or understood as intuitively — but that’s part of its appeal. “It’s such a great magnet for physicists who like being puzzled,” he says. “[It’s] kind of the perfect kindling for crazy ideas.”

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DECEMBER 20, 2019

Boeing sends ‘Rosie’ dummy to space in key crewless mission

by Ivan Couronne

The reputational stakes of the crewless mission are high for Boeing, emboiled in a safety crisis over its 737 MAX jet
The reputational stakes of the crewless mission are high for Boeing, emboiled in a safety crisis over its 737 MAX jet

Boeing is set to launch its Starliner capsule Friday on a crewless eight-day journey to the International Space Station and back, a dry run for NASA’s plans to end US dependence on Russia for space rides.

The reputational stakes are high for the aerospace giant, which is in the midst of a safety crisis over its 737 MAX jet, while US national pride is also on the line.

The mission’s sole passenger will be bandana-clad dummy Rosie, named after Rosie the Riveter, the star of a campaign aimed at recruiting women to munitions factory jobs during World War II that featured her wearing blue overalls and flexing a bicep.

NASA has been forced to rely on Russian Soyuz rockets to transport its astronauts since the Space Shuttle program was shuttered in 2011 following thirty years of service.

The US wants to end this dependence, even if US-Russian space ties have remained immune to a broader deterioration of bilateral relations in recent years.

Under former president Barack Obama, NASA opted for a shift in how it operates: instead of owning the hardware, it would hire private companies to take over the role, awarding Boeing and SpaceX billions of dollars to develop “Made in the USA” solutions.

Both companies are running two years behind schedule but appear almost ready: approval now rests on the successful completion of final tests.

“By early next year, we’re going to be launching American astronauts on American rockets from American soil again for the first time since the retirement of the space shuttles back in 2011,” NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine told reporters Thursday at the Kennedy Space Center.

SpaceX already carried out its own successful uncrewed mission to the International Space Station (ISS) back in March, when its CrewDragon docked with the station and returned to Earth carrying the dummy “Ripley”—named after Sigourney Weaver’s character in the film “Alien.”

The dummies are packed with sensors to verify the voyage will be safe for future teams of humans.

“It’s been eight and a half years, far too long, in my opinion,” said Boeing astronaut Chris Ferguson, who commanded the last Shuttle mission in 2011 and is set to be on Starliner’s first crewed mission.

“But here we are right on the threshold of getting ready to do it, he added.

The developments are independent of the Artemis program to return to the Moon by 2024, which will use a spaceship built for longer journeys into space, Lockheed Martin’s Orion.

  • SpaceX already carried out its own successful uncrewed mission to the International Space Station in March
  • A giant Atlas V rocket will take off shortly before sunrise from the famed Cape Canaveral on Florida’s coastline, where all US crewed flights are launched
  • Factfile on Boeing Starliner spacecraft, set to launch for the ISS this week
  • SpaceX already carried out its own successful uncrewed mission to the International Space Station in March
  • A giant Atlas V rocket will take off shortly before sunrise from the famed Cape Canaveral on Florida’s coastline, where all US crewed flights are launched

 

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$8 billion payment

A giant Atlas V rocket will take off shortly before sunrise, at 6:36 am local time (1136 GMT), from the famed Cape Canaveral on Florida’s coastline, where all US crewed flights are launched.

Starliner, which is fixed to its summit, will separate 15 minutes later and enter Earth’s orbit. About 25 hours later, it will dock autonomously with the space station, 250 miles (400 kilometers) above sea level.

Its return to the Earth, in the southwest US, is set for December 28.

NASA has committed to pay a total of $8 billion to the two companies, who in return need to deliver six trips carrying four astronauts each time, up until 2024.

A recent report by NASA’s inspector general said the cost per astronaut comes to about $90 million for Boeing, against $55 million for SpaceX, while the US currently pays Russia more than $80 million for the same.

But both Bridenstine and Boeing contest the numbers, which were calculated by taking the total sums paid by the space agency to each company and divided by the number of missions and astronauts.

