Nanotechnology : Introduction, Essentials, and Opportunities -> Link about the course – – Milad Zoghi @ Links, Images and Videos – How Internet Works ? @ Important Inventions & Discoveries – Static GK & Gardner Chairs Subcommittee Hearing on Scientific Research and Innovation & 2017 MedStar Health Research Symposium: Advancing Health through Research, Innovation and Education @ 7 BEST INVENTIONS OF 2019 & The role of human emotions in science and research | Ilona Stengel & Scientific research & innovation can accelerate societal progress: VP Naidu & AAU Coverage: Meeting of ECOWAS Directors-General of Scientific Research and Innovation @ As 71 Inovações Mais INCRÍVEIS de Todos os Tempos & Cardiovascular experts explain importance of research, innovation @ JDM Scientific Research Centre – Video Introduction & A scientific research career journey & Durbin: Investing in Biomedical Research is an Investment in American Innovation @ Endovascular Bionics Lab, WINNER 2019 UNSW Eureka Prize for Interdisciplinary Scientific Research @ O ano do rato – ano novo chinês #JornaldaUSP

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Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/NanoTech.RiVi/

https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100011967198298

https://www.udemy.com/user/milad-zoghi/

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Milad_Zoghi2

https://www.linkedin.com/in/milad-zoghi-786a23102?originalSubdomain=ca

https://www.udemy.com/course/nanotechnology/

https://www.semanticscholar.org/author/Milad-Zoghi/16655157

About Milad Zoghi – https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37085488103

https://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/infrastructure/a29627312/how-the-internet-works/

Milad Zoghi

Also published under: M. Zoghi

Affiliation

Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringConcordia UniversityMontreal, QC, Canada

Publication Topics

Green’s function methods,nanoribbons,graphene devices,resonant tunnelling diodes,accelerometers,boron compounds,brushless DC motors,calibration,end effectors,graphene,machine control,manipulator dynamics,manipulator kinematics,mechatronics,micromechanical devices,motion control,optimisation,permanent magnet motors,position control,semiconductor doping,three-term control,tight-binding calculations,time-varying systems,transient response,uncertain systems

http://www.google.com https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/how-it-works/?gclid=Cj0KCQiA9orxBRD0ARIsAK9JDxSnMEXKSlemGnepuwJr-n-mIlV01iKyG3iANyn707pdo3tFw4fi05gaAmoCEALw_wcB

http://www.linkedin.com https://medium.com/@User3141592/how-does-the-internet-work-edc2e22e7eb8

https://web.stanford.edu/class/msande91si/www-spr04/readings/week1/InternetWhitepaper.htm

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Learn/Common_questions/How_does_the_Internet_work

https://www.explainthatstuff.com/internet.html

https://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/internet-infrastructure1.htm

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It levels the playing field for everyone and it’s the reason why we have a rich diversity of applications and services that many of us enjoy today.

Who’s in charge of the Internet?

No one is, but everyone is.

Unlike the telephone network, which for years in most countries, was run by a single company, the global Internet consists of tens of thousands of interconnected networks run by service providers, individual companies, universities, governments, and others.

What’s the infrastructure of the Internet like?

The Internet is that it’s a network of networks that needs to operate around the world as if it were one.

Like policy, the technical coordination of the Internet has common characteristics:

  • Open,
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  • Run by non-profit membership organizations that work together to meet the needs everyone.

This self-regulation has been the key to the successful growth of the Internet and is flexible enough to adapt to changing future needs.

Read about the technical aspects of the Internet.

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How Does The Internet Work?

TLDR: Routers Moving Packets According To Various Protocols

Steven Li

Steven LiFollowAug 1, 2017 · 12 min read

Visualization of the Internet. Source: www.neondystopia.com

How does the Internet Work?

The Internet works through a packet routing network in accordance with the Internet Protocol (IP), the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and other protocols.

What’s a protocol?

A protocol is a set of rules specifying how computers should communicate with each other over a network. For example, the Transport Control Protocol has a rule that if one computer sends data to another computer, the destination computer should let the source computer know if any data was missing so the source computer can re-send it. Or the Internet Protocol which specifies how computers should route information to other computers by attaching addresses onto the data it sends.

What’s a packet?

Data sent across the Internet is called a message. Before a message is sent, it is first split in many fragments called packets. These packets are sent independently of each other. The typical maximum packet size is between 1000 and 3000 characters. The Internet Protocol specifies how messages should be packetized.

What’s a packet routing network?

It is a network that routes packets from a source computer to a destination computer. The Internet is made up of a massive network of specialized computers called routers. Each router’s job is to know how to move packets along from their source to their destination. A packet will have moved through multiple routers during its journey.

When a packet moves from one router to the next, it’s called a hop. You can use the command line-tool traceroute to see the list of hops packets take between you and a host.

Command-line utility traceroute showing all the hops between my computer and google’s servers

The Internet Protocol specifies how network addresses should be attached to the packet’s headers, a designated space in the packet containing its meta-data. The Internet Protocol also specifies how the routers should forward the packets based on the address in the header.

Where did these Internet routers come from? Who owns them?

These routers originated in the 1960s as ARPANET, a military project whose goal was a computer network that was decentralized so the government could access and distribute information in the case of a catastrophic event. Since then, a number of Internet Service Providers (ISP) corporations have added routers onto these ARPANET routers.

There is no single owner of these Internet routers, but rather multiple owners: The government agencies and universities associated with ARPANET in the early days and ISP corporations like AT&T and Verizon later on.

Asking who owns the Internet is like asking who owns all the telephone lines. No one entity owns them all; many different entities own parts of them.

Do the packets always arrive in order? If not, how is the message re-assembled?

The packets may arrive at their destination out of order. This happens when a later packet finds a quicker path to the destination than an earlier one. But packet’s header contains information about the packet’s order relative to the entire message. The Transport Control Protocol uses this info for reconstructing the message at the destination.

Do packets always make it to their destination?

The Internet Protocol makes no guarantee that packets will always arrive at their destinations. When that happens, it’s called called a packet loss. This typically happens when a router receives more packets it can process. It has no option other than to drop some packets.

However, the Transport Control Protocol handles packet loss by performing re-transmissions. It does this by having the destination computer periodically send acknowledgement packets back to the source computer indicating how much of the message it has received and reconstructed. If the destination computer finds there are missing packets, it sends a request to the source computer asking it to resend the missing packets.

When two computers are communicating through the Transport Control Protocol, we say there is a TCP connection between them.

What do these Internet addresses look like?

These addresses are called IP addresses and there are two standards.

The first address standard is called IPv4 and it looks like 212.78.1.25 . But because IPv4 supports only 2³² (about 4 billion) possible addresses, the Internet Task Force proposed a new address standard called IPv6, which look like 3ffe:1893:3452:4:345:f345:f345:42fc . IPv6 supports 2¹²⁸ possible addresses, allowing for much more networked devices, which will be plenty more than the as of 2017 current 8+ billion networked devices on the Internet.

As such, there is a one-to-one mapping between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Note the switch from IPv4 to IPv6 is still in progress and will take a long time. As of 2014, Google revealed their IPv6 traffic was only at 3%.

How can there be over 8 billion networked devices on the Internet if there are only about 4 billion IPv4 addresses?

It’s because there are public and private IP addresses. Multiple devices on a local network connected to the Internet will share the same public IP address. Within the local network, these devices are differentiated from each other by private IP addresses, typically of the form 192.168.xx or 172.16.x.x or 10.x.x.x where x is a number between 1 and 255. These private IP addresses are assigned by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

For example, if a laptop and a smart phone on the same local network both make a request to http://www.google.com, before the packets leave the modem, it modifies the packet headers and assigns one of its ports to that packet. When the google server responds to the requests, it sends data back to the modem at this specific port, so the modem will know whether to route the packets to the laptop or the smart phone.

In this sense, IP addresses aren’t specific to a computer, but more the connection which the computer connects to the Internet with. The address that is unique to your computer is the MAC address, which never changes throughout the life of the computer.

This protocol of mapping private IP addresses to public IP addresses is called the Network Address Translation (NAT) protocol. It’s what makes it possible to support 8+ billion networked devices with only 4 billion possible IPv4 addresses.

How does the router know where to send a packet? Does it need to know where all the IP addresses are on the Internet?

Every router does not need to know where every IP address is. It only needs to know which one of its neighbors, called an outbound link, to route each packet to. Note that IP Addresses can be broken down into two parts, a network prefix and a host identifier. For example, 129.42.13.69 can be broken down into

Network Prefix: 129.42
Host Identifier: 13.69

All networked devices that connect to the Internet through a single connection (ie. college campus, a business, or ISP in metro area) will all share the same network prefix.

Routers will send all packets of the form 129.42.*.* to the same location. So instead of keeping track of billions of IP addressesrouters only need to keep track of less than a million network prefix.

But a router still needs to know a lot of network prefixes . If a new router is added to the Internet how does it know how to handle packets for all these network prefixes?

A new router may come with a few preconfigured routes. But if it encounters a packet it does not know how to route, it queries one of its neighboring routers. If the neighbor knows how to route the packet, it sends that info back to the requesting router. The requesting router will save this info for future use. In this way, a new router builds up its own routing table, a database of network prefixes to outbound links. If the neighboring router does not know, it queries its neighbors and so on.

How do networked computers figure out ip addresses based on domain names?

We call looking up the IP address of a human-readable domain name like www.google.com “resolving the IP address”. Computers resolve IP addresses through the Domain Name System (DNS), a decentralized database of mappings from domain names to IP addresses.

To resolve an IP address, the computer first checks its local DNS cache, which stores the IP address of web sites it has visited recently. If it can’t find the IP address there or that IP address record has expired, it queries the ISP’s DNS servers which are dedicated to resolving IP addresses. If the ISP’s DNS servers can’t find resolve the IP address, they query the root name servers, which can resolve every domain name for a given top-level domain . Top-level domains are the words to the right of the right-most period in a domain name. .com .net .org are some examples of top-level domains.

How do applications communicate over the Internet?

Like many other complex engineering projects, the Internet is broken down into smaller independent components, which work together through well-defined interfaces. These components are called the Internet Network Layers and they consist of Link Layer, Internet LayerTransport Layer, and Application Layer. These are called layers because they are built on top of each other; each layer uses the capabilities of the layers beneath it without worrying about its implementation details.

Internet applications work at the Application Layer and don’t need to worry about the details in the underlying layers. For example, an application connects to another application on the network via TCP using a construct called a socket, which abstracts away the gritty details of routing packets and re-assembling packets into messages.

What do each of these Internet layers do?

At the lowest level is the Link Layer which is the “physical layer” of the Internet. The Link Layer is concerned with transmitting data bits through some physical medium like fiber-optic cables or wifi radio signals.

On top of the Link Layer is the Internet Layer. The Internet Layer is concerned with routing packets to their destinations. The Internet Protocol mentioned earlier lives in this layer (hence the same name). The Internet Protocol dynamically adjusts and reroutes packets based on network load or outages. Note it does not guarantee packets always make it to their destination, it just tries the best it can.

On top of the Internet Layer is the Transport Layer. This layer is to compensate for the fact that data can be loss in the Internet and Link layers below. The Transport Control Protocol mentioned earlier lives at this layer, and it works primarily to re-assembly packets into their original messages and also re-transmit packets that were loss.

The Application Layer sits on top. This layer uses all the layers below to handle the complex details of moving the packets across the Internet. It lets applications easily make connections with other applications on the Internet with simple abstractions like sockets. The HTTP protocol which specifies how web browsers and web servers should interact lives in the Application Layer. The IMAP protocol which specifies how email clients should retrieve email lives in the Application Layer. The FTP protocol which specifies a file-transferring protocol between file-downloading clients and file-hosting servers lives in the Application Layer.

What’s a client versus a server?

While clients and servers are both applications that communicate over the Internet, clients are “closer to the user” in that they are more user-facing applications like web browsers, email clients, or smart phone apps. Servers are applications running on a remote computer which the client communicates over the Internet when it needs to.

A more formal definition is that the application that initiates a TCP connection is the client, while the application that receives the TCP connection is the server.

How can sensitive data like credit cards be transmitted securely over the Internet?

In the early days of the Internet, it was enough to ensure that the network routers and links are in physically secure locations. But as the Internet grew in size, more routers meant more points of vulnerability. Furthermore, with the advent of wireless technologies like WiFi, hackers could intercept packets in the air; it was not enough to just ensure the network hardware was physically safe. The solution to this was encryption and authentication through SSL/TLS.

What is SSL/TLS?

SSL stands for Secured Sockets Layer. TLS stands for Transport Layer SecuritySSL was first developed by Netscape in 1994 but a later more secure version was devised and renamed TLS. We will refer to them together as SSL/TLS.

SSL/TLS is an optional layer that sits between the Transport Layer and the Application Layer. It allows secure Internet communication of sensitive information through encryption and authentication.

Encryption means the client can request that the TCP connection to the server be encrypted. This means all messages sent between client and server will be encrypted before breaking it into packets. If hackers intercept these packets, they would not be able to reconstruct the original message.

Authentication means the client can trust that the server is who it claims to be. This protects against man-in-the-middle attacks, which is when a malicious party intercepts the connection between client and server to eavesdrop and tamper with their communication.

