Calculating the time it will take spacecraft to find their way to other star systems @ ´´In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth’s Moon.´´ @ ´´Harvard Medical School, the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health are located on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus.[13] Several of Harvard’s affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also in Longwood, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Additional affiliates, most notably Massachusetts General Hospital, are located throughout the Greater Boston area.´´ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_University

Do the downloads!! Share!! The diffusion of very important information and knowledge is essential for the world progress always!! Thanks!!

  • – – > > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics – ´´My´´ Dissertation #Innovation #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

´´We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance from 0.05 to 0.005 for claims of new discoveries.´´ https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0189-z Published:  Daniel J. Benjamin, James O. Berger, […]Valen E. Johnson Nature Human Behaviour volume 2, pages6–10 (2018)

Um mundo além de p < 0,05 « Sandra Merlo – Fonoaudiologia da Fluência

´´My´´ Monografia – Monograph – Induction of benznidazole resistance in human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates – Indução de resistência ao benzonidazol em isolados humanos de Trypanosoma cruzi – UFTM – Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro – Uberaba 

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

Article – ´´My´´ dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação pelo Messenger – Facebook. Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Facebook – Messenger. Year – Ano: 2018

LISTA DE NOMES DE PESSOAS QUE ME DERAM FEEDBACK POSITIVO SOBRE A LISTA DE EMAILS QUE FIZ EM 2015 (PROJETO) – PEOPLE´S NAMES (POSITIVE FEEDBACK ABOUT THE EMAIL LIST I DID IN 2015) – E-MAIL LIST – LISTA DE E-MAILS – PROJECT – PESQUISA -RESEARCH

My suggestion of a very important Project…

Apostila – Pubmed

A Psicossomática Psicanalítica – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

ÁCIDO HIALURÔNICO – HIALURONIC ACID – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – Mestrado final – ´´My´´ dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

O Homem como Sujeito da Realidade da Saúde – Redação – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Aula_Resultados – Results – FAMERP – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

As credenciais da ciência – The credentials of Science – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto BaixarFrases que digitei – Phrases I typed

Frases que digitei – Tecnologia – Informations about blog I did

Keynote-The-Future-of-Space-Exploration(1)

2019-01-hormone-alzheimer(1)

mojap-02-00034

ajpheart.00349.2013

aging – animal models

Nanomedicine an evolving research (Opinion article I typed)

journal-of-nanomedicine–nanotechnology-flyer

Will you embrace AI fast enough

MICROBIOLOGIA – MICROBIOLOGY – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Genes e Epilepsia – Genes and epilepsy – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Dr.A.M.S

Flav_R03

BIOGRAFIA – BIOGRAPH – DR. DOMINGO MARCOLINO BRAILE

p-Value – Valor de p

european-respiratory-society

redefine-statistical-significance

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite

https://phys.org/news/2019-12-spacecraft-star.html?fbclid=IwAR2ToV9LLEjqWkU0Eey6uOPvwG9vsen7aFmxfC9ZyzhsMIPKUIeqJroEj6o

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DECEMBER 27, 2019 REPORT

Calculating the time it will take spacecraft to find their way to other star systems

by Bob Yirka , Phys.org

Voyager
Artist’s concept of NASA’s Voyager spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

A pair of researchers, one with the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, the other with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at CIT, has found a way to estimate how long it will take already launched space vehicles to arrive at other star systems. The pair, Coryn Bailer-Jones and Davide Farnocchia have written a paper describing their findings and have uploaded it to the arXiv preprint server.

Back in the 1970s, NASA sent four unmanned space probes out into the solar system—Pioneer 10 and 11, and Voyager 1 and 2—which, after completion of their missions, kept going—all four are on their way out of the solar system or have already departed. But what will become of them? Will they make their way to other star systems, and if so, how long might it take them? This is what Bailer-Jones and Davide Farnocchia wondered. To find some possible answers, they used the Gaia space telescope. It was launched by the European Space Agency back in 2013 and has been stationed at a point just outside of Earth’s orbit around the sun. It has been collecting information on a billion stars, including their paths through space. The latest dataset was released just last year on 7.2 million stars.

With data describing the paths of the four spacecraft and data describing the paths of a host of stars in hand, the researchers were able to work out when the paths of the four spacecraft might approach very far away star systems.

The researchers found that the four spacecraft will come somewhat close to approximately 60 stars over the course of the next 1 million years—and will come within two parsecs of approximately 10 of them. They also found that Pioneer 10 will likely be the first to pass by a star system—one called HIP 117795. It sits in the constellation Cassiopeia. Their calculations show that the spacecraft will pass within 0.231 parsecs of the star in approximately 90,000 years. They also found that all four of the spacecraft will travel for a very long time before they collide with or are captured by a star system—on the order of 1020 years.


