HISTORY, OPINION AND REVIEWS – How Feynman diagrams transformed physics @ Israeli scientists store digital information in DNA. DNA-based information storage may also help reduce our carbon footprint. By LEON SVERDLOV SEPTEMBER 9, 2019 21:32 @ How to Develop a Good Research Topic & How To Write A Dissertation at Undergraduate or Master’s Level @ Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research: Difference between them with examples & methods & Overview of Qualitative Research Methods @ How to Write a Literature Review in 30 Minutes or Less & Conducting Qualitative Research Decisions, Actions, and Implications by Philip Adu, Ph.D. @ How To Write A Research Proposal? 11 Things To Include In A Thesis Proposal # Writing a research thesis proposal @ Writing a Winning Research Proposal – Ray Boxman & Microsoft Word 2010: Citations, Bibliographies and Cross References @ How to quickly upload references into Microsoft Word & How to make a reference list for beginners @ Microsoft Word 2010 Creating a References and Works Cited Page

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Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto



Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto



Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

´´We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance from 0.05 to 0.005 for claims of new discoveries.´´ https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0189-z Published:  Daniel J. Benjamin, James O. Berger, […]Valen E. Johnson Nature Human Behaviour volume 2, pages6–10 (2018)

Um mundo além de p < 0,05 « Sandra Merlo – Fonoaudiologia da Fluência

´´My´´ Monografia – Monograph – Induction of benznidazole resistance in human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates – Indução de resistência ao benzonidazol em isolados humanos de Trypanosoma cruzi – UFTM – Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro – Uberaba 

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

Article – ´´My´´ dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação pelo Messenger – Facebook. Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Facebook – Messenger. Year – Ano: 2018


My suggestion of a very important Project…

Apostila – Pubmed

A Psicossomática Psicanalítica – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

ÁCIDO HIALURÔNICO – HIALURONIC ACID – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – Mestrado final – ´´My´´ dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

O Homem como Sujeito da Realidade da Saúde – Redação – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Aula_Resultados – Results – FAMERP – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

As credenciais da ciência – The credentials of Science – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto BaixarFrases que digitei – Phrases I typed

Frases que digitei – Tecnologia – Informations about blog I did





aging – animal models

Nanomedicine an evolving research (Opinion article I typed)


Will you embrace AI fast enough

MICROBIOLOGIA – MICROBIOLOGY – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Genes e Epilepsia – Genes and epilepsy – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto




p-Value – Valor de p





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How Feynman diagrams transformed physics

(Courtesy: Science Photo Library/Laguna Design)

19 Dec 2019 Robert P CreaseTaken from the December 2019 issue of Physics World, where it appeared under the headline “Paper tools”. Members of the Institute of Physics can enjoy the full issue via the Physics World app.

Feynman diagrams reveal why the tools theorists use are as important as the theories themselves, writes Robert P Crease

Tools can change not only how theorists calculate but also what they calculate about.

As the International Year of the Periodic Table draws to a close, I’m reminded of this lesson through the work of the Swedish scientist Jacob Berzelius, one of the fathers of modern chemistry. Back in the early 19th century, he developed a new tool for writing chemical formula. It involved giving elements simple labels such as Si for silicon – one of four elements Berzelius discovered – along with numbers denoting their proportions. Vinegar, for example, is C2H3O2, though Berzelius used superscripts rather than subscripts. The system is still used today, and we assume that it represents chemicals “as they really are”.

But two decades ago, Ursula Klein, a scholar from the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, pointed out that the tool changed chemistry. It not only organized complex information in the “jungle of organic chemistry” but also transformed the way chemists looked at chemicals. To explain how all this happened, Klein introduced the notion of a “paper tool” – it showed how Berzelius’ notation system transformed ideas about what chemicals were and how to study them, thereby providing chemists with new perspectives, concepts and goals.

The notion of a “paper tool” showed how Berzelius’ notation system transformed ideas about what chemicals were and how to study them, thereby providing chemists with new perspectives, concepts and goals

Klein’s notion of a paper tool has since been applied elsewhere. Michael Gordin, a historian of science at Princeton University in the US, applied the concept to the early history of periodic tables in his 2004 book A Well-Ordered Thing (Basic Books). Meanwhile, David Kaiser – a physicist and historian of science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology – has used paper tools to explore the impact of Feynman diagrams. As he writes in his 2005 book Drawing Theories Apart: the Dispersion of Feynman Diagrams in Postwar Physicsthese illustrations – pioneered by Richard Feynman in the late 1940s and early 1950s – “helped to transform the way physicists saw the world and their place within it”.

Doodling physics

Feynman diagrams, you’ll recall, are line drawings that represent mathematical expressions of the behaviour of subatomic particles. Feynman developed them to keep track of calculations of self-energy, or how charged particles interact with their own fields. These calculations are done by perturbation expansions, which work by viewing each self-energy interaction as a small change, or perturbation, of some known state. A perturbation calculation then adds up a series of such small changes.

Unfortunately, keeping track of any corrections beyond the simplest case, let alone adding them all up, makes such calculations forbidding. In work for which he would share the 1965 Nobel Prize for Physics with Shin’ichiro Tomonaga and Julian Schwinger, Feynman said he used the diagrams as a “book-keeping device for wading through complicated calculations”. That was disingenuous; the diagrams did far more than that. Kaiser’s account of this imaging tool reveals at least four different ways in which Feynman diagrams acted as more than a simple tool but transformed particle physics itself.