We see SSL in action whenever we visit SSL-enabled websites on modern browsers. When the browser requests a web site using the https protocol instead of http, it’s telling the web server it wants an SSL encrypted connection. If the web server supports SSL, a secure encrypted connection is made and we would see a lock icon next to the address bar on the browser.

The medium.com web server is SSL-enabled. The browser can connect to it over https to ensure that communication is encrypted. The browser is also confident it is communicating with a real medium.com server, and not a man-in-the-middle.

How does SSL authenticate the identity of a server and encrypt their communication?

It uses asymmetric encryption and SSL certificates.

Asymmetric encryption is an encryption scheme which uses a public key and a private key. These keys are basically just numbers derived from large primes. The private key is used to decrypt data and sign documents. The public key is used to encrypt data and verify signed documents. Unlike symmetric encryptionasymmetric encryption means the ability to encrypt does not automatically confer the ability to decrypt. It does this by using principles in a mathematical branch called number theory.

An SSL certificate is a digital document that consists of a public key assigned to a web server. These SSL certificates are issued to the server by certificate authorities. Operating systems, mobile devices, and browsers come with a database of some certificate authorities so it can verify SSL certificates.

When a client requests an SSL-encrypted connection with a server, the server sends back its SSL certificate. The client checks that the SSL certificate

  • is issued to this server
  • is signed by a trusted certificate authority
  • has not expired.

The client then uses the SSL certificate’s public key to encrypt a randomly generated temporary secret key and send it back to the server. Because the server has the corresponding private key, it can decrypt the client’s temporary secret key. Now both client and server know this temporary secret key, so they can both use it to symmetrically encrypt the messages they send to each other. They will discard this temporary secret key after their session is over.

What happens if a hacker intercepts an SSL-encrypted session?

Suppose a hacker intercepted every message sent between the client and the server. The hacker sees the SSL certificate the server sends as well as the client’s encrypted temporary secret key. But because the hacker doesn’t have the private key it can’t decrypt the temporarily secret key. And because it doesn’t have the temporary secret key, it can’t decrypt any of the messages between the client and server.

Summary

  • The Internet started as ARPANET in the 1960s with the goal of a decentralized computer network.
  • Physically, the Internet is a collection of computers moving bits to each other over wires, cables, and radio signals.
  • Like many complex engineering projects, the Internet is broken up into various layers, each concerned with solving only a smaller problem. These layers connect to each other in well-defined interfaces.
  • There are many protocols that define how the Internet and its applications should work at the different layers: HTTP, IMAP, SSH, TCP, UDP, IP, etc. In this sense, the Internet is as much a collection of rules for how computers and programs should behave as it is a physical network of computers.
  • With the growth of the Internet, advent of WIFI, and e-commerce needs, SSL/TLS was developed to address security concerns.

Thanks for reading. Comments/corrections/questions are welcome. Feel free to leave them below.

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How Does the Internet Work?© 2002 Rus Shuler @ Pomeroy IT Solutions, all rights reservedContentsIntroductionWhere to Begin? Internet AddressesProtocol Stacks and PacketsNetworking InfrastructureInternet InfrastructureThe Internet Routing HierarchyDomain Names and Address ResolutionInternet Protocols RevisitedApplication Protocols: HTTP and the World Wide WebApplication Protocols: SMTP and Electronic MailTransmission Control ProtocolInternet ProtocolWrap UpResourcesBibliographyIntroductionHow does the Internet work? Good question! The Internet’s growth has become explosive and it seems impossible to escape the bombardment of http://www.com‘s seen constantly on television, heard on radio, and seen in magazines. Because the Internet has become such a large part of our lives, a good understanding is needed to use this new tool most effectively.This whitepaper explains the underlying infrastructure and technologies that make the Internet work. It does not go into great depth, but covers enough of each area to give a basic understanding of the concepts involved. For any unanswered questions, a list of resources is provided at the end of the paper. Any comments, suggestions, questions, etc. are encouraged and may be directed to the author at rshuler@gobcg.com.Where to Begin? Internet AddressesBecause the Internet is a global network of computers each computer connected to the Internet must have a unique address. Internet addresses are in the form nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where nnn must be a number from 0 – 255. This address is known as an IP address. (IP stands for Internet Protocol; more on this later.)The picture below illustrates two computers connected to the Internet; your computer with IP address 1.2.3.4 and another computer with IP address 5.6.7.8. The Internet is represented as an abstract object in-between. (As this paper progresses, the Internet portion of Diagram 1 will be explained and redrawn several times as the details of the Internet are exposed.)Diagram 1Diagram 1
If you connect to the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP), you are usually assigned a temporary IP address for the duration of your dial-in session. If you connect to the Internet from a local area network (LAN) your computer might have a permanent IP address or it might obtain a temporary one from a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server. In any case, if you are connected to the Internet, your computer has a unique IP address.Check It Out – The Ping ProgramIf you’re using Microsoft Windows or a flavor of Unix and have a connection to the Internet, there is a handy program to see if a computer on the Internet is alive. It’s called ping, probably after the sound made by older submarine sonar systems.1 If you are using Windows, start a command prompt window. If you’re using a flavor of Unix, get to a command prompt. Type ping http://www.yahoo.com. The ping program will send a ‘ping’ (actually an ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo request message) to the named computer. The pinged computer will respond with a reply. The ping program will count the time expired until the reply comes back (if it does). Also, if you enter a domain name (i.e. http://www.yahoo.com) instead of an IP address, ping will resolve the domain name and display the computer’s IP address. More on domain names and address resolution later.
Protocol Stacks and PacketsSo your computer is connected to the Internet and has a unique address. How does it ‘talk’ to other computers connected to the Internet? An example should serve here: Let’s say your IP address is 1.2.3.4 and you want to send a message to the computer 5.6.7.8. The message you want to send is “Hello computer 5.6.7.8!”. Obviously, the message must be transmitted over whatever kind of wire connects your computer to the Internet. Let’s say you’ve dialed into your ISP from home and the message must be transmitted over the phone line. Therefore the message must be translated from alphabetic text into electronic signals, transmitted over the Internet, then translated back into alphabetic text. How is this accomplished? Through the use of a protocol stack. Every computer needs one to communicate on the Internet and it is usually built into the computer’s operating system (i.e. Windows, Unix, etc.). The protocol stack used on the Internet is refered to as the TCP/IP protocol stack because of the two major communication protocols used. The TCP/IP stack looks like this:


Protocol LayerCommentsApplication Protocols LayerProtocols specific to applications such as WWW, e-mail, FTP, etc.Transmission Control Protocol LayerTCP directs packets to a specific application on a computer using a port number.Internet Protocol LayerIP directs packets to a specific computer using an IP address.Hardware LayerConverts binary packet data to network signals and back.
(E.g. ethernet network card, modem for phone lines, etc.)

If we were to follow the path that the message “Hello computer 5.6.7.8!” took from our computer to the computer with IP address 5.6.7.8, it would happen something like this:

Diagram 2Diagram 2
The message would start at the top of the protocol stack on your computer and work it’s way downward.If the message to be sent is long, each stack layer that the message passes through may break the message up into smaller chunks of data. This is because data sent over the Internet (and most computer networks) are sent in manageable chunks. On the Internet, these chunks of data are known as packets.The packets would go through the Application Layer and continue to the TCP layer. Each packet is assigned a port number. Ports will be explained later, but suffice to say that many programs may be using the TCP/IP stack and sending messages. We need to know which program on the destination computer needs to receive the message because it will be listening on a specific port.After going through the TCP layer, the packets proceed to the IP layer. This is where each packet receives it’s destination address, 5.6.7.8.Now that our message packets have a port number and an IP address, they are ready to be sent over the Internet. The hardware layer takes care of turning our packets containing the alphabetic text of our message into electronic signals and transmitting them over the phone line.On the other end of the phone line your ISP has a direct connection to the Internet. The ISPs router examines the destination address in each packet and determines where to send it. Often, the packet’s next stop is another router. More on routers and Internet infrastructure later.Eventually, the packets reach computer 5.6.7.8. Here, the packets start at the bottom of the destination computer’s TCP/IP stack and work upwards.As the packets go upwards through the stack, all routing data that the sending computer’s stack added (such as IP address and port number) is stripped from the packets.When the data reaches the top of the stack, the packets have been re-assembled into their original form, “Hello computer 5.6.7.8!”Networking InfrastructureSo now you know how packets travel from one computer to another over the Internet. But what’s in-between? What actually makes up the Internet? Let’s look at another diagram:

Diagram 3Diagram 3
Here we see Diagram 1 redrawn with more detail. The physical connection through the phone network to the Internet Service Provider might have been easy to guess, but beyond that might bear some explanation.The ISP maintains a pool of modems for their dial-in customers. This is managed by some form of computer (usually a dedicated one) which controls data flow from the modem pool to a backbone or dedicated line router. This setup may be refered to as a port server, as it ‘serves’ access to the network. Billing and usage information is usually collected here as well.After your packets traverse the phone network and your ISP’s local equipment, they are routed onto the ISP’s backbone or a backbone the ISP buys bandwidth from. From here the packets will usually journey through several routers and over several backbones, dedicated lines, and other networks until they find their destination, the computer with address 5.6.7.8. But wouldn’t it would be nice if we knew the exact route our packets were taking over the Internet? As it turns out, there is a way…Check It Out – The Traceroute ProgramIf you’re using Microsoft Windows or a flavor of Unix and have a connection to the Internet, here is another handy Internet program. This one is called traceroute and it shows the path your packets are taking to a given Internet destination. Like ping, you must use traceroute from a command prompt. In Windows, use tracert http://www.yahoo.com. From a Unix prompt, type traceroute http://www.yahoo.com. Like ping, you may also enter IP addresses instead of domain names. Traceroute will print out a list of all the routers, computers, and any other Internet entities that your packets must travel through to get to their destination.
If you use traceroute, you’ll notice that your packets must travel through many things to get to their destination. Most have long names such as sjc2-core1-h2-0-0.atlas.digex.net and fddi0-0.br4.SJC.globalcenter.net. These are Internet routers that decide where to send your packets. Several routers are shown in Diagram 3, but only a few. Diagram 3 is meant to show a simple network structure. The Internet is much more complex.Internet InfrastructureThe Internet backbone is made up of many large networks which interconnect with each other. These large networks are known as Network Service Providers or NSPs. Some of the large NSPs are UUNet, CerfNet, IBM, BBN Planet, SprintNet, PSINet, as well as others. These networks peer with each other to exchange packet traffic. Each NSP is required to connect to three Network Access Points or NAPs. At the NAPs, packet traffic may jump from one NSP’s backbone to another NSP’s backbone. NSPs also interconnect at Metropolitan Area Exchanges or MAEs. MAEs serve the same purpose as the NAPs but are privately owned. NAPs were the original Internet interconnect points. Both NAPs and MAEs are referred to as Internet Exchange Points or IXs. NSPs also sell bandwidth to smaller networks, such as ISPs and smaller bandwidth providers. Below is a picture showing this hierarchical infrastructure.

Diagram 4Diagram 4
This is not a true representation of an actual piece of the Internet. Diagram 4 is only meant to demonstrate how the NSPs could interconnect with each other and smaller ISPs. None of the physical network components are shown in Diagram 4 as they are in Diagram 3. This is because a single NSP’s backbone infrastructure is a complex drawing by itself. Most NSPs publish maps of their network infrastructure on their web sites and can be found easily. To draw an actual map of the Internet would be nearly impossible due to it’s size, complexity, and ever changing structure.The Internet Routing HierarchySo how do packets find their way across the Internet? Does every computer connected to the Internet know where the other computers are? Do packets simply get ‘broadcast’ to every computer on the Internet? The answer to both the preceeding questions is ‘no’. No computer knows where any of the other computers are, and packets do not get sent to every computer. The information used to get packets to their destinations are contained in routing tables kept by each router connected to the Internet.Routers are packet switches. A router is usually connected between networks to route packets between them. Each router knows about it’s sub-networks and which IP addresses they use. The router usually doesn’t know what IP addresses are ‘above’ it. Examine Diagram 5 below. The black boxes connecting the backbones are routers. The larger NSP backbones at the top are connected at a NAP. Under them are several sub-networks, and under them, more sub-networks. At the bottom are two local area networks with computers attached.

Diagram 5Diagram 5
When a packet arrives at a router, the router examines the IP address put there by the IP protocol layer on the originating computer. The router checks it’s routing table. If the network containing the IP address is found, the packet is sent to that network. If the network containing the IP address is not found, then the router sends the packet on a default route, usually up the backbone hierarchy to the next router. Hopefully the next router will know where to send the packet. If it does not, again the packet is routed upwards until it reaches a NSP backbone. The routers connected to the NSP backbones hold the largest routing tables and here the packet will be routed to the correct backbone, where it will begin its journey ‘downward’ through smaller and smaller networks until it finds it’s destination.Domain Names and Address ResolutionBut what if you don’t know the IP address of the computer you want to connect to? What if the you need to access a web server referred to as http://www.anothercomputer.com? How does your web browser know where on the Internet this computer lives? The answer to all these questions is the Domain Name Service or DNS. The DNS is a distributed database which keeps track of computer’s names and their corresponding IP addresses on the Internet.Many computers connected to the Internet host part of the DNS database and the software that allows others to access it. These computers are known as DNS servers. No DNS server contains the entire database; they only contain a subset of it. If a DNS server does not contain the domain name requested by another computer, the DNS server re-directs the requesting computer to another DNS server.