Explore furtherAstrophysicist discovers numerous multiple star systems with exoplanets


More information: Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones et al. Future Stellar Flybys of the Voyager and Pioneer Spacecraft, Research Notes of the AAS (2019). DOI: 10.3847/2515-5172/ab158e

Future stellar flybys of the Voyager and Pioneer spacecraft, arXiv:1912.03503 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1912.03503

© 2019 Science X Network3187 shares

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Satellite

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchThis article is about artificial satellites. For natural satellites, also known as moons, see Natural satellite. For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation).

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File:NASA Earth-observing Fleet June 2012.ogv

NASA‘s Earth-observing fleet as of June 2019A full-size model of the Earth observation satelliteERS 2

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth’s Moon.

On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 8,900 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2018 estimate, some 5,000 remain in orbit. Of those about 1,900 were operational, while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 63% of operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 6% are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), 29% are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km) and the remaining 2% are in elliptic orbit.[1] A few large space stations have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites of the MoonMercuryVenusMarsJupiterSaturn, a few asteroids,[2] a comet and the Sun.

Satellites are used for many purposes. Among several other applications, they can be used to make star maps and maps of planetary surfaces, and also take pictures of planets they are launched into. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellitescommunications satellitesnavigation satellitesweather satellites, and space telescopesSpace stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites.

Satellites can operate by themselves or as part of a larger system, a satellite formation or satellite constellation.

Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.

launch vehicle is a rocket that places a satellite into orbit. Usually, it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea from a submarine or a mobile maritime platform, or aboard a plane (see air launch to orbit).

Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control, scientific instrumentation, communication, etc.

Contents

History[edit]

Konstantin TsiolkovskyA 1949 issue of Popular Science depicts the idea of an “artificial moon”Animation depicting the orbits of GPS satellites in medium Earth orbit.Sputnik 1: The first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.1U CubeSatESTCube-1, developed mainly by the students from the University of Tartu, carries out a tether deployment experiment in low Earth orbit.

The first published mathematical study of the possibility of an artificial satellite was Newton’s cannonball, a thought experiment in A Treatise of the System of the World by Isaac Newton (1687). The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit was a short story by Edward Everett HaleThe Brick Moon.[3][4] The idea surfaced again in Jules Verne‘s The Begum’s Fortune (1879).

In 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935) published Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices, which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft. He calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, and that a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid propellants could achieve this.

In 1928, Herman Potočnik (1892–1929) published his sole book, The Problem of Space Travel – The Rocket Motor. He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments.

In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.[5] He suggested that three geostationary satellites would provide coverage over the entire planet.

In May 1946, the United States Air Force‘s Project RAND released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated that “A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century.”[6] The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy. Project RAND eventually released the report, but considered the satellite to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda, rather than a potential military weapon.[7] In February 1954 Project RAND released “Scientific Uses for a Satellite Vehicle,” written by R.R. Carhart.[8] This expanded on potential scientific uses for satellite vehicles and was followed in June 1955 with “The Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite,” by H.K. Kallmann and W.W. Kellogg.[9]

In the context of activities planned for the International Geophysical Year (1957–58), the White House announced on 29 July 1955 that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On 31 July, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957.

The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957 under the Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1’s success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War.

Sputnik 2 was launched on 3 November 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika.[10]

In early 1955, following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, and the International Geophysical Year, the Army and Navy were working on Project Orbiter with two competing programs. The army used the Jupiter C rocket, while the civilian/Navy program used the Vanguard rocket to launch a satellite. Explorer 1 became the United States’ first artificial satellite on 31 January 1958.[11]

In June 1961, three-and-a-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the United States Space Surveillance Network cataloged 115 Earth-orbiting satellites.[12]

Early satellites were constructed to unique designs. With advancements in technology, multiple satellites began to be built on single model platforms called satellite buses. The first standardized satellite bus design was the HS-333 geosynchronous (GEO) communication satellite launched in 1972.

Currently the largest artificial satellite ever is the International Space Station.

Space Surveillance Network[edit]

Main article: United States Space Surveillance Network

The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN), a division of the United States Strategic Command, has been tracking objects in Earth’s orbit since 1957 when the Soviet Union opened the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik I. Since then, the SSN has tracked more than 26,000 objects. The SSN currently tracks more than 8,000-artificial orbiting objects. The rest have re-entered Earth’s atmosphere and disintegrated, or survived re-entry and impacted the Earth. The SSN tracks objects that are 10 centimeters in diameter or larger; those now orbiting Earth range from satellites weighing several tons to pieces of spent rocket bodies weighing only 10 pounds. About seven percent are operational satellites (i.e. ~560 satellites), the rest are space debris.[13] The United States Strategic Command is primarily interested in the active satellites, but also tracks space debris which upon reentry might otherwise be mistaken for incoming missiles.

