Nobel Prize in Medicine 2019 | Oxygen sensors @ ´´Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. It is called a name for the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object. A name is usually a phrase or expression, or some other symbolic representation. Its referent may be anything – a material object, a person, an event, an activity, or an abstract concept.´´References feature in many spheres of human activity and knowledge, and the term adopts shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. Some of them are described in the sections below.´´@ Over the past century, the mouse has developed into the premier mammalian model system for genetic research. Scientists from a wide range of biomedical fields have gravitated to the mouse because of its close genetic and physiological similarities to humans, as well as the ease with which its genome can be manipulated and analyzed.´´ @ Links and Images

Do the downloads!! Share!! The diffusion of very important information and knowledge is essential for the world progress always!! Thanks!!

  • – – > > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics – ´´My´´ Dissertation #Innovation #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

´´We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance from 0.05 to 0.005 for claims of new discoveries.´´ https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0189-z Published:  Daniel J. Benjamin, James O. Berger, […]Valen E. Johnson Nature Human Behaviour volume 2, pages6–10 (2018)

Um mundo além de p < 0,05 « Sandra Merlo – Fonoaudiologia da Fluência

´´My´´ Monografia – Monograph – Induction of benznidazole resistance in human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates – Indução de resistência ao benzonidazol em isolados humanos de Trypanosoma cruzi – UFTM – Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro – Uberaba 

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

Article – ´´My´´ dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação pelo Messenger – Facebook. Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Facebook – Messenger. Year – Ano: 2018

LISTA DE NOMES DE PESSOAS QUE ME DERAM FEEDBACK POSITIVO SOBRE A LISTA DE EMAILS QUE FIZ EM 2015 (PROJETO) – PEOPLE´S NAMES (POSITIVE FEEDBACK ABOUT THE EMAIL LIST I DID IN 2015) – E-MAIL LIST – LISTA DE E-MAILS – PROJECT – PESQUISA -RESEARCH

My suggestion of a very important Project…

Apostila – Pubmed

A Psicossomática Psicanalítica – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

ÁCIDO HIALURÔNICO – HIALURONIC ACID – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – Mestrado final – ´´My´´ dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

O Homem como Sujeito da Realidade da Saúde – Redação – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Aula_Resultados – Results – FAMERP – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

As credenciais da ciência – The credentials of Science – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto BaixarFrases que digitei – Phrases I typed

Frases que digitei – Tecnologia – Informations about blog I did

Keynote-The-Future-of-Space-Exploration(1)

2019-01-hormone-alzheimer(1)

mojap-02-00034

ajpheart.00349.2013

aging – animal models

Nanomedicine an evolving research (Opinion article I typed)

journal-of-nanomedicine–nanotechnology-flyer

Will you embrace AI fast enough

MICROBIOLOGIA – MICROBIOLOGY – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Genes e Epilepsia – Genes and epilepsy – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Dr.A.M.S

Flav_R03

BIOGRAFIA – BIOGRAPH – DR. DOMINGO MARCOLINO BRAILE

p-Value – Valor de p

european-respiratory-society

redefine-statistical-significance

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reference

https://www.briefscience.com/2019/11/nobel-prize-in-medicine-2019-oxygen_9.html?fbclid=IwAR3HKkMA6Nao1XCZMPsq7kCWrXrUg705UNG24LgR6nlwYQCa8LQHzQUJRz0

  •  Dec 31, 2019

BRIEF SCIENCE

HomeNobel prizeNobel Prize in Medicine 2019 | Oxygen sensors

Nobel Prize in Medicine 2019 | Oxygen sensors

BRIEF SCIENCESATURDAY, NOVEMBER 09, 2019Oxygen is essential for life. We use oxygen to create energy, digest food, and eliminate toxins from the body. People look for fresh air in the morning to be active, but in low oxygen levels, we feel choking or headache. Our looking for how the body adapts in low oxygen levels is very important and deserves the Nobel Prize for this year. Gregg Semenza, William Kaelin and Peter Ratcliffe explain the story of the adaptation of oxygen levels.
The story started when C. Heymans showed how the carotid body work as oxygen sensor and control in respiration by connecting to the brain, and in 20th-century scientists known that EPO (erythropoietin Hermon) increase red blood cells (RBSc) as a response for low oxygen levels. They thought EPO gene regulates oxygen levels, but how the process happens still a mystery.
Genes have a promotor (a DNA sequence responsible for turn a specific gene on or off). When Gregg Semenza studied EPO gene, he found that the promotor of the EPO gene regulates and sense oxygen level -not the EPO gene as was thinking-. He called this promotor HIF “hypoxia-inducible factor”. Then in 1995 Semenza identify the gene encoding HIF which made up of 2 proteins: HIF-1α and ARNT. Now researchers have great tools to go forward.