Diagram 6Diagram 6
The Domain Name Service is structured as a hierarchy similar to the IP routing hierarchy. The computer requesting a name resolution will be re-directed ‘up’ the hierarchy until a DNS server is found that can resolve the domain name in the request. Figure 6 illustrates a portion of the hierarchy. At the top of the tree are the domain roots. Some of the older, more common domains are seen near the top. What is not shown are the multitude of DNS servers around the world which form the rest of the hierarchy.When an Internet connection is setup (e.g. for a LAN or Dial-Up Networking in Windows), one primary and one or more secondary DNS servers are usually specified as part of the installation. This way, any Internet applications that need domain name resolution will be able to function correctly. For example, when you enter a web address into your web browser, the browser first connects to your primary DNS server. After obtaining the IP address for the domain name you entered, the browser then connects to the target computer and requests the web page you wanted.Check It Out – Disable DNS in WindowsIf you’re using Windows 95/NT and access the Internet, you may view your DNS server(s) and even disable them.If you use Dial-Up Networking:
Open your Dial-Up Networking window (which can be found in Windows Explorer under your CD-ROM drive and above Network Neighborhood). Right click on your Internet connection and click Properties. Near the bottom of the connection properties window press the TCP/IP Settings… button.If you have a permanent connection to the Internet:
Right click on Network Neighborhood and click Properties. Click TCP/IP Properties. Select the DNS Configuration tab at the top.You should now be looking at your DNS servers’ IP addresses. Here you may disable DNS or set your DNS servers to 0.0.0.0. (Write down your DNS servers’ IP addresses first. You will probably have to restart Windows as well.) Now enter an address into your web browser. The browser won’t be able to resolve the domain name and you will probably get a nasty dialog box explaining that a DNS server couldn’t be found. However, if you enter the corresponding IP address instead of the domain name, the browser will be able to retrieve the desired web page. (Use ping to get the IP address prior to disabling DNS.) Other Microsoft operating systems are similar.
Internet Protocols RevisitedAs hinted to earlier in the section about protocol stacks, one may surmise that there are many protocols that are used on the Internet. This is true; there are many communication protocols required for the Internet to function. These include the TCP and IP protocols, routing protocols, medium access control protocols, application level protocols, etc. The following sections describe some of the more important and commonly used protocols on the Internet. Higher level protocols are discussed first, followed by lower level protocols.Application Protocols: HTTP and the World Wide WebOne of the most commonly used services on the Internet is the World Wide Web (WWW). The application protocol that makes the web work is Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP. Do not confuse this with the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). HTML is the language used to write web pages. HTTP is the protocol that web browsers and web servers use to communicate with each other over the Internet. It is an application level protocol because it sits on top of the TCP layer in the protocol stack and is used by specific applications to talk to one another. In this case the applications are web browsers and web servers.HTTP is a connectionless text based protocol. Clients (web browsers) send requests to web servers for web elements such as web pages and images. After the request is serviced by a server, the connection between client and server across the Internet is disconnected. A new connection must be made for each request. Most protocols are connection oriented. This means that the two computers communicating with each other keep the connection open over the Internet. HTTP does not however. Before an HTTP request can be made by a client, a new connection must be made to the server.When you type a URL into a web browser, this is what happens:If the URL contains a domain name, the browser first connects to a domain name server and retrieves the corresponding IP address for the web server.The web browser connects to the web server and sends an HTTP request (via the protocol stack) for the desired web page.The web server receives the request and checks for the desired page. If the page exists, the web server sends it. If the server cannot find the requested page, it will send an HTTP 404 error message. (404 means ‘Page Not Found’ as anyone who has surfed the web probably knows.)The web browser receives the page back and the connection is closed.The browser then parses through the page and looks for other page elements it needs to complete the web page. These usually include images, applets, etc.For each element needed, the browser makes additional connections and HTTP requests to the server for each element.When the browser has finished loading all images, applets, etc. the page will be completely loaded in the browser window.Check It Out – Use Your Telnet Client to Retrieve a Web Page Using HTTPTelnet is a remote terminal service used on the Internet. It’s use has declined lately, but it is a very useful tool to study the Internet. In Windows find the default telnet program. It may be located in the Windows directory named telnet.exe. When opened, pull down the Terminal menu and select Preferences. In the preferences window, check Local Echo. (This is so you can see your HTTP request when you type it.) Now pull down the Connection menu and select Remote System. Enter http://www.google.com for the Host Name and 80 for the Port. (Web servers usually listen on port 80 by default.) Press Connect. Now typeGET / HTTP/1.0and press Enter twice. This is a simple HTTP request to a web server for it’s root page. You should see a web page flash by and then a dialog box should pop up to tell you the connection was lost. If you’d like to save the retrieved page, turn on logging in the Telnet program. You may then browse through the web page and see the HTML that was used to write it.
Most Internet protocols are specified by Internet documents known as a Request For Comments or RFCs. RFCs may be found at several locations on the Internet. See the Resources section below for appropriate URL’s. HTTP version 1.0 is specified by RFC 1945.Application Protocols: SMTP and Electronic MailAnother commonly used Internet service is electronic mail. E-mail uses an application level protocol called Simple Mail Transfer Protocol or SMTP. SMTP is also a text based protocol, but unlike HTTP, SMTP is connection oriented. SMTP is also more complicated than HTTP. There are many more commands and considerations in SMTP than there are in HTTP.When you open your mail client to read your e-mail, this is what typically happens:The mail client (Netscape Mail, Lotus Notes, Microsoft Outlook, etc.) opens a connection to it’s default mail server. The mail server’s IP address or domain name is typically setup when the mail client is installed.The mail server will always transmit the first message to identify itself.The client will send an SMTP HELO command to which the server will respond with a 250 OK message.Depending on whether the client is checking mail, sending mail, etc. the appropriate SMTP commands will be sent to the server, which will respond accordingly.This request/response transaction will continue until the client sends an SMTP QUIT command. The server will then say goodbye and the connection will be closed.A simple ‘conversation’ between an SMTP client and SMTP server is shown below. R: denotes messages sent by the server (receiver) and S: denotes messages sent by the client (sender). This SMTP example shows mail sent by Smith at host USC-ISIF, to Jones, Green, and Brown at host BBN-UNIX. Here we assume that host USC-ISIF contacts host BBN-UNIX directly. The mail is accepted for Jones and Brown. Green does not have a mailbox at host BBN-UNIX. ————————————————————- R: 220 BBN-UNIX.ARPA Simple Mail Transfer Service Ready S: HELO USC-ISIF.ARPA R: 250 BBN-UNIX.ARPA S: MAIL FROM:<Smith@USC-ISIF.ARPA> R: 250 OK S: RCPT TO:<Jones@BBN-UNIX.ARPA> R: 250 OK S: RCPT TO:<Green@BBN-UNIX.ARPA> R: 550 No such user here S: RCPT TO:<Brown@BBN-UNIX.ARPA> R: 250 OK S: DATA R: 354 Start mail input; end with <CRLF>.<CRLF> S: Blah blah blah… S: …etc. etc. etc. S: . R: 250 OK S: QUIT R: 221 BBN-UNIX.ARPA Service closing transmission channel This SMTP transaction is taken from RFC 821, which specifies SMTP.Transmission Control ProtocolUnder the application layer in the protocol stack is the TCP layer. When applications open a connection to another computer on the Internet, the messages they send (using a specific application layer protocol) get passed down the stack to the TCP layer. TCP is responsible for routing application protocols to the correct application on the destination computer. To accomplish this, port numbers are used. Ports can be thought of as seperate channels on each computer. For example, you can surf the web while reading e-mail. This is because these two applications (the web browser and the mail client) used different port numbers. When a packet arrives at a computer and makes its way up the protocol stack, the TCP layer decides which application receives the packet based on a port number.TCP works like this:When the TCP layer receives the application layer protocol data from above, it segments it into manageable ‘chunks’ and then adds a TCP header with specific TCP information to each ‘chunk’. The information contained in the TCP header includes the port number of the application the data needs to be sent to.When the TCP layer receives a packet from the IP layer below it, the TCP layer strips the TCP header data from the packet, does some data reconstruction if necessary, and then sends the data to the correct application using the port number taken from the TCP header.This is how TCP routes the data moving through the protocol stack to the correct application.TCP is not a textual protocol. TCP is a connection-oriented, reliable, byte stream service. Connection-oriented means that two applications using TCP must first establish a connection before exchanging data. TCP is reliable because for each packet received, an acknowledgement is sent to the sender to confirm the delivery. TCP also includes a checksum in it’s header for error-checking the received data. The TCP header looks like this:

Diagram 7Diagram 7
Notice that there is no place for an IP address in the TCP header. This is because TCP doesn’t know anything about IP addresses. TCP’s job is to get application level data from application to application reliably. The task of getting data from computer to computer is the job of IP.Check It Out – Well Known Internet Port NumbersListed below are the port numbers for some of the more commonly used Internet services.FTP20/21Telnet23SMTP25HTTP80Quake III Arena27960
Internet ProtocolUnlike TCP, IP is an unreliable, connectionless protocol. IP doesn’t care whether a packet gets to it’s destination or not. Nor does IP know about connections and port numbers. IP’s job is too send and route packets to other computers. IP packets are independent entities and may arrive out of order or not at all. It is TCP’s job to make sure packets arrive and are in the correct order. About the only thing IP has in common with TCP is the way it receives data and adds it’s own IP header information to the TCP data. The IP header looks like this:

Diagram 8Diagram 8
Above we see the IP addresses of the sending and receiving computers in the IP header. Below is what a packet looks like after passing through the application layer, TCP layer, and IP layer. The application layer data is segmented in the TCP layer, the TCP header is added, the packet continues to the IP layer, the IP header is added, and then the packet is transmitted across the Internet.

Diagram 9Diagram 9
Wrap UpNow you know how the Internet works. But how long will it stay this way? The version of IP currently used on the Internet (version 4) only allows 232 addresses. Eventually there won’t be any free IP addresses left. Surprised? Don’t worry. IP version 6 is being tested right now on a research backbone by a consortium of research institutions and corporations. And after that? Who knows. The Internet has come a long way since it’s inception as a Defense Department research project. No one really knows what the Internet will become. One thing is sure, however. The Internet will unite the world like no other mechanism ever has. The Information Age is in full stride and I am glad to be a part of it.Rus Shuler, 1998
Updates made 2002
ResourcesBelow are some interesting links associated with some of the topics discussed. (I hope they all still work. All open in new window.)http://www.ietf.org/ is the home page of the Internet Engineering Task Force. This body is greatly responsible for the development of Internet protocols and the like.http://www.internic.org/ is the organization responsible for administering domain names.http://www.nexor.com/public/rfc/index/rfc.html is an excellent RFC search engine useful for finding any RFC.http://www.internetweather.com/ shows animated maps of Internet latency.http://routes.clubnet.net/iw/ is Internet Weather from ClubNET. This page shows packet loss for various carriers.http://navigators.com/isp.html is Russ Haynal’s ISP Page. This is a great site with links to most NSPs and their backbone infrastructure maps.BibliographyThe following books are excellent resources and helped greatly in the writing of this paper. I believe Stevens’ book is the best TCP/IP reference ever and can be considered the bible of the Internet. Sheldon’s book covers a much wider scope and contains a vast amount of networking information.TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1, The Protocols.
W. Richard Stevens.
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. 1994.Encyclopedia of Networking.
Tom Sheldon.
Osbourne McGraw-Hill, New York. 1998.Although not used for writing this paper, here are some other good books on the topics of the Internet and networking:Firewalls and Internet Security; Repelling the Wiley Hacker.
William R. Cheswick, Steven M. Bellovin.
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. 1994.Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems. Fourth Edition.
Fred Halsall.
Addison-Wesley, Harlow, England. 1996.Telecommunications: Protocols and Design.
John D. Spragins with Joseph L. Hammond and Krzysztof Pawlikowski.
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. 1992.

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This article discusses what the Internet is and how it works.

Prerequisites:None, but we encourage you to read the Article on setting project goals first
Objective:You will learn the basics of the technical infrastructure of the Web and the difference between Internet and the Web.

Summary

The Internet is the backbone of the Web, the technical infrastructure that makes the Web possible. At its most basic, the Internet is a large network of computers which communicate all together.

The history of the Internet is somewhat obscure. It began in the 1960s as a US-army-funded research project, then evolved into a public infrastructure in the 1980s with the support of many public universities and private companies. The various technologies that support the Internet have evolved over time, but the way it works hasn’t changed that much: Internet is a way to connect computers all together and ensure that, whatever happens, they find a way to stay connected.

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Deeper dive

A simple network

When two computers need to communicate, you have to link them, either physically (usually with an Ethernet cable) or wirelessly (for example with WiFi or Bluetooth systems). All modern computers can sustain any of those connections.

Note: For the rest of this article, we will only talk about physical cables, but wireless networks work the same.