Non-military satellite services[edit]

There are three basic categories of non-military satellite services:[14]

Fixed satellite services[edit]

Fixed satellite services handle hundreds of billions of voice, data, and video transmission tasks across all countries and continents between certain points on the Earth’s surface.

Mobile satellite systems[edit]

Main article: Mobile-satellite service

Mobile satellite systems help connect remote regions, vehicles, ships, people and aircraft to other parts of the world and/or other mobile or stationary communications units, in addition to serving as navigation systems.

Scientific research satellites (commercial and noncommercial)[edit]

Scientific research satellites provide meteorological information, land survey data (e.g. remote sensing), Amateur (HAM) Radio, and other different scientific research applications such as earth science, marine science, and atmospheric research.

Types[edit]

International Space Station

  • Space-based solar power satellites are proposed satellites that would collect energy from sunlight and transmit it for use on Earth or other places.
  • Space stations are artificial orbital structures that are designed for human beings to live on in outer space. A space station is distinguished from other crewed spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facilities. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years.
  • Tether satellites are satellites which are connected to another satellite by a thin cable called a tether.
  • Weather satellites are primarily used to monitor Earth’s weather and climate.[16]

Orbit types[edit]

Main article: List of orbitsVarious earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS).

The first satellite, Sputnik 1, was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in geocentric orbit. This is the most common type of orbit by far, with approximately 1,886[17] artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. Geocentric orbits may be further classified by their altitude, inclination and eccentricity.

The commonly used altitude classifications of geocentric orbit are Low Earth orbit (LEO), Medium Earth orbit (MEO) and High Earth orbit (HEO). Low Earth orbit is any orbit below 2,000 km. Medium Earth orbit is any orbit between 2,000 and 35,786 km. High Earth orbit is any orbit higher than 35,786 km.

Centric classifications[edit]

Altitude classifications[edit]

  • Low Earth orbit (LEO): Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 180 km – 2,000 km (1,200 mi)
  • Medium Earth orbit (MEO): Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 2,000 km (1,200 mi) – 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Also known as an intermediate circular orbit.
  • Geosynchronous orbit (GEO): Geocentric circular orbit with an altitude of 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi). The period of the orbit equals one sidereal day, coinciding with the rotation period of the Earth. The speed is approximately 3,000 metres per second (9,800 ft/s).
  • High Earth orbit (HEO): Geocentric orbits above the altitude of geosynchronous orbit 35,786 km (22,236 mi).

Orbital Altitudes of several significant satellites of earth.

Inclination classifications[edit]

  • Inclined orbit: An orbit whose inclination in reference to the equatorial plane is not zero degrees.
    • Polar orbit: An orbit that passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet on each revolution. Therefore, it has an inclination of (or very close to) 90 degrees.
    • Polar sun synchronous orbit: A nearly polar orbit that passes the equator at the same local time on every pass. Useful for image taking satellites because shadows will be nearly the same on every pass.

Eccentricity classifications[edit]

  • Circular orbit: An orbit that has an eccentricity of 0 and whose path traces a circle.
    • Hohmann transfer orbit: An orbit that moves a spacecraft from one approximately circular orbit, usually the orbit of a planet, to another, using two engine impulses. The perihelion of the transfer orbit is at the same distance from the Sun as the radius of one planet’s orbit, and the aphelion is at the other. The two rocket burns change the spacecraft’s path from one circular orbit to the transfer orbit, and later to the other circular orbit. This maneuver was named after Walter Hohmann.
  • Elliptic orbit: An orbit with an eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 whose orbit traces the path of an ellipse.
    • Geosynchronous transfer orbit: An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit (LEO) and the apogee at the altitude of a geosynchronous orbit.
    • Geostationary transfer orbit: An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit (LEO) and the apogee at the altitude of a geostationary orbit.
    • Molniya orbit: A highly elliptic orbit with inclination of 63.4° and orbital period of half of a sidereal day (roughly 12 hours). Such a satellite spends most of its time over two designated areas of the planet (specifically Russia and the United States).
    • Tundra orbit: A highly elliptic orbit with inclination of 63.4° and orbital period of one sidereal day (roughly 24 hours). Such a satellite spends most of its time over a single designated area of the planet.

Synchronous classifications[edit]

  • Synchronous orbit: An orbit where the satellite has an orbital period equal to the average rotational period (earth’s is: 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.091 seconds) of the body being orbited and in the same direction of rotation as that body. To a ground observer such a satellite would trace an analemma (figure 8) in the sky.
  • Semi-synchronous orbit (SSO): An orbit with an altitude of approximately 20,200 km (12,600 mi) and an orbital period equal to one-half of the average rotational period (Earth’s is approximately 12 hours) of the body being orbited
  • Geosynchronous orbit (GSO): Orbits with an altitude of approximately 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Such a satellite would trace an analemma (figure 8) in the sky.
  • Areosynchronous orbit: A synchronous orbit around the planet Mars with an orbital period equal in length to Mars’ sidereal day, 24.6229 hours.
  • Areostationary orbit (ASO): A circular areosynchronous orbit on the equatorial plane and about 17000 km (10557 miles) above the surface. To an observer on the ground this satellite would appear as a fixed point in the sky.
  • Heliosynchronous orbit: A heliocentric orbit about the Sun where the satellite’s orbital period matches the Sun’s period of rotation. These orbits occur at a radius of 24,360 Gm (0.1628 AU) around the Sun, a little less than half of the orbital radius of Mercury.