 How HIF Work ?

As a sensor for oxygen, HIF-1α affect oxygen levels. It decreases in high oxygen levels and increase in low oxygen levels. When oxygen is at a low level, HIF-1α turns EPO gene on to regulate oxygen levels.Now oxygen at a normal level and the rest of HIF-1α will activate EPO gene, EPO will increase RBCs so oxygen will be very high what effect on breathing. An organelle called proteasome (a cell machine destroy the excess molecules) destroys excess HIF-1α.When the EPO gene makes oxygen at a high level again, the proteasome destroys HIF-1α when ubiquitin tags it to stop activating the EPO gene.Ubiquitin is a protein that linked proteins targeted for intracellular degradation by proteasome.William Kaelin found that another molecule is necessary to tag HIF-1α to destroyed. This molecule is called VHL.
Three research groups showed the relationship between the HIF-1α and VHL gene (a gene encodes a protein that prevents the onset of cancer).
i. William Kaelin showed that the cancer cells that lack of VHL gene lose the ability to control in genes that regulate oxygen levels (HIF-1α genes), but when cancer cells take back VHL gene, normal levels back again.
ii. Several research groups showed that VHL gene tags HIF-1α with ubiquitin to proteasome to destroy.
iii. Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe showed that HIF-1α and VHL gene physically interact and proteasome must find VHL with HIF-1α in normal oxygen levels to destroy.
In 2001, William Kaelin and Peter Ratcliffe showed how VHL sense HIF-1α in normal oxygen levels. In normal oxygen levels, hydroxyl (OH-) groups bind to HIF-1α and recognize it to VHL what makes HIF-1α in normal oxygen levels destroyed.

– The figure above shows the whole process. You can follow the steps with the article explanation

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Reference

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchFor other uses, see Reference (disambiguation).

Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. It is called a name for the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object. A name is usually a phrase or expression, or some other symbolic representation. Its referent may be anything – a material object, a person, an event, an activity, or an abstract concept.

References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other,[1] spacetime coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection. In some cases, methods are used that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography.[citation needed]

References feature in many spheres of human activity and knowledge, and the term adopts shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. Some of them are described in the sections below.

Contents

Etymology and meanings[edit]

The word reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French référer, from Latin referre, “to carry back”, formed from the prefix re– and ferre, “to bear”.[2] A number of words derive from the same root, including referrefereereferentialreferentreferendum.

The verb refer (to) and its derivatives may carry the sense of “link to” or “connect to”, as in the meanings of reference described in this article. Another sense is “consult”; this is reflected in such expressions as reference workreference deskjob reference, etc.

Semantics[edit]

Further information: Sense and reference and Theory of referenceThe triangle of reference, from the influential book The Meaning of Meaning (1923) by C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards.

In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relationships between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them. Hence, the word “John” refers to the person John. The word “it” refers to some previously specified object. The object referred to is called the referent of the word.[3] Sometimes the word-object relation is called “denotation“; the word denotes the object. The converse relation, the relation from object to word, is called “exemplification“; the object exemplifies what the word denotes. In syntactic analysis, if a word refers to a previous word, the previous word is called the “antecedent“.

Meaning[edit]

Gottlob Frege argued that reference cannot be treated as identical with meaning: “Hesperus” (an ancient Greek name for the evening star) and “Phosphorus” (an ancient Greek name for the morning star) both refer to Venus, but the astronomical fact that ‘”Hesperus” is “Phosphorus”‘ can still be informative, even if the “meanings” of “Hesperus” and “Phosphorus” are already known. This problem led Frege to distinguish between the sense and reference of a word. Some cases seem to be too complicated to be classified within this framework; the acceptance of the notion of secondary reference may be necessary to fill the gap. See also Opaque context.