Two computers linked together

Such a network is not limited to two computers. You can connect as many computers as you wish. But it gets complicated quickly. If you’re trying to connect, say, ten computers, you need 45 cables, with nine plugs per computer!

Ten computers all together

To solve this problem, each computer on a network is connected to a special tiny computer called a router. This router has only one job: like a signaler at a railway station, it makes sure that a message sent from a given computer arrives at the right destination computer. To send a message to computer B, computer A must send the message to the router, which in turn forwards the message to computer B and makes sure the message is not delivered to computer C.

Once we add a router to the system, our network of 10 computers only requires 10 cables: a single plug for each computer and a router with 10 plugs.

Ten computers with a router

A network of networks

So far so good. But what about connecting hundreds, thousands, billions of computers? Of course a single router can’t scale that far, but, if you read carefully, we said that a router is a computer like any other, so what keeps us from connecting two routers together? Nothing, so let’s do that.

Two routers linked together

By connecting computers to routers, then routers to routers, we are able to scale infinitely.

Routers linked to routers

Such a network comes very close to what we call the Internet, but we’re missing something. We built that network for our own purposes. There are other networks out there: your friends, your neighbors, anyone can have their own network of computers. But it’s not really possible to set cables up between your house and the rest of the world, so how can you handle this? Well, there are already cables linked to your house, for example, electric power and telephone. The telephone infrastructure already connects your house with anyone in the world so it is the perfect wire we need. To connect our network to the telephone infrastructure, we need a special piece of equipment called a modem. This modem turns the information from our network into information manageable by the telephone infrastructure and vice versa.

A router linked to a modem

So we are connected to the telephone infrastructure. The next step is to send the messages from our network to the network we want to reach. To do that, we will connect our network to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). An ISP is a company that manages some special routers that are all linked together and can also access other ISPs’ routers. So the message from our network is carried through the network of ISP networks to the destination network. The Internet consists of this whole infrastructure of networks.

Full Internet stack

Finding computers

If you want to send a message to a computer, you have to specify which one. Thus any computer linked to a network has a unique address that identifies it, called an “IP address” (where IP stands for Internet Protocol). It’s an address made of a series of four numbers separated by dots, for example: 192.168.2.10.

That’s perfectly fine for computers, but we human beings have a hard time remembering that sort of address. To make things easier, we can alias an IP address with a human readable name called a domain name. For example (at the time of writing; IP addresses can change) google.com is the domain name used on top of the IP address 173.194.121.32. So using the domain name is the easiest way for us to reach a computer over the Internet.

Show how a domain name can alias an IP address

Internet and the web

As you might notice, when we browse the Web with a Web browser, we usually use the domain name to reach a website. Does that mean the Internet and the Web are the same thing? It’s not that simple. As we saw, the Internet is a technical infrastructure which allows billions of computers to be connected all together. Among those computers, some computers (called Web servers) can send messages intelligible to web browsers. The Internet is an infrastructure, whereas the Web is a service built on top of the infrastructure. It is worth noting there are several other services built on top of the Internet, such as email and IRC.

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The Internet

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by Chris WoodfordLast updated: January 18, 2019.

When you chat to somebody on the Net or send them an e-mail, do you ever stop to think how many different computers you are using in the process? There’s the computer on your own desk, of course, and another one at the other end where the other person is sitting, ready to communicate with you. But in between your two machines, making communication between them possible, there are probably about a dozen other computers bridging the gap. Collectively, all the world’s linked-up computers are called the Internet. How do they talk to one another? Let’s take a closer look!

Photo: What most of us think of as the Internet—Google, eBay, and all the rest of it—is actually the World Wide Web. The Internet is the underlying telecommunication network that makes the Web possible. If you use broadband, your computer is probably connected to the Internet all the time it’s on.

What is the Internet?

Global communication is easy now thanks to an intricately linked worldwide computer network that we call the Internet. In less than 20 years, the Internet has expanded to link up around 210 different nations. Even some of the world’s poorest developing nations are now connected.

Bar chart showing total number of countries online between 1988 and 2017

Chart: Countries online: In just over a decade, between 1988 and 2000, virtually every country in the world went online. Although most countries are now “wired,” that doesn’t mean everyone is online in all those countries, as you can see from the next chart, below. Source: Redrawn by Explainthatstuff.com using data from ITU World Telecommunication Development Report: Access Indicators for the Information Society: Summary, 2003 (blue bars, 1998–2003) and Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000–2012 [XLS spreadsheet format], International Telecommunications Union, 2017 (2012 and 2017, green bars).

Lots of people use the word “Internet” to mean going online. Actually, the “Internet” is nothing more than the basic computer network. Think of it like the telephone network or the network of highways that criss-cross the world. Telephones and highways are networks, just like the Internet. The things you say on the telephone and the traffic that travels down roads run on “top” of the basic network. In much the same way, things like the World Wide Web (the information pages we can browse online), instant messaging chat programs, MP3 music downloading, and file sharing are all things that run on top of the basic computer network that we call the Internet.

The Internet is a collection of standalone computers (and computer networks in companies, schools, and colleges) all loosely linked together, mostly using the telephone network. The connections between the computers are a mixture of old-fashioned copper cables, fiber-optic cables (which send messages in pulses of light), wireless radio connections (which transmit information by radio. waves), and satellite links.

Bar chart comparing Internet access across different world regions and socio-economic groupings in 2015.

Chart: Internet use around the world: This chart compares the estimated percentage of households with Internet access for different world regions and economic groupings. Although there have been dramatic improvements in all regions, there are still great disparities between the “richer” nations and the “poorer” ones. The world average, shown by the black-outlined orange center bar, is still only 46.4 out of 100 (less than half). Not surprisingly, richer nations are to the left of the average and poorer ones to the right. Source: Redrawn from Chart 1.5 of the Executive Summary of Measuring the Information Society 2015, International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

What does the Internet do?

The Internet has one very simple job: to move computerized information (known as data) from one place to another. That’s it! The machines that make up the Internet treat all the information they handle in exactly the same way. In this respect, the Internet works a bit like the postal service. Letters are simply passed from one place to another, no matter who they are from or what messages they contain. The job of the mail service is to move letters from place to place, not to worry about why people are writing letters in the first place; the same applies to the Internet.

Just like the mail service, the Internet’s simplicity means it can handle many different kinds of information helping people to do many different jobs. It’s not specialized to handle emails, Web pages, chat messages, or anything else: all information is handled equally and passed on in exactly the same way. Because the Internet is so simply designed, people can easily use it to run new “applications”—new things that run on top of the basic computer network. That’s why, when two European inventors developed Skype, a way of making telephone calls over the Net, they just had to write a program that could turn speech into Internet data and back again. No-one had to rebuild the entire Internet to make Skype possible.

How does Internet data move?

Circuit switching

Much of the Internet runs on the ordinary public telephone network—but there’s a big difference between how a telephone call works and how the Internet carries data. If you ring a friend, your telephone opens a direct connection (or circuit) between your home and theirs. If you had a big map of the worldwide telephone system (and it would be a really big map!), you could theoretically mark a direct line, running along lots of miles of cable, all the way from your phone to the phone in your friend’s house. For as long as you’re on the phone, that circuit stays permanently open between your two phones. This way of linking phones together is called circuit switching. In the old days, when you made a call, someone sitting at a “switchboard” (literally, a board made of wood with wires and sockets all over it) pulled wires in and out to make a temporary circuits that connected one home to another. Now the circuit switching is done automatically by an electronic telephone exchange.

If you think about it, circuit switching is a really inefficient way to use a network. All the time you’re connected to your friend’s house, no-one else can get through to either of you by phone. (Imagine being on your computer, typing an email for an hour or more—and no-one being able to email you while you were doing so.) Suppose you talk very slowly on the phone, leave long gaps of silence, or go off to make a cup of coffee. Even though you’re not actually sending information down the line, the circuit is still connected—and still blocking other people from using it.

Packet switching

The Internet could, theoretically, work by circuit switching—and some parts of it still do. If you have a traditional “dialup” connection to the Net (where your computer dials a telephone number to reach your Internet service provider in what’s effectively an ordinary phone call), you’re using circuit switching to go online. You’ll know how maddeningly inefficient this can be. No-one can phone you while you’re online; you’ll be billed for every second you stay on the Net; and your Net connection will work relatively slowly.

Most data moves over the Internet in a completely different way called packet switching. Suppose you send an email to someone in China. Instead of opening up a long and convoluted circuit between your home and China and sending your email down it all in one go, the email is broken up into tiny pieces called packets. Each one is tagged with its ultimate destination and allowed to travel separately. In theory, all the packets could travel by totally different routes. When they reach their ultimate destination, they are reassembled to make an email again.

Packet switching is much more efficient than circuit switching. You don’t have to have a permanent connection between the two places that are communicating, for a start, so you’re not blocking an entire chunk of the network each time you send a message. Many people can use the network at the same time and since the packets can flow by many different routes, depending on which ones are quietest or busiest, the whole network is used more evenly—which makes for quicker and more efficient communication all round.

How packet switching works

What is circuit switching?

Simple artwork showing how circuit switching works

Picture: Circuit switching is like moving your house slowly, all in one go, along a fixed route between two places.

Suppose you want to move home from the United States to Africa and you decide to take your whole house with you—not just the contents, but the building too! Imagine the nightmare of trying to haul a house from one side of the world to the other. You’d need to plan a route very carefully in advance. You’d need roads to be closed so your house could squeeze down them on the back of a gigantic truck. You’d also need to book a special ship to cross the ocean. The whole thing would be slow and difficult and the slightest problem en-route could slow you down for days. You’d also be slowing down all the other people trying to travel at the same time. Circuit switching is a bit like this. It’s how a phone call works.

What is packet switching?

Simple artwork showing how packet switching works

Picture: Packet switching is like breaking your house into lots of bits and mailing them in separate packets. Because the pieces travel separately, in parallel, they usually go more quickly and make better overall use of the network.

Is there a better way? Well, what if you dismantled your home instead, numbered all the bricks, put each one in an envelope, and mailed them separately to Africa? All those bricks could travel by separate routes. Some might go by ship; some might go by air. Some might travel quickly; others slowly. But you don’t actually care. All that matters to you is that the bricks arrive at the other end, one way or another. Then you can simply put them back together again to recreate your house. Mailing the bricks wouldn’t stop other people mailing things and wouldn’t clog up the roads, seas, or airways. Because the bricks could be traveling “in parallel,” over many separate routes at the same time, they’d probably arrive much quicker. This is how packet switching works. When you send an email or browse the Web, the data you send is split up into lots of packets that travel separately over the Internet.

How computers do different jobs on the Internet

Ethernet cable

Photo: The Internet is really nothing more than a load of wires—metal wires, fiber-optic cables, and “wireless” wires (radio waves ferrying the same sort of data that wires would carry). Much of the Internet’s traffic moves along ethernet networking cables like this one.

There are hundreds of millions of computers on the Net, but they don’t all do exactly the same thing. Some of them are like electronic filing cabinets that simply store information and pass it on when requested. These machines are called servers. Machines that hold ordinary documents are called file servers; ones that hold people’s mail are called mail servers; and the ones that hold Web pages are Web servers. There are tens of millions of servers on the Internet.

A computer that gets information from a server is called a client. When your computer connects over the Internet to a mail server at your ISP (Internet Service Provider) so you can read your messages, your computer is the client and the ISP computer is the server. There are far more clients on the Internet than servers—probably getting on for a billion by now!

When two computers on the Internet swap information back and forth on a more-or-less equal basis, they are known as peers. If you use an instant messaging program to chat to a friend, and you start swapping party photos back and forth, you’re taking part in what’s called peer-to-peer (P2P) communication. In P2P, the machines involved sometimes act as clients and sometimes as servers. For example, if you send a photo to your friend, your computer is the server (supplying the photo) and the friend’s computer is the client (accessing the photo). If your friend sends you a photo in return, the two computers swap over roles.

Apart from clients and servers, the Internet is also made up of intermediate computers called routers, whose job is really just to make connections between different systems. If you have several computers at home or school, you probably have a single router that connects them all to the Internet. The router is like the mailbox on the end of your street: it’s your single point of entry to the worldwide network.

How the Net really works: TCP/IP and DNS

The real Internet doesn’t involve moving home with the help of envelopes—and the information that flows back and forth can’t be controlled by people like you or me. That’s probably just as well given how much data flows over the Net each day—roughly 3 billion emails and a huge amount of traffic downloaded from the world’s 250 million websites by its 2 billion users. If everything is sent by packet-sharing, and no-one really controls it, how does that vast mass of data ever reach its destination without getting lost?

The answer is called TCP/IP, which stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It’s the Internet’s fundamental “control system” and it’s really two systems in one. In the computer world, a “protocol” is simply a standard way of doing things—a tried and trusted method that everybody follows to ensure things get done properly. So what do TCP and IP actually do?