Special classifications[edit]

Pseudo-orbit classifications[edit]

  • Horseshoe orbit: An orbit that appears to a ground observer to be orbiting a certain planet but is actually in co-orbit with the planet. See asteroids 3753 (Cruithne) and 2002 AA29.
  • Suborbital spaceflight: A maneuver where a spacecraft approaches the height of orbit but lacks the velocity to sustain it.
  • Lunar transfer orbit (LTO)
  • Prograde orbit: An orbit with an inclination of less than 90°. Or rather, an orbit that is in the same direction as the rotation of the primary.
  • Retrograde orbit: An orbit with an inclination of more than 90°. Or rather, an orbit counter to the direction of rotation of the planet. Apart from those in sun-synchronous orbit, few satellites are launched into retrograde orbit because the quantity of fuel required to launch them is much greater than for a prograde orbit. This is because when the rocket starts out on the ground, it already has an eastward component of velocity equal to the rotational velocity of the planet at its launch latitude.
  • Halo orbit and Lissajous orbit: Orbits “around” Lagrangian points.

Satellite subsystems[edit]

The satellite’s functional versatility is embedded within its technical components and its operations characteristics. Looking at the “anatomy” of a typical satellite, one discovers two modules.[14] Note that some novel architectural concepts such as Fractionated spacecraft somewhat upset this taxonomy.

Spacecraft bus or service module[edit]

The bus module consists of the following subsystems:

Structural subsystem[edit]

The structural subsystem provides the mechanical base structure with adequate stiffness to withstand stress and vibrations experienced during launch, maintain structural integrity and stability while on station in orbit, and shields the satellite from extreme temperature changes and micro-meteorite damage.

Telemetry subsystem[edit]

The telemetry subsystem (aka Command and Data Handling, C&DH) monitors the on-board equipment operations, transmits equipment operation data to the earth control station, and receives the earth control station’s commands to perform equipment operation adjustments.

Power subsystem[edit]

The power subsystem consists of solar panels to convert solar energy into electrical power, regulation and distribution functions, and batteries that store power and supply the satellite when it passes into the Earth’s shadow. Nuclear power sources (Radioisotope thermoelectric generator) have also been used in several successful satellite programs including the Nimbus program (1964–1978).[19]

Thermal control subsystem[edit]

Main article: Spacecraft thermal control

The thermal control subsystem helps protect electronic equipment from extreme temperatures due to intense sunlight or the lack of sun exposure on different sides of the satellite’s body (e.g. optical solar reflector)

Attitude and orbit control subsystem[edit]

Main articles: Attitude control and Spacecraft propulsion

The attitude and orbit control subsystem consists of sensors to measure vehicle orientation, control laws embedded in the flight software, and actuators (reaction wheels, thrusters). These apply the torques and forces needed to re-orient the vehicle to a desired attitude, keep the satellite in the correct orbital position, and keep antennas pointed in the right directions.

Communication payload[edit]

The second major module is the communication payload, which is made up of transponders. A transponder is capable of :

  • Receiving uplinked radio signals from earth satellite transmission stations (antennas).
  • Amplifying received radio signals
  • Sorting the input signals and directing the output signals through input/output signal multiplexers to the proper downlink antennas for retransmission to earth satellite receiving stations (antennas).

End of life[edit]

When satellites reach the end of their mission (this normally occurs within 3 or 4 years after launch), satellite operators have the option of de-orbiting the satellite, leaving the satellite in its current orbit or moving the satellite to a graveyard orbit. Historically, due to budgetary constraints at the beginning of satellite missions, satellites were rarely designed to be de-orbited. One example of this practice is the satellite Vanguard 1. Launched in 1958, Vanguard 1, the 4th artificial satellite put in Geocentric orbit, was still in orbit as of March 2015, as well as the upper stage of its launch rocket.[20][21]

Instead of being de-orbited, most satellites are either left in their current orbit or moved to a graveyard orbit.[22] As of 2002, the FCC requires all geostationary satellites to commit to moving to a graveyard orbit at the end of their operational life prior to launch.[23] In cases of uncontrolled de-orbiting, the major variable is the solar flux, and the minor variables the components and form factors of the satellite itself, and the gravitational perturbations generated by the Sun and the Moon (as well as those exercised by large mountain ranges, whether above or below sea level). The nominal breakup altitude due to aerodynamic forces and temperatures is 78 km, with a range between 72 and 84 km. Solar panels, however, are destroyed before any other component at altitudes between 90 and 95 km.[24]

Launch-capable countries[edit]

Main article: Timeline of first orbital launches by nationality

This list includes countries with an independent capability to place satellites in orbit, including production of the necessary launch vehicle. Note: many more countries have the capability to design and build satellites but are unable to launch them, instead relying on foreign launch services. This list does not consider those numerous countries, but only lists those capable of launching satellites indigenously, and the date this capability was first demonstrated. The list does not include the European Space Agency, a multi-national state organization, nor private consortiums.