First, the diagrams required apprenticeship. Feynman diagrams have a deceptive visual simplicity, but even at first physicists did not find them natural or intuitive. They could not spread, Kaiser writes, through the equivalent of “correspondence courses”, in which training happens by sending and receiving information from a distance rather than face-to-face encounters. Instead, Feynman had to tutor colleagues, notably Freeman Dyson, who helped spread the new techniques to a group at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Members of that cohort, in turn, spread them further. The diagrams required something like “craft skill or artisanal knowledge”, Kaiser writes, and the mentored and often laborious acquisition of techniques of the sort associated with new traditions of painting, fashion or art.

The second transformative impact of Feynman diagrams was that they framed the projects that theorists undertook in a new way. Here again, there are affinities to painting and the way that artists created new approaches to traditions like realism. Growing confidence in the calculations enabled by Feynman diagrams thus reinforced confidence in the diagrams themselves as a tool, thereby in the diagrams’ applications, and so on.

Third, Feynman diagrams are what philosophers of technology call “multistable”, rapidly mutating in their application and structure. In traditional history of science, Kaiser points out, theoretical tools are thought to spread like “batons in a relay race – stable objects that retained their meaning and form as they were passed from one user to another in a growing network”. Feynman diagrams, instead, transformed into tools that could be used not only in high-energy physics, but also in nuclear physics, solid-state physics, gravitational physics and an ever-widening circle of applications. “Improvization and bricolage,” Kaiser writes, “can lead to applications that had never been envisioned by the tool’s inventors.”READ MOREPhysics World’s 2012 Book of the Year

Fourth, Feynman diagrams transformed what physicists conceived as real. In an old story familiar to philosophers of science and technology, tools such as Feynman diagrams not only shaped the practices of those inside the workshop but also came to be taken for granted and seemingly transparent avenues to what appears to be the “real”. Kaiser, again, compares this to traditions in art history that each appear (deceptively) to represent nature to the “innocent eye”.

The critical point

A still more radical lesson of Kaiser’s book concerns not what it says about how Feynman diagrams are used, but what the use of the diagrams says about the nature of theory itself. Theory, Kaiser suggests, is ultimately less important to theorists than the tools that mediate their calculations. Moreover, tools fashioned within one theoretical framework can take on lives of their own, and find new uses even when the original theory, for which they had been drafted, falls out of favour. Theoretical tools, like experimental ones, can outlive the theories they were meant to elucidate.

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Robert P Crease is chair of the Department of Philosophy, Stony Brook University, US and writes a monthly column for Physics World. His latest book is The Workshop and the World: What Ten Thinkers Can Teach Us About Science and Authority (WW Norton)

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Health & Science

Israeli scientists store digital information in DNA

DNA-based information storage may also help reduce our carbon footprint.

By LEON SVERDLOV   SEPTEMBER 9, 2019 21:32   

The research group. From right to left: Prof. Roee Amit, Inbal Vaknin, Leon Anavy, and Prof. Zohar Yakhini (photo credit: RAMI SHLUSH / TECHNION)

The research group. From right to left: Prof. Roee Amit, Inbal Vaknin, Leon Anavy, and Prof. Zohar Yakhini(photo credit: RAMI SHLUSH / TECHNION)Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa and the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya have significantly optimized the process needed to store digital information on DNA, the Technion reported on Monday.According to the press release, in a paper published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, the group demonstrated storage of information in a density of more than 10 petabytes, or ten million gigabytes, in a single gram, while significantly improving the writing process. This, theoretically, allows for storing all the information stored on YouTube in a single teaspoon.Read More Related Articles

Recommended byThe study was led by research student Leon Anavy, a student at the Technion Faculty of Computer Science, under the guidance of Prof. Zohar Yakhini of the Technion Faculty of Computer Science and IDC’s Efi Arazi School of Computer Science at IDC, in collaboration with Prof. Roee Amit’s Synthetic Biology Laboratory at the Technion Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, the release said.The optimization of the DNA information storage process may make it a viable alternative to traditional forms of information storage. As server farms are responsible for about 2% of global carbon emission, similar to the emission if global air traffic, and for 3% of global electricity consumption – a rate higher than the entire electricity consumption of the UK – DNA-based information storage may also help reduce our carbon footprint.According to the Technion, the group has developed advanced error-correction mechanisms to overcome errors that are an integral part of biological-physical processes, like the ones used for DNA information storage.”Thanks to the use of error-correction codes that are tailored to the unique encoding we created, we were able to perform highly efficient coding and to successfully recover the information,” Anavy said. “When working in a system consisting of millions of parts, even one-in-a-million events occur, which can disrupt the reading. Careful coding allowed us to overcome these problems.”According to the researchers, “the technology we presented in the paper has the potential to streamline further processes in synthetic biology and biotechnology.

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  TOP ARTICLES1/5READ MOREHamas ‘promoting’ Donald Trump’s Deal of theCentury, says Fatah“We believe that in the coming years, we will see a significant increase in the use of synthetic DNA in research and industry,” they said.

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