Internet Protocol (IP) is simply the Internet’s addressing system. All the machines on the Internet—yours, mine, and everyone else’s—are identified by an Internet Protocol (IP) address that takes the form of a series of digits separated by dots or colons. If all the machines have numeric addresses, every machine knows exactly how (and where) to contact every other machine. When it comes to websites, we usually refer to them by easy-to-remember names (like http://www.explainthatstuff.com) rather than their actual IP addresses—and there’s a relatively simple system called DNS (Domain Name System) that enables a computer to look up the IP address for any given website. In the original version of IP, known as IPv4, addresses consisted of four pairs of digits, such as 12.34.56.78 or 123.255.212.55, but the rapid growth in Internet use meant that all possible addresses were used up by January 2011. That has prompted the introduction of a new IP system with more addresses, which is known as IPv6, where each address is much longer and looks something like this: 123a:b716:7291:0da2:912c:0321:0ffe:1da2.

The other part of the control system, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), sorts out how packets of data move back and forth between one computer (in other words, one IP address) and another. It’s TCP that figures out how to get the data from the source to the destination, arranging for it to be broken into packets, transmitted, resent if they get lost, and reassembled into the correct order at the other end.

A brief history of the Internet

Precursors

  • 1844: Samuel Morse transmits the first electric telegraph message, eventually making it possible for people to send messages around the world in a matter of minutes.
  • 1876: Alexander Graham Bell (and various rivals) develop the telephone.
  • 1940: George Stibitz accesses a computer in New York using a teletype (remote terminal) in New Hampshire, connected over a telephone line.
  • 1945: Vannevar Bush, a US government scientist, publishes a paper called As We May Think, anticipating the development of the World Wide Web by half a century.
  • 1958: Modern modems are developed at Bell Labs. Within a few years, AT&T and Bell begin selling them commercially for use on the public telephone system.

1960s: Preparing for a global network

  • 1964: Paul Baran, a researcher at RAND, invents the basic concept of computers communicating by sending “message blocks” (small packets of data); Welsh physicist Donald Davies has a very similar idea and coins the name “packet switching,” which sticks.
  • 1963: J.C.R. Licklider envisages a network that can link people and user-friendly computers together.
  • 1964: Larry Roberts, a US computer scientist, experiments with connecting computers over long distances.
  • 1960s: Ted Nelson invents hypertext, a way of linking together separate documents that eventually becomes a key part of the World Wide Web.
  • 1966: Inspired by the work of Licklider, Bob Taylor of the US government’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) hires Larry Roberts to begin developing a national computer network.
  • 1969: The ARPANET computer network is launched, initially linking together four scientific institutions in California and Utah.

1970s: The modern Internet appears

  • 1971: Ray Tomlinson sends the first email, introducing the @ sign as a way of separating a user’s name from the name of the computer where their mail is stored.
  • 1973: Bob Metcalfe invents Ethernet, a convenient way of linking computers and peripherals (things like printers) on a local network.
  • 1974: Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn write an influential paper describing how computers linked on a network they called an “internet” could send messages via packet switching, using a protocol (set of formal rules) called TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).
  • 1978: TCP is improved by adding the concept of computer addresses (Internet Protocol or IP addresses) to which Internet traffic can be routed. This lays the foundation of TCP/IP, the basis of the modern Internet.
  • 1978: Ward Christensen sets up Computerized Bulletin Board System (a forerunner of topic-based Internet forums, groups, and chat rooms) so computer hobbyists can swap information.

1980s: The Internet gives birth to the Web

  • 1983: TCP/IP is officially adopted as the standard way in which Internet computers will communicate.
  • 1982–1984: DNS (Domain Name System) is developed, allowing people to refer to unfriendly IP addresses (12.34.56.78) with friendly and memorable names (like google.com).
  • 1986: The US National Science Foundation (NSF) creates its own network, NSFnet, allowing universities to piggyback onto the ARPANET’s growing infrastructure.
  • 1988: Finnish computer scientist Jarkko Oikarinen invents IRC (Internet Relay Chat), which allows people to create “rooms” where they can talk about topics in real-time with like-minded online friends.
  • 1989: The Peapod grocery store pioneers online grocery shopping and e-commerce.
  • 1989: Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Switzerland. It owes a considerable debt to the earlier work of Ted Nelson and Vannevar Bush.

1990s: The Web takes off

  • 1993: Marc Andreessen writes Mosaic, the first user-friendly web browser, which later evolves into Netscape and Mozilla.
  • 1993: Oliver McBryan develops the World Wide Web Worm, one of the first search engines.
  • 1994: People soon find they need help navigating the fast-growing World Wide Web. Brian Pinkerton writes WebCrawler, a more sophisticated search engine and Jerry Yang and David Filo launch Yahoo!, a directory of websites organized in an easy-to-use, tree-like hierarchy.
  • 1995: E-commerce properly begins when Jeff Bezos founds Amazon.com and Pierre Omidyar sets up eBay.
  • 1996: ICQ becomes the first user-friendly instant messaging (IM) system on the Internet.
  • 1997: Jorn Barger publishes the first blog (web-log).
  • 1998: Larry Page and Sergey Brin develop a search engine called BackRub that they quickly decide to rename Google.
  • 1999: Kevin Ashton conceives the idea that everyday objects, and not just computers, could be part of the Internet. This idea is now known as the Internet of Things.

2000s: Internet and Web for all

  • 2003: Virtually every country in the world is now connected to the Internet.
  • 2004: Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg revolutionizes social networking with Facebook, an easy-to-use website that connects people with their friends.
  • 2006: Jack Dorsey and Evan Williams found Twitter, an even simpler “microblogging” site where people share their thoughts and observations in off-the-cuff, 140-character status messages.
  • 2017: Russian president Vladimir Putin approves a plan to create a private alternative to the Internet to counter the historic dominance of the (traditional) Internet by the United States.
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Find out more

On this website

Books

General overviews

More technical

  • TCP/IP For Dummies by Candace Leiden, Marshall Wilensky. Dummies/Wiley, 2009. One of the simpler introductions to the Internet protocol. However, you might find the light-hearted writing style offputting.
  • TCP/IP Unleashed by Karanjit Siyan, Tim Parker. Sams, 2002. A more serious treatment than the Dummies book.
  • TCP/IP Network Administration by Craig Hunt. O’Reilly Media, 2002. A much more detailed guide to TCP/IP for computer networking students and professionals.

Articles

Facts, statistics, and reports

  • World Bank: Digital Development: If you’re interested in how the world is going online, and how the international community is making efforts to improve Internet access in developing countries, the World Bank is a good place to start your research. You’ll find lots of useful reports, facts, charts, and statistics.
  • Measuring the Information Society 2015: One of the most recent International Telecommunications Union reports, with global and regional analysis of Internet trends (particularly in developing countries), and some discussion of the Internet of Things.
  • World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2010: Monitoring the WSIS targets: 9th Edition, 2010: A detailed report from the International Telecommunications Union that charts the spread of telephone and Internet technology around the world, especially in key areas such as government, healthcare, and education.
  • Internet World Stats: A good collection of tables and charts showing patterns of Internet use around the world.

Please do NOT copy our articles onto blogs and other websites

Text copyright © Chris Woodford 2006, 2019. All rights reserved. Full copyright notice and terms of use.

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How the Internet Works: The 7 Steps It Took To Read This Article

Celebrate ARPANET’s 50th anniversary by learning how packets run the internet.

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By Tim NewcombOct 29, 2019Businessman concentrating on glowing computer attached to confusing tangled linesGARY WATERS

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Fifty years ago, the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, which we lovingly refer to as ARPANET, went live, a packet-switching network and the first to implement the TCP/IP protocols that have become the technical backbone of the internet.

But what does that all mean and just what are the steps involved in even some of the basic functions of enjoying the internet, such as, say, reading your favorite PopularMechanics.com article?

Dr. Cecilia Aragon, director of the Human-Centered Data Science Lab at the University of Washington in Seattle, one of the top-ranked computer science programs in the country, explains the steps.

“THE BROWSER SETS UP A CONNECTION BETWEEN YOU AND SOMEBODY ELSE, SOME OTHER SERVER SOMEWHERE ELSE IN THE WORLD.”

“A great analogy,” she says, “is it is like a telephone network for data instead of voice. Every piece of information you get, when you download an article from the server, there is another human on the other end producing that information. It is broken into packets and sent over wires and made visible onto the computer of the person who is reading it.”

Aragon says the step-by-step process of doing something as basic as reading an article on the Internet is really not at all that simple.

Everything starts with a computer, a device already designed to take bits of zeroes and ones and converting them into pixels on a screen so humans can understand the information. From there, once that computer launches an operating system, whether Windows, MacOS, Linux or something else, a browser runs on top of that operating system.

The browser—again, there are multiple options, from Safari to Google Chrome—serves as a special program designed to collect packets and make connections to other computers to get information.

“The browser sets up a connection between you and somebody else, some other server somewhere else in the world,” Aragon says.ADVERTISEMENT – CONTINUE READING BELOW

How the Internet Works

image

This is the room where ARPANET first connected on October 29, 1969.ROBYN BECKGETTY IMAGES

Let’s call this STEP ONE. To start, your browser sends a request to read the article you’re engrossed in right now via your Internet Service Provider (ISP) that can connect to the internet. That message included your browser sending a request, with your computer’s Internet Protocol (IP) address, to the server holding all the information from the Popular Mechanics’ website, basically saying “I’m interested, send me that collection of packets.”

You may have known the Domain Name Server (DNS) of the internet site you wanted to get information from, but computers thinks much more black and white. That’s where STEP TWO comes into play, as your browser turns the DNS into an IP address of, in this case, the Popular Mechanics website’s server. Then, STEP THREE, where your browser requests a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection with the Popular Mechanics server, basically a permission to send messages happens. A quick STEP FOUR allows the server to respond to the request by saying “sure, we can send that along” — known as a 200 OK message — or a “sorry, we don’t have those bits any longer,” commonly rendered as a 404 Document Not Found.

With the conversation started and the request accepted, the really interesting STEP FIVE comes into play, establishing a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that will create levels of packets of information (an FTP server, in contrast, uses the file transfer protocol, another popular protocol that dictates the framework that servers use to operate as part of the internet). Every packet contains a header of bits of info that tell servers and browsers where the packet needs to go and its purpose.

“It gets very complicated, very quickly,” Aragon says. “You can think of a packet as a piece of information stored as a series of high and low voltage, essentially binary because all information can be represented in binary form.”ADVERTISEMENT – CONTINUE READING BELOW

“IT IS LIKE A TELEPHONE NETWORK FOR DATA INSTEAD OF VOICE. EVERY PIECE OF INFORMATION YOU GET, WHEN YOU DOWNLOAD AN ARTICLE FROM THE SERVER, THERE IS ANOTHER HUMAN ON THE OTHER END PRODUCING THAT INFORMATION.”

Then comes the really fun part, STEP SIX, as the packets of information must travel by that TCP protocol. These TCP packets—collections of bits placed essentially into the digital version of a complex envelope—get transmitted across wires, cables or WiFi in the form of low-volt and high-volt data. The packets, using the IP address so they know where to go, move from router to router, across cables, fiber optic cables, phone lines and WiFi until they run through however many routers are needed to arrive at your physical location, always moving at the speed of light and generally traversing the world.

Sometimes the packets hit slowdowns of heavily congested areas along the way and must change course and sometimes they can find a direct route back to you.

Every router knows only what it needs to know. The first router may not know the final destination of the packets of information, but it knows part of the way. The subsequent router knows the next place it needs to go and so on until the packets get back to you.

Once the requested packets arrive, STEP SEVEN kicks into place, allowing the browser to convert all those words and images from the packets back into a humanly readable article.

“Some may get lost and be resent again, but that goes through a number of routers back and forth until it gets back to your ISP and then your ISP sends the packets back to the router through WIFi to a port on your computer and then your browser, which is listening for those packets, takes the data and displays them in a form you as a human can understand,” Aragon says. “And that is incredibly oversimplified.”

The Internet’s Uncertain Future

FCC Repeals Net Neutrality Regulations

ANADOLU AGENCYGETTY IMAGES

The future of the internet isn’t necessarily all good news.

All those internet cables and radio frequencies? They can be throttled so that information can move at various speeds, hence that whole net neutrality discussion. Servers can also control how quickly they respond to requests for packets and sometimes websites go down because there is a physical limitation of how many high and low voltage signals a server can sent out at one time. Maybe a server can handle millions of requests for connections at one time, but not billions.

With physical wires and radio frequencies and their bandwidth limitations, Aragon says we are already now starting to run into some physical limitations. Even IP addresses, which can account for something in the range of four billion addresses, have met an issue because of the eight billion network-connected devices.

Even at 50 years old, the internet sure looks young compared to what’s coming.MORE FROMWELCOME TO INTERNET WEEKThe Most Cringe-Worthy Internet GuidesWhat the Internet Will Be Like In 50 YearsHow Reddit Birthed a Community of VigilantesThe Sites That Mean the Most to UsThe Internet Never ForgetsThe 50 Greatest Moments in Internet History50 Tips for Better InternetingThe Evolution of Web DesignThe GIF Is Dead. Long Live the GIF.What Would Happen If the Internet Just…Stopped? Pop Mech Pro

 - A Part of Hearst Digital MediaA Part of Hearst Digital MediaPopular Mechanics participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites.©2020 Hearst Magazine Media, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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  • What could be your best actions after this course. How to find Nano-programs and become a Nanotechnologist
  • You’ll be introduced to external resources, where you can discover latest achievements, funding/job opportunities and establish your Nano-network
  • Run and work with nanostructure simulators for electronic properties of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes
  • About Safety and Risk Issues of Nanotechnology

Ver maisRequisitos

  • Absolutely no requirement. Everyone is welcome to discover NanoWorld!