OrderCountryDate of first launchRocketSatellite(s)
1Soviet Union4 October 1957Sputnik-PSSputnik 1
2United States1 February 1958Juno IExplorer 1
3France26 November 1965Diamant-AAstérix
4Japan11 February 1970Lambda-4SOhsumi
5China24 April 1970Long March 1Dong Fang Hong I
6United Kingdom28 October 1971Black ArrowProspero
7India18 July 1980SLVRohini D1
8Israel19 September 1988ShavitOfeq 1
– [1]Russia21 January 1992Soyuz-UKosmos 2175
– [1]Ukraine13 July 1992Tsyklon-3Strela
9Iran2 February 2009Safir-1Omid
10North Korea12 December 2012Unha-3Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2
11South Korea30 January 2013Naro-1STSAT-2C
12New Zealand12 November 2018ElectronCubeSat

Attempted first launches[edit]

 This section needs expansionYou can help by adding to it. (May 2012)
  • The United States tried in 1957 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1958.
  • Japan tried four times in 1966–1969 to launch a satellite with its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1970.
  • China tried in 1969 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1970.
  • India, after launching its first national satellite using a foreign launcher in 1975, tried in 1979 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before succeeding in 1980.
  • Iraq have claimed an orbital launch of a warhead in 1989, but this claim was later disproved.[28]
  • Brazil, after launching its first national satellite using a foreign launcher in 1985, tried to launch a satellite using its own VLS 1 launcher three times in 1997, 1999, and 2003, but all attempts were unsuccessful.
  • North Korea claimed a launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 satellites in 1998 and 2009, but U.S., Russian and other officials and weapons experts later reported that the rockets failed to send a satellite into orbit, if that was the goal. The United States, Japan and South Korea believe this was actually a ballistic missile test, which was a claim also made after North Korea’s 1998 satellite launch, and later rejected.[29] The first (April 2012) launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 was unsuccessful, a fact publicly recognized by the DPRK. However, the December 2012 launch of the “second version” of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 was successful, putting the DPRK’s first confirmed satellite into orbit.
  • South Korea (Korea Aerospace Research Institute), after launching their first national satellite by foreign launcher in 1992, unsuccessfully tried to launch its own launcher, the KSLV (Naro)-1, (created with the assistance of Russia) in 2009 and 2010 until success was achieved in 2013 by Naro-3.
  • The First European multi-national state organization ELDO tried to make the orbital launches at Europa I and Europa II rockets in 1968–1970 and 1971 but stopped operation after failures.

Other notes[edit]

  • ^ Russia and the Ukraine were parts of the Soviet Union and thus inherited their launch capability without the need to develop it indigenously. Through the Soviet Union they are also on the number one position in this list of accomplishments.
  • France, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine launched their first satellites by own launchers from foreign spaceports.
  • Some countries such as South AfricaSpainItalyGermanyCanadaAustraliaArgentinaEgypt and private companies such as OTRAG, have developed their own launchers, but have not had a successful launch.
  • Only twelve, countries from the list below (USSR, USA, France, Japan, China, UK, India, Russia, Ukraine, Israel, Iran and North Korea) and one regional organization (the European Space Agency, ESA) have independently launched satellites on their own indigenously developed launch vehicles.
  • Several other countries, including BrazilArgentinaPakistanRomaniaTaiwanIndonesiaAustraliaMalaysiaTurkey and Switzerland are at various stages of development of their own small-scale launcher capabilities.

Launch capable private entities[edit]

Orbital Sciences Corporation launched a satellite into orbit on the Pegasus in 1990. SpaceX launched a satellite into orbit on the Falcon 1 in 2008. Rocket Lab launched three cubesats into orbit on the Electron in 2018.