SpaceX has the benefit of receiving billions of dollars in earlier contracts to develop the Dragon’s first version, for cargo, which was modified to make the crew version.

Bridenstine expressed his confidence in Boeing after its 737 Max debacle.

“I would also say that if you look at Boeing as an institution, the people that develop spacecraft are not the same people that develop aircraft,” he said.


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Dec 20, 2019

New boson appears in nuclear decay, breaks standard model

Posted by Genevieve Klien in category: futurism

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A new Gene Therapy Strategy, courtesy of Nature

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December 19, 2019,   UncategorizedSpread the love

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3D illustration of cells releasing exosomes
3D illustration of cells releasing exosomes

Scientists have developed a new gene-therapy technique by transforming human cells into mass producers of tiny nano-sized particles full of genetic material that has the potential to reverse disease processes.

Though the research was intended as a proof of concept, the experimental therapy slowed tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice with gliomas, which constitute about 80 percent of malignant brain tumors in humans.

The technique takes advantage of exosomes, fluid-filled sacs that cells release as a way to communicate with other cells.

While exosomes are gaining ground as biologically friendly carriers of therapeutic materials – because there are a lot of them and they don’t prompt an immune response – the trick with gene therapy is finding a way to fit those comparatively large genetic instructions inside their tiny bodies on a scale that will have a therapeutic effect.

This new method relies on patented technology that prompts donated human cells such as adult stem cells to spit out millions of exosomes that, after being collected and purified, function as nanocarriers containing a drug. When they are injected into the bloodstream, they know exactly where in the body to find their target – even if it’s in the brain.

“Think of them like Christmas gifts: The gift is inside a wrapped container that is postage paid and ready to go,” said senior study author L. James Lee, professor emeritus of chemical and biomolecular engineering at The Ohio State University.

And they are gifts that keep on giving, Lee noted: “This is a Mother Nature-induced therapeutic nanoparticle.”

The study is published today (Dec. 16) in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering.

In 2017, Lee and colleagues made waves with news of a regenerative medicine discovery called tissue nanotransfection (TNT). The technique uses a nanotechnology-based chip to deliver biological cargo directly into skin, an action that converts adult cells into any cell type of interest for treatment within a patient’s own body.

By looking further into the mechanism behind TNT’s success, scientists in Lee’s lab discovered that exosomes were the secret to delivering regenerative goods to tissue far below the skin’s surface.

The technology was adapted in this study into a technique first author Zhaogang Yang, a former Ohio State postdoctoral researcher now at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, termed cellular nanoporation.

The scientists placed about 1 million donated cells (such as mesenchymal cells collected from human fat) on a nano-engineered silicon wafer and used an electrical stimulus to inject synthetic DNA into the donor cells. As a result of this DNA force-feeding, as Lee described it, the cells need to eject unwanted material as part of DNA transcribed messenger RNA and repair holes that have been poked in their membranes.

“They kill two birds with one stone: They fix the leakage to the cell membrane and dump the garbage out,” Lee said. “The garbage bag they throw out is the exosome. What’s expelled from the cell is our drug.”

The electrical stimulation had a bonus effect of a thousand-fold increase of therapeutic genes in a large number of exosomes released by the cells, a sign that the technology is scalable to produce enough nanoparticles for use in humans.

Essential to any gene therapy, of course, is knowing what genes need to be delivered to fix a medical problem. For this work, the researchers chose to test the results on glioma brain tumors by delivering a gene called PTEN, a cancer-suppressor gene. Mutations of PTEN that turn off that suppression role can allow cancer cells to grow unchecked.

For Lee, founder of Ohio State’s Center for Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymeric Biomedical Devices, producing the gene is the easy part. The synthetic DNA force-fed to donor cells is copied into a new molecule consisting of messenger RNA, which contains the instructions needed to produce a specific protein. Each exosome bubble containing messenger RNA is transformed into a nanoparticle ready for transport, with no blood-brain barrier to worry about.