Descrição

Hi,

If you are considering this course to enroll, you most probably have heard or seen about potentials of NanoTechnology and you are curious to learn more. “Nano” and “NanoTechnology” are the terms we are hearing more and more frequently as time goes. One day we see two buckets full of mud are thrown onto two guys while one of them wearing ever-clean nano-based shirt! What happens then is a funny scene but also quite impressive and inspiring, in which how Technology of Nano’s would lead to dreamy inventions. The other day, scientist report they have developed new organisms which can take carbon dioxide and nitrogen from the atmosphere and use it to produce plastics and fuels. Wow, is it real??!!

The list of breakthrough inventions and extraordinary solutions could continue for thousands of pages and surprisingly it sounds Nanotechnology to have a finger in every pie, from energy harvesting and environmental issues to nano-medicine and biology, and almost all branches of engineering, and many more. Even two Nobel prizes have been allocated to NanoScale breakthroughs in recent years. Physics Nobel prize of 2010 for invention of Graphene and Nobel prize in Chemistry 2016 for production of molecular machines and robots.

But, how is it even possible? What makes Nanotechnology so enabling that even socks company boast to implement it in their products and some others make science-fiction stories out of it like building earth-to-sky elevator by mean of Carbon nanotubes?!

I bet, you’ve got passionate to start discovering Nnano-World as I was years ago. I’m Milad Zoghi, Nanotechnologist and the author of the book “NanoTehcnology in Plain Language”. After years of study and research in Nano-Electronics and publishing credible journals and my book, I decided to design this course to answer all above questions. I have designed this course to be thorough package for anyone who want to learn about Nanotechnology. What its is, how does it work and why you should care of it?

By taking this course you’ll go through:

Section1: Introduction

This section has been designed to transfer you the right vision about NanoTehcnology (NT) and Nanoworld. What’s the definition of NT? How does it work? When we say Nano’s what does it refer to? How much Nano-Scale is small? Do Nano’s exist in the nature? What about history of NT? When this term has appeared? These questions are answered in section 1. By the end of section, you’ll have overall perception of ups and downs of NT, about benefits, products, application and potentials of NT in coming years and decades. To give you best learning experience, variety of animation/video resources and high-quality photos are provided to you.

Section2: What makes Nanotechnology so special?

In this section, you’ll learn about what makes NT so enabling technology? What gives the power to Nanotechnologists to build systems and products with extraordinary features? We’ll discover Nano-World in more details, and you’ll learn why “There is plenty of room at the bottom”, the famous quote of Richard Feynman, father of NT. I’ll briefly but adequately discuss about: the implication of quantum mechanic at the Nano level, about high surface area of Nano species, which with some other facts gives NT the uniqueness than no other technology has!

Section3: NanoMaterials

It’s a fair analogy to say that NanoWorld is like a zoo, where anything with dimensions between 1 to 100 nm counted as the animals of this zoo! From nano-particles like Quantum Dots to Nanowires and Nanotubes and even Nanosheets like Graphene. We can not claim we know about NT without learning about NanoMaterilas. That’s what you learn in section 3. You will learn about most known Nanomaterilas: Quantum Dots, Carbon based Nanos (Graphene, Graphene Nanoribbons, Carbon Nanotubes, Buckballs like C60) and also Nano-Composites | Polymers | Fibers | Coating. I bet you’ll be impressed once you learn about fascinating properties of such Nanomaterials that could be used in game-changing products and solutions.

Section 4: How do we see at NanoScale?

We cannot talk much about Nano’s, unless we are able to see them, or at least measure their behavior and characterize them. As an analogy, consider the time, human didn’t have any microscope to see more details of objects and go beyond what our naked eyes can observe. Then there was no knowledge and discussion about microorganisms like cells, bacteria, right? That’s the importance of NT toolkit. And in this section, I’ll introduce you the most common and practical measurement equipment’s at the Nano-scale. You will learn how Microscopy and Spectroscopy instruments help scientist to not only observe Nano’s but also manipulate matter atom by atom, by mean of extremely sharp probes. You’ll have lots of fun to learn how these amazing systems work and what they are capable of doing!

Section 5: How Nano’s are built?

Talking about potentials of NT is much easier than fabricating Nano-based systems! NT is at its early stages, but yet, scientist have developed impressing techniques to build Nanostructures, sensors, devices and even Nano-Scale integrated circuits. In this section, we satisfy our sense of curiosity about how Nano’s can be controlled and manipulated atom by atom. I’ll teach you about several top-down lithography methods and also bottom-up vapor deposition and self-assembly techniques.

Section 6: Some Topics and Issues in NanoTechnology

NT involves broad spectrum of applications and influences many sectors of human life. In this scheme, there are serious concern about using NT, like the environmental/health safety and risk related to using NanoParticles, which is almost unknown to date! This section covers such topics which reflects another light on our understanding about NT.

But don’t get me wrong, this course is not just monolog lectures!!! I always like to provide easy-to-followsimple-to-understand and engaging contents for my audience. I’d love to see my students having fun by having best learning experience. In this course, I have compacted all you need to know about NT to get started, in plain language and with high-quality lecture videos and graphics. But besides that, following my attitude to give you best learning experience, You’ll also get:

PDF Summary Files:

You will have access to the summary files of my book, so you can study and review the course content at your convenient.

External Resources for study and Moving Forward:

I will provide you bunch of external intuitive resources and quizzes. From animations, images, and other graphic resources to magazines, articles, and websites and blogs to learn more about NT.

Nanostructures Simulation:

I also have allocated a simulation part for this course. That’s the part you can run simulator for Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes and touch the feeling of how Nano-Systems work. I’ll show how you can convert a metallic structure to semiconducting material be mean of defect. This way you’ll get much better sense of how manipulation at the atomic level would result in huge impacts at the macro level.

Right Vision Facebook Community:

By taking this course you’ll have access to exclusive FB community of right vision, where you can get extra support and help, get your questions answered and be informed of the latest Nano achievement and opportunities.

At the end of the course, I’ll give my best hint and suggestions if you want to become Nano-Pioneer in your profession or follow a Nano-Program. By the end of this course, I 100% guarantee, you’ll have authentic perception and knowledge of the future revolutionary force, NT.


There is no RISK!

This course comes with a full 30-day money-back guarantee, which means that if you are not happy after your purchase, you can get a 100% refund no question. There is absolutely no risk! Every second you wait is costing you valuable leads and sales.

So, what are you waiting for!?

Let’s start the fascinating journey through NanoWorld. Enroll right now and I pick you up in the course ?Para quem é este curso:

  • Everyone that wants to learn about Nanotechnology;
  • Everyone who is curious to know: How Nanotechnology works, What makes this technology unique and How your life or profession would be influenced by NT
  • Students who are thinking to discover more of Nanotechnology and understand Nano’s atmosphere
  • Whoever needs to learn fundamentals of Nanotechnology and get started with Nano-Programs or Nano-Researches
  • Every pioneer who aim to grasp insightful vision of Nanotechnology to be able to come up with Nano-ideas and implement Nano products and solutions in their business, services or expertise
  • Everyone interested in knowing about Nanostructures (Nanotubes, Nanowires, NanoParticles) and also extraordinary nanomaterials like Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Quantum Dots, Buckyballs, Thin film and…
  • Whoever wants to learn how Nanotechnologists observe and manipulate at the atomic scale and what’s the power of Nanotechnology that enable them to invent super cool products like self-cleaning ever-dry textiles!
  • Whoever passionate to know about potential solutions and applications of Nanotechnology in different sectors of human life. From energy harvesting, addressing climate change to drug delivery, nanoelectronics and many more…
  • Whoever interested in Nano related topics such as: Nano-Engineering, Nano-Medicine, Nano-Robots, Nano-Products, Nano-Economy, Nano-Fabrication, Nano-Toolkits, Nano-Concerns, Nano-Simulation, and Nano-Study/Jobs

+ Ver maisConteúdo do cursoExpandir tudo 61 aulas04:25:46–Introduction49:41What is Nanotechnology About?Visualizar08:38Frequently asked questions01:03What is NT About? (Video Links)00:10A quick Quiz! 5 perguntasHow much small Nano-Scale is?!Visualizar06:43Extra Resources00:08Scale of Universe: (Links)00:22Nano in Nature06:21NanoTechnology TimeLine (Brief History)06:41Richard Feynman Speech (Link)00:05Nano’s EverywhereVisualizar05:03Nanotechnology, Benefits, Applications and Perspective07:15NanoTechnology; a fast growing Infant !07:10+What is Special about NanoTechnology ? (Uniqueness of NanoWorld)5 aulas29:35+Nano Materials18 aulas01:11:40+How do we see at NanoScale? (Measurement and Characterization Tools)8 aulas38:14+How do we Build Nano’s? (Fabrication Methods)12 aulas41:29+Some Topics and Issues in NanoTechnology1 aula07:43+NanoTechnoloy and Opportunities for you!2 aulas07:51+Simuation: Graphene & Carbon Nanotubes Simulators3 aulas20:07

4.6 Classificação do instrutor
20 Avaliações
3,945 Alunos
3 Cursos

Milad ZoghiMaster Engineer of NanoTechnolgy and CEO of “Right Vision”

Hi,

“Right Vision” is an online education academy founded by highly educated Nanotechnologists in Montreal, Canada. Our goal is to provide high quality and authentic online resources about NANOTECHNOLOGY, the next revolutionary force!

Although Nanotechnology discoveries and applications are the topic of discussion everywhere, but best of this fast growing infant yet to come and wonder the world in the coming years and decades. Thereby, more and more people want to learn about nano’s without entering the maze of confusion and find the potential opportunities regarding their background and expertise.

Right Vision is a pioneer nano-education academy, making online courses for all nano-enthusiasms, who are willing to discover nanoworld, be part of future technology and take their knowledge and expertise to the next level by learning Nanotechnology.

Our professional team is committed to recognize the needs of nano-learners and create rich and easy-to-follow educational materials. By choosing “Right Vision”, you make sure you will learn from distinguished Nanotechnologists, who have a passion for teaching, and take you from beginner to pro in the shortest possible amount of time.

We are always for “Moving Forward”, what about you? If you are also for Moving Forward, as we believe you are, then don’t hesitate to let us help you to move toward a better future and reaching your goals.

Willing to see you,

Milad Zoghi,

CEO of Right Vision+ Ver maisFeedback do alunoEste curso ainda não tem avaliações.Mais cursos de Milad Zoghi16 aulas3,5 horas vídeoLista de desejosStep by Step Guide to Design Nano Devices and SensorsMilad Zoghi4.5(14)Preço atualR$21,99Preço originalR$339,9918 aulas2 horas vídeoLista de desejosHow to Simulate Electronic Properties of Nano StructuresMilad Zoghi4.9(6)Preço atualR$21,99Preço originalR$339,99 Denunciar abuso


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AllBooksConferencesCoursesJournals & MagazinesStandardsAuthorsCitationsAdvanced SearchOther Search Options< BackAuthor details (Beta) are based on existing information in the author’s collective works published in IEEE Xplore.Learn More

Milad Zoghi

Also published under: M. Zoghi

Affiliation

Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringConcordia UniversityMontreal, QC, Canada

Publication Topics

Green’s function methods,nanoribbons,graphene devices,resonant tunnelling diodes,accelerometers,boron compounds,brushless DC motors,calibration,end effectors,graphene,machine control,manipulator dynamics,manipulator kinematics,mechatronics,micromechanical devices,motion control,optimisation,permanent magnet motors,position control,semiconductor doping,three-term control,tight-binding calculations,time-varying systems,transient response,uncertain systemsView MorePublications5Publication Years20142017Co-Authors:

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Strain-Induced Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant-Tunneling Diodes

Milad Zoghi Arash Yazdanpanah GoharriziIEEE Transactions on Electron DevicesYear: 2017 | Volume: 64, Issue: 10 | Journal Article | Publisher: IEEECited by: Papers (2)

The electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons defected by hexagonal antidotes and Boron/Nitride atoms

Milad Zoghi Arash Yazdanpanah Goharrizi2017 Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE)Year: 2017 | Conference Paper | Publisher: IEEE

Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant Tunneling Diodes Using Antidote and BN Doping

Arash Yazdanpanah Goharrizi Milad Zoghi Mehdi SaremiIEEE Transactions on Electron DevicesYear: 2016 | Volume: 63, Issue: 9 | Journal Article | Publisher: IEEECited by: Papers (42)

Error based self-regulating PID angle control of variable structure redundant brushed DC motors

Bahador Rashidi Milad Esmaeilpoor Mohammad Reza Homaeinezhad Milad Zoghi2014 Second RSI/ISM International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM)Year: 2014 | Conference Paper | Publisher: IEEE

Designing a 2-DOF passive mechanism for dynamical calibration of MEMS-based motion sensors

A. Akhoondi Asadi M. R. Homaeinezhad S. Arefnezhad A. Safaeifar M. Zoghi2014 Second RSI/ISM International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM)Year: 2014 | Conference Paper | Publisher: IEEE