First satellites of countries[edit]

Main article: Timeline of first satellites by country

CountryYear of first launchFirst satelliteOperational payloads
in orbit as of January 2020
Soviet Union
(Russia)
1957
(1992)
Sputnik 1
(Kosmos 2175)
1524
United States1958Explorer 11914
China1970Dong Fang Hong I391
Japan1970Ohsumi181
India1975Aryabhata96
France1965Astérix73
Germany1969Azur67
Canada1962Alouette 154
United Kingdom1962Ariel 154
Italy1964San Marco 129
South Korea1992Kitsat A23
Spain1974Intasat27
Australia1967WRESAT22
Brazil1985Brasilsat-A117
Argentina1990Lusat[31]20
Israel1988Ofeq 120
Indonesia1976Palapa A118
Turkey1994Turksat 1B13
Saudi Arabia1985Arabsat-1A15
Mexico1985Morelos 113
Sweden1986Viking11
Singapore1998ST-1[32][33]11
Netherlands1974ANS8
Czechoslovakia1978Magion 12
Bulgaria1981Intercosmos Bulgaria 13002
Luxembourg1988Astra 1A4
Pakistan1990Badr-16
Portugal1993PoSAT-12
Thailand1993Thaicom 110
Czech Republic1995Magion 43
Ukraine1995Sich-16
Malaysia1996MEASAT7
Norway1997Thor 29
Philippines1997Mabuhay 12
Egypt1998Nilesat 1015
Chile1998FASat-Bravo3
Denmark1999Ørsted9
South Africa1999SUNSAT6
United Arab Emirates2000Thuraya 19
Morocco2001Maroc-Tubsat1
Belgium2001PROBA-10
Tonga[34]2002Esiafi 1 (former Comstar D4)0
Algeria2002Alsat 16
Greece2003Hellas Sat 24
Cyprus2003Hellas Sat 20
Nigeria2003Nigeriasat 16
Iran2005Sina-11
Kazakhstan2006KazSat 16
Colombia2007Libertad 10
Mauritius2007Rascom-QAF 10
Vietnam2008Vinasat-13
Venezuela2008Venesat-13
Switzerland2009SwissCube-1[35]0
Isle of Man2011ViaSat-11
Poland[36]2012PW-Sat4
Hungary2012MaSat-10
Sri Lanka2012SupremeSAT-I1
Romania2012Goliat[37]0
Belarus2012BKA (BelKA-2)[38]2
North Korea2012Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 22
Azerbaijan2013Azerspace[39]1
Austria2013TUGSAT-1/UniBRITE[40][41]0
Bermuda[42]2013Bermudasat 1 (former EchoStar VI)0
Ecuador2013NEE-01 Pegaso2
Estonia2013ESTCube-11
Jersey2013O3b-1, −2, −3, −40
Qatar2013Es’hailSat10
Peru2013PUCPSAT-1[43]2
Bolivia2013TKSat-11
Lithuania2014LituanicaSAT-1 and LitSat-11
Uruguay2014Antelsat1
Iraq2014Tigrisat[44]0
Turkmenistan2015TurkmenAlem52E/MonacoSAT1
Laos2015Laosat-11
Finland2017Aalto-21
Bangladesh2017BRAC Onnesha2
Ghana2017GhanaSat-1[45]1
Mongolia2017Mazaalai1
Latvia2017Venta-11
Slovakia2017skCUBE1
Asgardia2017Asgardia-11
Angola2017AngoSat 11
New Zealand2018Humanity Star1
Bangladesh2018Bangabandhu-11
Costa Rica2018Proyecto Irazú1
Kenya20181KUNS-PF1
Bhutan2018BHUTAN-1[46]1
Jordan2018JY1-SAT1
Nepal2019NepaliSat-11
Rwanda2019RWASat-11
Sudan2019SRSS-11
Ethiopia2019ETRSS-11

orbital launch and satellite operation  satellite operation, launched by foreign supplier  satellite in development  orbital launch project at advanced stage or indigenous ballistic missiles deployed

While Canada was the third country to build a satellite which was launched into space,[47] it was launched aboard an American rocket from an American spaceport. The same goes for Australia, who launched first satellite involved a donated U.S. Redstone rocket and American support staff as well as a joint launch facility with the United Kingdom.[48] The first Italian satellite San Marco 1 launched on 15 December 1964 on a U.S. Scout rocket from Wallops Island (Virginia, United States) with an Italian launch team trained by NASA.[49] By similar occasions, almost all further first national satellites was launched by foreign rockets.

Attempted first satellites[edit]

  • United States tried unsuccessfully to launch its first satellite in 1957; they were successful in 1958.
  • China tried unsuccessfully to launch its first satellite in 1969; they were successful in 1970.
  • Iraq under Saddam Hussein fulfilled in 1989 an unconfirmed launch of warhead on orbit by developed Iraqi vehicle that intended to put later the 75 kg first national satellite Al-Ta’ir, also developed.[50][51]
  • Chile tried unsuccessfully in 1995 to launch its first satellite FASat-Alfa by foreign rocket; in 1998 they were successful.†
  • North Korea has tried in 1998, 2009, 2012 to launch satellites, first successful launch on 12 December 2012.[52]
  • Libya since 1996 developed its own national Libsat satellite project with the goal of providing telecommunication and remote sensing services[53] that was postponed after the fall of Gaddafi.
  • Belarus tried unsuccessfully in 2006 to launch its first satellite BelKA by foreign rocket.†

†-note: Both Chile and Belarus used Russian companies as principal contractors to build their satellites, they used Russian-Ukrainian manufactured rockets and launched either from Russia or Kazakhstan.