“The advantage of this is there is no toxicity, nothing to provoke an immune response,” said Lee, also a member of Ohio State’s Comprehensive Cancer Center. “Exosomes go almost everywhere in the body, including passing the blood-brain barrier. Most drugs can’t go to the brain.

“We don’t want the exosomes to go to the wrong place. They’re programmed not only to kill cancer cells, but to know where to go to find the cancer cells. You don’t want to kill the good guys.”

The testing in mice showed the labeled exosomes were far more likely to travel to the brain tumors and slow their growth compared to substances used as controls.

Because of exosomes’ safe access to the brain, Lee said, this drug-delivery system has promise for future applications in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

“Hopefully, one day this can be used for medical needs,” Lee said. “We’ve provided the method. If somebody knows what kind of gene combination can cure a certain disease but they need a therapy, here it is.” http://news.osu.edu/a-new-gene-therapy-strategy-courtesy-of-mother-nature/Shop Related Products

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Dec 19, 2019

A new Gene Therapy Strategy, courtesy of Nature

Posted by Paul Battista in categories: biotech/medicalgeneticsnanotechnologyneuroscience

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Scientists have developed a new gene-therapy technique by transforming human cells into mass producers of tiny nano-sized particles full of genetic material that has the potential to reverse disease processes.

Though the research was intended as a proof of concept, the experimental therapy slowed tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice with gliomas, which constitute about 80 percent of malignant brain tumors in humans.

The technique takes advantage of exosomes, fluid-filled sacs that cells release as a way to communicate with other cells.Read more

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Boston Heart settles kickback allegations with $26.7M payment

Boston Heart Diagnostics of Framingham, Mass., agreed on Dec. 9 to pay $26.67 million to resolve False Claims Act allegations suggesting it paid for patient referrals and improperly billed federal programs for lab testing, U.S. Attorney McGregor W. Scott announced.

By Anicka SlachtaDecember 12, 2019

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Boston Heart Diagnostics of Framingham, Mass., agreed on Dec. 9 to pay $26.67 million to resolve False Claims Act allegations suggesting it paid for patient referrals and improperly billed federal programs for lab testing, U.S. Attorney McGregor W. Scott announced.

Boston Heart was accused of violating both the Anti-Kickback Statute and the Stark Law, legislation put in place to prohibit providers from offering or paying for referrals of federally funded services or billing Medicare and Medicaid for certain services referred by physicians with financial ties to laboratories. Allegations against Boston Heart were filed under the whistleblower provision of the False Claims Act, and whistleblowers Chris Riedel and Claudia Bradshaw will receive around $4.36 million of the settlement.

Allegations against Boston Heart included the company providing practices with in-office dieticians in exchange for physician referrals for lab testing; directly or indirectly paying processing and handling fees and waiving copayments and deductibles; conspiring with others to pay doctors kickbacks disguised as investment returns; and conspiring with certain hospitals in Texas to submit claims for outpatient laboratory testing for patients who weren’t hospital outpatients in an effort to receive higher reimbursements from federal programs.

The civil settlement is the result of an investigation by entities from across the U.S., including the U.S. Attorney’s Offices for the Eastern District of California, the Eastern District of Texas and the District of Columbia.

“This office will continue to take all appropriate action to prevent improper inducements that can corrupt the integrity of physician decision-making,” Scott said in a statement.

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Facebook Is Building Its Own Operating System To Replace Android

By Kavita Iyer -December 21, 2019

Facebook is reportedly working on its own operating system to reduce its dependence on Google’s Android OS and Apple’s iOS, according to a new report by The Information.

The new OS will be built from scratch and Mark Lucovsky, a Microsoft veteran who co-authored the Windows NT operating system, will lead the project.

While the report does not provide more information on how the new OS could be used, it notes that Facebook’s Oculus Quest, the standalone virtual reality (VR) headset and Portal, Facebook’s video-call display could benefit from the new software.

Both these hardware are currently running on a modified version of Android. This allows Google to have a certain amount of control over Facebook’s hardware.

By building its own OS, Facebook’s future hardware dependence on Google’s applications would decrease or eliminate completely giving the company complete control over its hardware and software.