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AllBooksConferencesCoursesJournals & MagazinesStandardsAuthorsCitationsAdvanced SearchOther Search Options< BackAuthor details (Beta) are based on existing information in the author’s collective works published in IEEE Xplore.Learn More

Milad Zoghi

Also published under: M. Zoghi

Affiliation

Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringConcordia UniversityMontreal, QC, Canada

Publication Topics

Green’s function methods,nanoribbons,graphene devices,resonant tunnelling diodes,accelerometers,boron compounds,brushless DC motors,calibration,end effectors,graphene,machine control,manipulator dynamics,manipulator kinematics,mechatronics,micromechanical devices,motion control,optimisation,permanent magnet motors,position control,semiconductor doping,three-term control,tight-binding calculations,time-varying systems,transient response,uncertain systemsView LessPublications5Publication Years20142017Co-Authors:

Publications

Showing 1-5 of 5Conferences (3)Journals (2)

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Strain-Induced Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant-Tunneling Diodes

Milad Zoghi Arash Yazdanpanah GoharriziIEEE Transactions on Electron DevicesYear: 2017 | Volume: 64, Issue: 10 | Journal Article | Publisher: IEEECited by: Papers (2)

The electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons defected by hexagonal antidotes and Boron/Nitride atoms

Milad Zoghi Arash Yazdanpanah Goharrizi2017 Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE)Year: 2017 | Conference Paper | Publisher: IEEE

Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant Tunneling Diodes Using Antidote and BN Doping

Arash Yazdanpanah Goharrizi Milad Zoghi Mehdi SaremiIEEE Transactions on Electron DevicesYear: 2016 | Volume: 63, Issue: 9 | Journal Article | Publisher: IEEECited by: Papers (42)

Error based self-regulating PID angle control of variable structure redundant brushed DC motors

Bahador Rashidi Milad Esmaeilpoor Mohammad Reza Homaeinezhad Milad Zoghi2014 Second RSI/ISM International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM)Year: 2014 | Conference Paper | Publisher: IEEE

Designing a 2-DOF passive mechanism for dynamical calibration of MEMS-based motion sensors

A. Akhoondi Asadi M. R. Homaeinezhad S. Arefnezhad A. Safaeifar M. Zoghi2014 Second RSI/ISM International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM)Year: 2014 | Conference Paper | Publisher: IEEE

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  • Farzad JalaeiFarzad JalaeiResearch Associate, National Research Council Canada
  • hamidreza kamalanhamidreza kamalanAssistant Professor, Civil Engineering Dep., Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis, Iran
  • Hamidreza AbbasianjahromiHamidreza AbbasianjahromiAssociate Professor of Civil Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology

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Milad ZoghiK. N. Toosi University of TechnologyVerified email at aut.ac.irWaste ManagementBuilding Information ModelingLife Cycle Assessment

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Life cycle environmental impact assessment to manage and optimize construction waste using Building Information Modeling (BIM)F Jalaei, M Zoghi, A KhoshandInternational Journal of Construction Management62019
Seismic stability analyses of reinforced tapered landfill cover systems considering seepage forcesA Khoshand, A Fathi, M Zoghi, H KamalanWaste Management & Research 36 (4), 361-37242018
Effect of construction activities on construction and demolition waste generation in IranH Abbasianjahromi, A Khoshand, M Zoghi, MJ HeydarzadehWASTE MANAGEMENT 70, II-III2017

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Milad Zoghi

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BETAClaim Your Author PageEnsure your research is discoverable on Semantic Scholar. Claiming your author page allows you to personalize the information displayed and manage publications (all current information on this profile has been aggregated automatically from publisher and metadata sources).Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant Tunneling Diodes Using Antidote and BN DopingArash Yazdanpanah GoharriziMilad ZoghiMehdi SaremiPhysicsIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices1 September 2016Band gap size of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) can be tuned by implementing topological antidotes or boron/nitride (BN) atoms at the middle of ribbons. By imposing such modulated patterns on… Continue ReadingView on IEEECiteSaveBand Gap Tuning of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons by Using AntidotesMilad ZoghiArash Yazdanpanah GoharriziMehdi SaremiChemistryJournal of Electronic Materials2016The electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) can be changed by creating antidotes within the pristine ribbons and producing antidote super lattice AGNRs (ASL-AGNRs). In the… Continue ReadingView on SpringerCiteSaveMulti-objective versus single-objective optimization frameworks for designing photonic crystal filters.Seyed Mohammad MirjaliliBehnaz MerikhiSeyedeh Zahra MirjaliliMilad ZoghiSeyedali MirjaliliPhysics, MedicineApplied optics1 December 2017This paper proposes a novel framework for multi-objective optimization of photonic crystal (PhC) filters and compares it with a single-objective optimization approach. In this framework, an optimizer… Continue ReadingView on PubMedCiteSaveStrain-Induced Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant-Tunneling DiodesMilad ZoghiArash Yazdanpanah GoharriziPhysicsIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices1 October 2017The electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) can be changed and modified under the uniaxial strain. Taking this advantage, we propose a new platform of AGNR-based… Continue ReadingView on IEEECiteSaveError based self-regulating PID angle control of variable structure redundant brushed DC motorsBahador RashidiMilad EsmaeilpoorMohammad R. HomaeinezhadMilad ZoghiEngineeringSecond RSI/ISM International Conference on…1 October 2014In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for online regulation of a Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) controller parameters, which is used for angular position control of a permanent… Continue ReadingView on IEEECiteSaveElectronic and transport properties of zigzag carbon nanotubes with the presence of periodical antidot and boron/nitride doping defectsMilad ZoghiArash Yazdanpanah GoharriziSeyed Mohammad MirjaliliM. Zahangir KabirChemistry1 June 2018View via PublisherCiteSaveRadiation pattern design of photonic crystal LED optimized by using multi-objective grey wolf optimizerBehnaz MerikhiSeyed Mohammad MirjaliliMilad ZoghiSeyedeh Zahra MirjaliliSeyedali MirjaliliComputer SciencePhotonic Network Communications1 August 2019This paper proposes an effective method for shaping the radiation pattern intensity of photonic crystal (PhC) light-emitting diode (LED). In this method, the process of shaping the radiation pattern… Continue ReadingView on SpringerCiteSaveThe electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons defected by hexagonal antidotes and Boron/Nitride atomsMilad ZoghiArash Yazdanpanah GoharriziComputer ScienceIranian Conference on Electrical Engineering…1 May 2017The electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) is changed by using different modulation methods. In this paper, the electronic properties of defected AGNRs is studied. The… Continue ReadingView on IEEECiteSaveEffects of uniaxial strain on the performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon resonant tunneling diodeMilad ZoghiM. Zahangir KabirChemistry1 May 2019View via PublisherCiteSaveDesigning a 2-DOF passive mechanism for dynamical calibration of MEMS-based motion sensorsAli-Reza AsadiMohammad R. HomaeinezhadSadegh ArefnezhadA. SafaeifarMilad ZoghiPhysicsSecond RSI/ISM International Conference on…1 October 2014In this paper, the mechatronic structure of a 2-degree of freedom (DOF) open chain mechanism is described. Mechanism Designed for generating completely known motion in the MEMS accelerometers. After… Continue ReadingView on IEEECiteSave

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Milad Zoghi

Milad ZoghiRight Vision Academy

 12.75 · Master of NanoElectronicsContactAboutNetworkResearch 9

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9Research items806Reads 85CitationsIntroductionMilad Zoghi currently is graduate student at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University Montreal. Milad does research in Electronic Engineering, Materials Science and Solid State Physics. Their most recent publication is ‘Multi-objective versus single-objective optimization frameworks for designing photonic crystal filters.’Skills and ExpertiseNanomaterialsNanoelectronicsCarbon NanomaterialsNanoscienceThin Films and NanotechnologySemiconductor Device PhysicsSemiconductor PhysicsPhotovoltaicsOptoelectronicsMicroelectronics and Semiconductor Engineering

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Research items (9)Effects of uniaxial strain on the performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon resonant tunneling diodeArticle

  • May 2019

ViewRadiation pattern design of photonic crystal LED optimized by using multi-objective grey wolf optimizerArticle

  • Mar 2019

This paper proposes an effective method for shaping the radiation pattern intensity of photonic crystal (PhC) light-emitting diode (LED). In this method, the process of shaping the radiation pattern intensity is first formulated as a multi-objective problem. A multi-objective optimization, called multi-objective grey wolf optimizer, is then utilize…ViewElectronic and Transport Properties of Zigzag Carbon Nanotubes upon the Presence of Periodical Antidot and Boron/Nitride Doping DefectsArticle

  • Apr 2018

Electronic and transport properties of Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are affected by the presence of physical or chemical defects in their structures. In this paper, we present novel platforms of defected zigzag CNTs (Z-CNTs) in which two topologies of antidot and Boron/Nitride (BN) doping defects are periodically imposed throughout the length of perfect…ViewMulti-objective versus single-objective optimization frameworks for designing photonic crystal filtersArticle

  • Dec 2017

This paper proposes a novel framework for multi-objective optimization of photonic crystal (PhC) filters and compares it with a single-objective optimization approach. In this framework, an optimizer called the Multi-Objective Gray Wolf Optimizer has been utilized to automatically find the optimal designs. The proposed method is able to design any…ViewStrain-Induced Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant-Tunneling DiodesArticle

  • Aug 2017

The electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) can be changed and modified under the uniaxial strain. Taking this advantage, we propose a new platform of AGNR-based resonant-tunneling diode (RTD) using the effects of strain for the first time. In this RTD platform, barrier regions are composed of strained AGNR, whereas channel i…ViewThe electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons defected by hexagonal antidotes and Boron/Nitride atomsConference PaperFull-text available

  • May 2017

ViewBand Gap Tuning of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons by Using AntidotesArticleFull-text available

  • Sep 2016

The electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) can be changed by creating antidotes within the pristine ribbons and producing antidote super lattice AGNRs (ASL-AGNRs). In the present work, band gap tuning of ASL-AGNRs is investigated by varying the width of ribbons (d W) and the distance between antidotes (d L) for five differen…ViewArmchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant Tunneling Diodes Using Antidote and BN DopingArticle

  • Jul 2016

Band gap size of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) can be tuned by implementing topological antidotes or boron/nitride (BN) atoms at the middle of ribbons. By imposing such modulated patterns on certain regions of AGNRs, double barrier quantum well structures can be produced. According to this procedure, this paper proposes a new method for con…ViewError based self-regulating PID angle control of variable structure redundant brushed DC motorsConference PaperFull-text available

  • Oct 2014

In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for online regulation of a Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) controller parameters, which is used for angular position control of a permanent magnet (PM) DC motor. A conventional PID controller with constant gains fails to provide satisfactory results under time-varying operation conditions. In t…ViewCurrent institutionRight Vision AcademyCurrent position

  • CEO

Co-authorsTop co-authors

All co-authors (12)View All

milad Esmaeilpour
Arashyazdanpanah Goharrizi
M Zahangir Kabir
Arash Yazdanpanah Goharrizi
M R Homaeinezhad
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Milad Zoghi

Master Engineer of NanoTechnolgy and CEO of “Right Vision”

Milad Zoghi

Hi,

“Right Vision” is an online education academy founded by highly educated Nanotechnologists in Montreal, Canada. Our goal is to provide high quality and authentic online resources about NANOTECHNOLOGY, the next revolutionary force!

Although Nanotechnology discoveries and applications are the topic of discussion everywhere, but best of this fast growing infant yet to come and wonder the world in the coming years and decades. Thereby, more and more people want to learn about nano’s without entering the maze of confusion and find the potential opportunities regarding their background and expertise.

Right Vision is a pioneer nano-education academy, making online courses for all nano-enthusiasms, who are willing to discover nanoworld, be part of future technology and take their knowledge and expertise to the next level by learning Nanotechnology.

Our professional team is committed to recognize the needs of nano-learners and create rich and easy-to-follow educational materials. By choosing “Right Vision”, you make sure you will learn from distinguished Nanotechnologists, who have a passion for teaching, and take you from beginner to pro in the shortest possible amount of time.

We are always for “Moving Forward”, what about you? If you are also for Moving Forward, as we believe you are, then don’t hesitate to let us help you to move toward a better future and reaching your goals.

Willing to see you,

Milad Zoghi,

CEO of Right VisionMostrar biografia completa

  • Total de alunos 4.065
  • Cursos3
  • Avaliações20

Cursos ministrados por Milad ZoghiNanotechnology : Introduction, Essentials, and OpportunitiesNOVOMilad ZoghiNenhuma avaliação aindaPreço atualR$21,99Preço originalR$294,99How to Simulate Electronic Properties of Nano StructuresMilad Zoghi4,9(6)Preço atualR$21,99Preço originalR$294,99Step by Step Guide to Design Nano Devices and SensorsMilad Zoghi4,4(14)Preço atualR$21,99Preço originalR$294,99


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Nanotechnology : Introduction, Essentials, and Opportunities

Complete Package to Learn Nano Technology; NanoMaterials, NanoSensors, Application, Simulation, Fabrication, NanoDegreesNOVO0,0 (0 classificação)7 alunos inscritosCriado por Milad ZoghiÚltima atualização em 1/2020 Inglês Inglês [gerado automaticamente]Pré-visualizar este cursoPreço atualR$21,99Preço originalR$294,99Desconto93% de descontoSó mais 13 horas por este preço!Adicionar ao carrinhoComprar agoraGarantia de devolução do dinheiro em 30 diasEste curso inclui

  • Vídeo sob demanda de 4,5 horas
  • 16 artigos
  • 8 recursos para download
  • Acesso total vitalício
  • Acesso no dispositivo móvel e na TV
  • Certificado de Conclusão

Aplicar cupomCompartilharVai treinar 5 ou mais pessoas?