 This section needs expansionYou can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Planned first satellites[edit]

  • Afghanistan announced in April 2012 that it is planning to launch its first communications satellite to the orbital slot it has been awarded. The satellite Afghansat 1 was expected to be obtained by a Eutelsat commercial company in 2014.[54][55]
  • Armenia in 2012 founded Armcosmos company[56] and announced an intention to have the first telecommunication satellite ArmSat. The investments estimates as $250 million and country selecting the contractor for building within 4 years the satellite amongst Russia, China and Canada[57][58][59]
  • Cambodia‘s Royal Group plans to purchase for $250–350 million and launch in the beginning of 2013 the telecommunication satellite.[60]
  • Cayman Islands‘s Global IP Cayman private company plans to launch GiSAT-1 geostationary communications satellite in 2018.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo ordered at November 2012 in China (Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and Great Wall Industry Corporation (CGWIC)) the first telecommunication satellite CongoSat-1 which will be built on DFH-4 satellite bus platform and will be launched in China till the end of 2015.[61]
  • Croatia has a goal to construct a satellite by 2013–2014. Launch into Earth orbit would be done by a foreign provider.[62]
  • Ethiopian Space Science Society[63] planning the QB50-family research CubeSat ET-SAT by help of Belgian Von Karman Institute till 2015[64] and the small (20–25 kg) Earth observation and remote sensing satellite Ethosat 1 by help of Finnish Space Technology and Science Group till 2019.[65]
  • Ireland‘s team of Dublin Institute of Technology intends to launch the first Irish satellite within European University program CubeSat QB50.[66]
  • Jordan‘s first satellite to be the private amateur pocketqube SunewnewSat.[67][68][69]
  • Republic of Moldova‘s first remote sensing satellite plans to start in 2013 by Space centre at national Technical University.[70]
  • Myanmar plans to purchase for $200 million their own telecommunication satellite.[71]
  • Nepal stated that planning to launch of own telecommunication satellite before 2015 by help of India or China.[72][73][74]
  • Nicaragua ordered for $254 million at November 2013 in China the first telecommunication satellite Nicasat-1 (to be built at DFH-4 satellite bus platform by CAST and CGWIC), that planning to launch in China at 2016.[75]
  • Paraguay under new Agencia Espacial del Paraguay –- AEP airspace agency plans first Eart observation satellite.[76][77]
  • Serbia‘s first satellite Tesla-1 was designed, developed and assembled by nongovernmental organisations in 2009 but still remains unlaunched.
  • Slovenia‘s Earth observation microsatellite for the Slovenian Centre of Excellence for Space Sciences and Technologies (Space-SI) now under development for $2 million since 2010 by University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies – Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS – SFL) and planned to launch in 2015–2016.[78][79]
  • Sri Lanka has a goal to construct two satellites beside of rent the national SupremeSAT payload in Chinese satellites. Sri Lankan Telecommunications Regulatory Commission has signed an agreement with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd to get relevant help and resources. Launch into Earth orbit would be done by a foreign provider.[80][81]
  • Syrian Space Research Center developing CubeSat-like small first national satellite since 2008.[82]
  • Tunisia is developing its first satellite, ERPSat01. Consisting of a CubeSat of 1 kg mass, it will be developed by the Sfax School of Engineering. ERPSat satellite is planned to be launched into orbit in 2013.[83]
  • Uzbekistan‘s State Space Research Agency (UzbekCosmos) announced in 2001 about intention of launch in 2002 first remote sensing satellite.[84] Later in 2004 was stated that two satellites (remote sensing and telecommunication) will be built by Russia for $60–70 million each[85]
 This section needs expansionYou can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Attacks on satellites[edit]

Further information: Anti-satellite weapon

Since the mid-2000s, satellites have been hacked by militant organizations to broadcast propaganda and to pilfer classified information from military communication networks.[86][87]

For testing purposes, satellites in low earth orbit have been destroyed by ballistic missiles launched from earth. Russia, the United States, China and India have demonstrated the ability to eliminate satellites.[88] In 2007 the Chinese military shot down an aging weather satellite,[88] followed by the US Navy shooting down a defunct spy satellite in February 2008.[89] On 27 March 2019 the India shot down a live test satellite at 300 km altitude in 3 minutes. India became the fourth country to having capability to destroy live satellite.[90][91]

Jamming[edit]