“We really want to make sure the next generation has space for us. We don’t think we can trust the marketplace or competitors to ensure that’s the case. And so we’re gonna do it ourselves,” Andrew Bosworth, Facebook’s head of augmented and virtual reality, told The Information.

The report further suggests that the social media giant is also looking to adopt a similar approach towards Apple’s iOS with its future hardware.

Facebook is reportedly working on its own augmented reality (AR) glasses codenamed Orion’, which is expected to come in 2023 – the same year that Apple is expected to release its own AR glasses.

It is also working on a brain control interface for its glasses, which could allow users to control them with their thoughts.

Besides this, the company is also developing a voice assistant similar to Siri and Alexa for its Portal and Oculus products. Facebook has even contacted Microsoft to license data from its Bing search engine to train the assistant.

Do let us know what you think of Facebook developing its own OS in the comments section below.

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Rolls-Royce ACCEL, all-electric aircraft is expected to reach 480 km/h

BYAMIT MALEWARDECEMBER 21, 2019 INVENTION

Rolls-Royce ACCEL, all-electric aircraft. Credit: Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce ACCEL, all-electric aircraft. Credit: Rolls-Royce

Roll-Royce has announced its intention to create the world’s fastest all-electric aircraft. At Gloucestershire Airport in England, the company introduced the Roll-Royce ACCEL, a single-seat passenger project aircraft that will break the speed record for electric aircraft next year. It is expected to reach a top speed of more than 480 km/h (over 300 mph) with zero emissions.

For the moment, the record is 209.7 mph (337.5 km/h), owned by an Extra 330, a modified aerobatic aircraft, whose engine has been replaced by a Siemens engine.

According to Rolls-Royce, the electric air racer will use a new electric powertrain, which is tested on Rolls-Royce’s ‘ionBird’ test airframe use to test the electrical propulsion system, before being installed in the final aircraft.

Detailed view of the ACCEL Plane.
Detailed view of the ACCEL Plane.

The propeller is driven by three high power density axial electric motors designed by YASA cumulating a power of at least 500 horses. The ACCEL will have the most power-dense rechargeable battery pack, with 6,000 battery cells packaged to minimize weight and maximize thermal protection. It will generate up to 750 kW and provide a range of 200 miles (322 miles) per charge. To reach such velocity, the battery heats up enormously, and their cooling is one of the important points in the design of this aircraft.

Not only does the aircraft have zero emissions, but it also has the propeller blades spin at a far lower RPM to deliver a more stable and far quieter ride. In addition, the power system has 90% energy efficiency compared to the 50% efficiency of the Formula 1 race car.

  • Rolls-Royce ACCEL, all-electric aircraft. Credit: Rolls-Royce
  • The all-electric aircraft is expected to reach 480 km/h
  • Rolls-Royce ACCEL Front View
  • Detailed view of the ACCEL Plane.
  • Rolls-Royce ACCEL, all-electric aircraft. Credit: Rolls-Royce
  • The all-electric aircraft is expected to reach 480 km/h

The all-electric aircraft is expected to reach 480 km/h

The new Rolls-Royce electric air racer is being developed as part of the “Accelerating the Electrification of Flight” (ACCEL) initiative and built in partnership with YASA’s electric motor and controller manufacturer and Electroflight startup, with fundings from Aerospace.

If everything goes according to the plan, the aircraft will make its “record” attempt at 300+ miles per hour in the spring of 2020. Share

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  3. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you design this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like to know where u got this from. many thanks

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  4. Hello there I am so excited I found your blog page, I really found you by accident, while I was searching on Yahoo for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say cheers for a fantastic post and a all round interesting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to read it all at the moment but I have bookmarked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a great deal more, Please do keep up the awesome work.

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  5. Hey there! I’ve been reading your weblog for some time now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give you a shout out from New Caney Texas! Just wanted to say keep up the great work!

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  6. Wonderful blog! Do you have any tips and hints for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own site soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you advise starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m completely overwhelmed .. Any tips? Thanks a lot!

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