Sua equipe pode ter acesso a mais de 3.500 cursos de destaque da Udemy a qualquer hora, em qualquer lugar.Testar Udemy for BusinessO que você aprenderá

  • All aspects of Nanotechnology in plain language
  • What is Nanotechnology, how it works, why Nanotechnology is booming and what’s in for YOU!
  • You get deep perception of NanoWorld; definition, timeline, benefits, products, applications. Nano’s in nature and Nano-Economy and job market
  • About what makes Nanotechnology special and how unique properties of nanomaterials would lead to invention of extraordinary products and solutions
  • You’ll go through a fascinating journey to learn about variety of nanomaterials: Quantum Dots, Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Buckyballs, Nano: Composites | Polymers | Fibers | Coating (thin film)
  • How nanoparticles are observed; You discover how Microscopy and Spectroscopy instruments are implemented to characterize Nano’s. NT toolkits like: Scanning Electron/Tunneling/Force Microscopes, X-ray, UV-Vis, and Raman shift
  • How Nano-Systems are fabricated; Top-down Lithography methods-> Photo/X-ray/Electron beam/Ion beam/Soft/Nanoimprint/Scanning Probe/Dip Pen. Bottom-up methods: Physical/Chemical Vapor Deposition and Self-Assembly
  • What could be your best actions after this course. How to find Nano-programs and become a Nanotechnologist
  • You’ll be introduced to external resources, where you can discover latest achievements, funding/job opportunities and establish your Nano-network
  • Run and work with nanostructure simulators for electronic properties of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes
  • About Safety and Risk Issues of Nanotechnology

Ver maisRequisitos

  • Absolutely no requirement. Everyone is welcome to discover NanoWorld!

Descrição

Hi,

If you are considering this course to enroll, you most probably have heard or seen about potentials of NanoTechnology and you are curious to learn more. “Nano” and “NanoTechnology” are the terms we are hearing more and more frequently as time goes. One day we see two buckets full of mud are thrown onto two guys while one of them wearing ever-clean nano-based shirt! What happens then is a funny scene but also quite impressive and inspiring, in which how Technology of Nano’s would lead to dreamy inventions. The other day, scientist report they have developed new organisms which can take carbon dioxide and nitrogen from the atmosphere and use it to produce plastics and fuels. Wow, is it real??!!

The list of breakthrough inventions and extraordinary solutions could continue for thousands of pages and surprisingly it sounds Nanotechnology to have a finger in every pie, from energy harvesting and environmental issues to nano-medicine and biology, and almost all branches of engineering, and many more. Even two Nobel prizes have been allocated to NanoScale breakthroughs in recent years. Physics Nobel prize of 2010 for invention of Graphene and Nobel prize in Chemistry 2016 for production of molecular machines and robots.

But, how is it even possible? What makes Nanotechnology so enabling that even socks company boast to implement it in their products and some others make science-fiction stories out of it like building earth-to-sky elevator by mean of Carbon nanotubes?!

I bet, you’ve got passionate to start discovering Nnano-World as I was years ago. I’m Milad Zoghi, Nanotechnologist and the author of the book “NanoTehcnology in Plain Language”. After years of study and research in Nano-Electronics and publishing credible journals and my book, I decided to design this course to answer all above questions. I have designed this course to be thorough package for anyone who want to learn about Nanotechnology. What its is, how does it work and why you should care of it?

By taking this course you’ll go through:

Section1: Introduction

This section has been designed to transfer you the right vision about NanoTehcnology (NT) and Nanoworld. What’s the definition of NT? How does it work? When we say Nano’s what does it refer to? How much Nano-Scale is small? Do Nano’s exist in the nature? What about history of NT? When this term has appeared? These questions are answered in section 1. By the end of section, you’ll have overall perception of ups and downs of NT, about benefits, products, application and potentials of NT in coming years and decades. To give you best learning experience, variety of animation/video resources and high-quality photos are provided to you.

Section2: What makes Nanotechnology so special?

In this section, you’ll learn about what makes NT so enabling technology? What gives the power to Nanotechnologists to build systems and products with extraordinary features? We’ll discover Nano-World in more details, and you’ll learn why “There is plenty of room at the bottom”, the famous quote of Richard Feynman, father of NT. I’ll briefly but adequately discuss about: the implication of quantum mechanic at the Nano level, about high surface area of Nano species, which with some other facts gives NT the uniqueness than no other technology has!

Section3: NanoMaterials

It’s a fair analogy to say that NanoWorld is like a zoo, where anything with dimensions between 1 to 100 nm counted as the animals of this zoo! From nano-particles like Quantum Dots to Nanowires and Nanotubes and even Nanosheets like Graphene. We can not claim we know about NT without learning about NanoMaterilas. That’s what you learn in section 3. You will learn about most known Nanomaterilas: Quantum Dots, Carbon based Nanos (Graphene, Graphene Nanoribbons, Carbon Nanotubes, Buckballs like C60) and also Nano-Composites | Polymers | Fibers | Coating. I bet you’ll be impressed once you learn about fascinating properties of such Nanomaterials that could be used in game-changing products and solutions.

Section 4: How do we see at NanoScale?

We cannot talk much about Nano’s, unless we are able to see them, or at least measure their behavior and characterize them. As an analogy, consider the time, human didn’t have any microscope to see more details of objects and go beyond what our naked eyes can observe. Then there was no knowledge and discussion about microorganisms like cells, bacteria, right? That’s the importance of NT toolkit. And in this section, I’ll introduce you the most common and practical measurement equipment’s at the Nano-scale. You will learn how Microscopy and Spectroscopy instruments help scientist to not only observe Nano’s but also manipulate matter atom by atom, by mean of extremely sharp probes. You’ll have lots of fun to learn how these amazing systems work and what they are capable of doing!

Section 5: How Nano’s are built?

Talking about potentials of NT is much easier than fabricating Nano-based systems! NT is at its early stages, but yet, scientist have developed impressing techniques to build Nanostructures, sensors, devices and even Nano-Scale integrated circuits. In this section, we satisfy our sense of curiosity about how Nano’s can be controlled and manipulated atom by atom. I’ll teach you about several top-down lithography methods and also bottom-up vapor deposition and self-assembly techniques.

Section 6: Some Topics and Issues in NanoTechnology

NT involves broad spectrum of applications and influences many sectors of human life. In this scheme, there are serious concern about using NT, like the environmental/health safety and risk related to using NanoParticles, which is almost unknown to date! This section covers such topics which reflects another light on our understanding about NT.

But don’t get me wrong, this course is not just monolog lectures!!! I always like to provide easy-to-followsimple-to-understand and engaging contents for my audience. I’d love to see my students having fun by having best learning experience. In this course, I have compacted all you need to know about NT to get started, in plain language and with high-quality lecture videos and graphics. But besides that, following my attitude to give you best learning experience, You’ll also get:

PDF Summary Files:

You will have access to the summary files of my book, so you can study and review the course content at your convenient.

External Resources for study and Moving Forward:

I will provide you bunch of external intuitive resources and quizzes. From animations, images, and other graphic resources to magazines, articles, and websites and blogs to learn more about NT.

Nanostructures Simulation:

I also have allocated a simulation part for this course. That’s the part you can run simulator for Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes and touch the feeling of how Nano-Systems work. I’ll show how you can convert a metallic structure to semiconducting material be mean of defect. This way you’ll get much better sense of how manipulation at the atomic level would result in huge impacts at the macro level.

Right Vision Facebook Community:

By taking this course you’ll have access to exclusive FB community of right vision, where you can get extra support and help, get your questions answered and be informed of the latest Nano achievement and opportunities.

At the end of the course, I’ll give my best hint and suggestions if you want to become Nano-Pioneer in your profession or follow a Nano-Program. By the end of this course, I 100% guarantee, you’ll have authentic perception and knowledge of the future revolutionary force, NT.


There is no RISK!

This course comes with a full 30-day money-back guarantee, which means that if you are not happy after your purchase, you can get a 100% refund no question. There is absolutely no risk! Every second you wait is costing you valuable leads and sales.

So, what are you waiting for!?

Let’s start the fascinating journey through NanoWorld. Enroll right now and I pick you up in the course ?Para quem é este curso:

  • Everyone that wants to learn about Nanotechnology;
  • Everyone who is curious to know: How Nanotechnology works, What makes this technology unique and How your life or profession would be influenced by NT
  • Students who are thinking to discover more of Nanotechnology and understand Nano’s atmosphere
  • Whoever needs to learn fundamentals of Nanotechnology and get started with Nano-Programs or Nano-Researches
  • Every pioneer who aim to grasp insightful vision of Nanotechnology to be able to come up with Nano-ideas and implement Nano products and solutions in their business, services or expertise
  • Everyone interested in knowing about Nanostructures (Nanotubes, Nanowires, NanoParticles) and also extraordinary nanomaterials like Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Quantum Dots, Buckyballs, Thin film and…
  • Whoever wants to learn how Nanotechnologists observe and manipulate at the atomic scale and what’s the power of Nanotechnology that enable them to invent super cool products like self-cleaning ever-dry textiles!
  • Whoever passionate to know about potential solutions and applications of Nanotechnology in different sectors of human life. From energy harvesting, addressing climate change to drug delivery, nanoelectronics and many more…
  • Whoever interested in Nano related topics such as: Nano-Engineering, Nano-Medicine, Nano-Robots, Nano-Products, Nano-Economy, Nano-Fabrication, Nano-Toolkits, Nano-Concerns, Nano-Simulation, and Nano-Study/Jobs

Conteúdo do cursoExpandir tudo 61 aulas04:25:46–Introduction49:41What is Nanotechnology About?Visualizar08:38Frequently asked questions01:03What is NT About? (Video Links)00:10A quick Quiz! 5 perguntasHow much small Nano-Scale is?!Visualizar06:43Extra Resources00:08Scale of Universe: (Links)00:22Nano in Nature06:21NanoTechnology TimeLine (Brief History)06:41Richard Feynman Speech (Link)00:05Nano’s EverywhereVisualizar05:03Nanotechnology, Benefits, Applications and Perspective07:15NanoTechnology; a fast growing Infant !07:10+What is Special about NanoTechnology ? (Uniqueness of NanoWorld)5 aulas29:35+Nano Materials18 aulas01:11:40+How do we see at NanoScale? (Measurement and Characterization Tools)8 aulas38:14+How do we Build Nano’s? (Fabrication Methods)12 aulas41:29+Some Topics and Issues in NanoTechnology1 aula07:43+NanoTechnoloy and Opportunities for you!2 aulas07:51+Simuation: Graphene & Carbon Nanotubes Simulators3 aulas20:07

4.5 Classificação do instrutor
20 Avaliações
4,065 Alunos
3 Cursos

Milad ZoghiMaster Engineer of NanoTechnolgy and CEO of “Right Vision”

Hi,

“Right Vision” is an online education academy founded by highly educated Nanotechnologists in Montreal, Canada. Our goal is to provide high quality and authentic online resources about NANOTECHNOLOGY, the next revolutionary force!

Although Nanotechnology discoveries and applications are the topic of discussion everywhere, but best of this fast growing infant yet to come and wonder the world in the coming years and decades. Thereby, more and more people want to learn about nano’s without entering the maze of confusion and find the potential opportunities regarding their background and expertise.

Right Vision is a pioneer nano-education academy, making online courses for all nano-enthusiasms, who are willing to discover nanoworld, be part of future technology and take their knowledge and expertise to the next level by learning Nanotechnology.

Our professional team is committed to recognize the needs of nano-learners and create rich and easy-to-follow educational materials. By choosing “Right Vision”, you make sure you will learn from distinguished Nanotechnologists, who have a passion for teaching, and take you from beginner to pro in the shortest possible amount of time.

We are always for “Moving Forward”, what about you? If you are also for Moving Forward, as we believe you are, then don’t hesitate to let us help you to move toward a better future and reaching your goals.

Willing to see you,

Milad Zoghi,

CEO of Right Vision+ Ver maisFeedback do alunoEste curso ainda não tem avaliações.Mais cursos de Milad Zoghi16 aulas3,5 horas vídeoLista de desejosStep by Step Guide to Design Nano Devices and SensorsMilad Zoghi4.4(14)Preço atualR$21,99Preço originalR$294,9918 aulas2 horas vídeoLista de desejosHow to Simulate Electronic Properties of Nano StructuresMilad Zoghi4.9(6)Preço atualR$21,99Preço originalR$294,99 Denunciar abuso


 Português


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adidas
Eventbrite
SurveyMonkey
Booking.com

 Copyright © 2020 Udemy, Inc.


13 Comments

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