See also: Radio jamming

Due to the low received signal strength of satellite transmissions, they are prone to jamming by land-based transmitters. Such jamming is limited to the geographical area within the transmitter’s range. GPS satellites are potential targets for jamming,[92][93] but satellite phone and television signals have also been subjected to jamming.[94][95]

Also, it is very easy to transmit a carrier radio signal to a geostationary satellite and thus interfere with the legitimate uses of the satellite’s transponder. It is common for Earth stations to transmit at the wrong time or on the wrong frequency in commercial satellite space, and dual-illuminate the transponder, rendering the frequency unusable. Satellite operators now have sophisticated monitoring that enables them to pinpoint the source of any carrier and manage the transponder space effectively.[citation needed]

Earth observation using satellites[edit]

During the last five decades, space agencies have sent thousands of space crafts, space capsules, or satellites to the universe. In fact, weather forecasters make predictions on the weather and natural calamities based on observations from these satellites.[96]

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[97] requested the National Academies to publish a report entitled, Earth Observations from Space; The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements in 2008. It described how the capability to view the whole globe simultaneously from satellite observations revolutionized studies about the planet Earth. This development brought about a new age of combined Earth sciences. The National Academies report concluded that continuing Earth observations from the galaxy are necessary to resolve scientific and social challenges in the future.[98]

NASA[edit]

See also: Earth Observing System

The NASA introduced an Earth Observing System (EOS)[99] composed of several satellites, science component, and data system described as the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). It disseminates numerous science data products as well as services designed for interdisciplinary education. EOSDIS data can be accessed online and accessed through File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS).[100] Scientists and researchers perform EOSDIS science operations within a distributed platform of multiple interconnected nodes or Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) and discipline-specific Distributed Active Archive Centers (DACCs).[101]

ESA[edit]

The European Space Agency[102] have been operating Earth Observation satellites since the launch of Meteosat 1 in November 1977[103]. ESA currently has plans to launch a satellite equipped with an artificial intelligence (AI) processor that will allow the spacecraft to make decisions on images to capture and data to transmit to the Earth.[104] BrainSat will use the Intel Myriad X vision processing unit (VPU). The launching will be scheduled in 2019. ESA director for Earth Observation Programs Josef Aschbacher made the announcement during the PhiWeek in November 2018.[105] This is the five-day meet that focused on the future of Earth observation. The conference was held at the ESA Center for Earth Observation in Frascati, Italy.[104] ESA also launched the PhiLab, referring to the future-focused team that works to harness the potentials of AI and other disruptive innovations.[106] Meanwhile, the ESA also announced that it expects to commence the qualification flight of the Space Rider space plane in 2021. This will come after several demonstration missions.[107] Space Rider is the sequel of the Agency’s Intermediate Experimental vehicle (IXV) which was launched in 2015. It has the capacity payload of 800 kilograms for orbital missions that will last a maximum of two months.[108]

SpaceX[edit]

SpaceX was scheduled to launch a multiple satellite mission on 28 November 2018 from the United States Vandenberg Air Force Base after an initial 19 November schedule. The launch is expected to be visible once the rocket heads toward the south into an Earth observation trajectory traveling over the opposites.[109] However, the second supposed launched was delayed again because of poor weather conditions and the actual launch occurred on 3 December 2018.[110] The mission is known as the SSO-A Smallsat Express was executed by Spaceflight, a rideshare and mission management provider based in Seattle, Wash.[111] The launch was a landmark for Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX which had 19 rocket launches in 2018 alone. The estimated cost of this Falcon 9 rocket is approximately $62  million. The rocket has 64 satellites with each one going separate ways.[112]

Amazon and Lockheed[edit]

Amazon Web Services (AWS)[113] and Lockheed Martin[114] entered into a strategic partnership for the purpose of integrating the AWS ground station service with Lockheed’s verge antenna network. These two corporations aim to merge these highly-capable systems that will provide clients with robust satellite uplinks and downlinks. Through these systems, users can incorporate satellite data with various AWS services which include computing, storage, analytics, and machine-learning.[115]

Pollution and regulation[edit]

Generally liability has been covered by the Liability Convention. Issues like space debris, radio and light pollution are increasing in magnitude and at the same time lack progress in national or international regulation.[116] With future increase in numbers of satellite constellations, like SpaceX‘s Starlink, it is feared especially by the astronomical community, such as the IAU, that orbital pollution will increase significantly.[117][118] Some notable satellite failures that polluted and disbursed radioactive materials are Kosmos 954Kosmos 1402 and the Transit 5-BN-3.

Satellite services[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ “NASA Spacecraft Becomes First to Orbit a Dwarf Planet”NASA. 6 March 2015.
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  31. ^ The first satellite built by Argentina, Arsat 1, was launched later in 2014
  32. ^ The first satellite built by Singapore, X-Sat, was launched aboard a PSLV rocket later on 20 April 2011
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6 Comments

  1. Awesome blog! Do you have any tips for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Any suggestions? Bless you!

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