Linguistic sign[edit]

The very concept of the linguistic sign is the combination of content and expression, the former of which may refer entities in the world or refer more abstract concepts, e.g. thought. Certain parts of speech exist only to express reference, namely anaphora such as pronouns. The subset of reflexives expresses co-reference of two participants in a sentence. These could be the agent (actor) and patient (acted on), as in “The man washed himself”, the theme and recipient, as in “I showed Mary to herself”, or various other possible combinations.

Computer science[edit]

Main article: Reference (computer science)

In computer sciencereferences are data types that refer to an object elsewhere in memory and are used to construct a wide variety of data structures, such as linked lists. Generally, a reference is a value that enables a program to directly access the particular data item. Most programming languages support some form of reference. For the specific type of reference used in the C++ language, see reference (C++).

The notion of reference is also important in relational database theory; see referential integrity.

Library and information sciences[edit]

See also: Reference work and Reference desk

References to many types of printed matter may come in an electronic or machine-readable form. For books, there exists the ISBN and for journal articles, the Digital object identifier (DOI) is gaining relevance. Information on the Internet may be referred to by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).

Psychology[edit]

In terms of mental processing, a self-reference is used in psychology to establish identification with a mental state during self-analysis. This seeks to allow the individual to develop own frames of reference in a greater state of immediate awareness. However, it can also lead to circular reasoning, preventing evolution of thought.[4]

According to Perceptual Control Theory (PCT), a reference condition is the state toward which a control system’s output tends to alter a controlled quantity. The main proposition is that “All behavior is oriented all of the time around the control of certain quantities with respect to specific reference conditions.”[5]

Scholarship[edit]

In academics and scholarship, a reference or bibliographical reference is a piece of information provided in a footnote or bibliography of a written work such as a book, article, essay, report, oration or any other text type, specifying the written work of another person used in the creation of that text. A bibliographical reference mostly includes the full name of the author, the title of their work and the year of publication. The primary purpose of references is to allow readers to examine the sources of a text, either for validity or to learn more about the subject. Such items are often listed at the end of a work in a section marked References or Bibliography.

References are particularly important as for the use of citations, since copying of material by another author without proper reference and / or without required permissions is considered plagiarism, and may be tantamount to copyright infringement, which can be subject to legal proceedings. A reference section contains only those works indeed cited in the main text of a work. In contrast, a bibliographical section often contains works not cited by the author, but used as background reading or listed as potentially useful to the reader.

Keeping a diary allows an individual to use references for personal organization, whether or not anyone else understands the systems of reference used. However, scholars have studied methods of reference because of their key role in communication and co-operation between different people, and also because of misunderstandings that can arise. Modern academic study of bibliographical references has been developing since the 19th century.[6]

Law[edit]

In patent law, a reference is a document that can be used to show the state of knowledge at a given time and that therefore may make a claimed invention obvious or anticipated. Examples of references are patents of any country, magazine articles, Ph.D. theses that are indexed and thus accessible to those interested in finding information about the subject matter, and to some extent Internet material that is similarly accessible.

Arts[edit]

In art, a reference is an item from which a work is based. This may include:

  • an existing artwork
  • a reproduction (i.e., a photo)
  • a directly observed object (e.g., a person)
  • the artist’s memory

Another example of reference is samples of various musical works being incorporated into a new one.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Treanor, Brian (2006). Aspects of alterity: Levinas, Marcel, and the contemporary debate. Fordham University Press. p. 41.
  2. ^ Klein, Ernest, A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language, Vol II, Elsevier publishing company, Amsterdam, 1969, p.1317
  3. ^ Saeed, John. Semantics. Blackwell. p. 12. ISBN 0-631-22693-1.
  4. ^ Engle, Eric (2010). Lex Naturalis, Ius Naturalis: Law as Positive Reasoning & Natural Rationality. Melbourne, Australia: The Rlias Clark Group. p. 75.
  5. ^ Powers, William (2005). Behavior: The Control of Perception (2nd ed.). New Canaan, Connecticut: Benchmark Publications. pp. 47 & 299.
  6. ^ Reimer, Marga (2009). “Reference”Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

External links[edit]

Look up reference in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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  1. Great blog! Do you have any hints for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own site soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m completely overwhelmed .. Any tips? Thanks!

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