Massive cancer genome study reveals how DNA errors drive tumor growth – By Jocelyn Kaiser – Feb. 5, 2020, 1:00 PM @ ´´Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.”[1] or in other hand Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. ´´ @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_biology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research & VERY IMPORTANT INFORMATION LIKE WEBSITES, LINKS AND IMAGES

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  • – > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics´´My´´ Dissertation @ #Innovation #energy #life #health #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo´´My´´ Dissertation Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

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https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/02/massive-cancer-genome-study-reveals-how-dna-errors-drive-tumor-growth?fbclid=IwAR36cb474xpKX5VTYOYhGfJc95Hy-kpxwtilWDd6T51TomPSpt1VQfLfqrY

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Human breast cancer cells. A huge new trove of data explores how genetic changes drive tumor growth. CECIL H. FOX/SCIENCE SOURCE

Massive cancer genome study reveals how DNA errors drive tumor growth

By Jocelyn KaiserFeb. 5, 2020 , 1:00 PM

The largest ever study to analyze entire tumor genomes has provided the most complete picture yet of how DNA glitches drive tumor cell growth. Researchers say the results, released today in six papers in Nature and 17 in other journals, could pave the way for full genome sequencing of all patients’ tumors. Such sequences could then be used in efforts to match each patient to a molecular treatment.

The Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) project, which had a cast of more than 1300 scientists and clinicians around the world, analyzed 2658 whole genomes for 38 types of cancer, from breast to liver. “What stands out from these studies is the rigor of doing this in a systemic way,” says cancer geneticist Marcin Cieslik, who with colleague Arul Chinnaiyan at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, co-authored a commentary on the papers.

Previous published studies—such as those from the U.S.-funded Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)—originally looked only at the “exome,” protein-coding DNA that make up just 1% of the genome, of tumors because it was cheaper and easier. But this shortcut left out many changes that might drive cancer growth. With DNA sequencing costs falling, the TCGA and the International Cancer Genome Consortium turned to the entire genome about 10 years ago, sequencing all 3 billion DNA base pairs, including regulatory regions within noncoding DNA, for many tumor samples. These groups also looked for large rearrangements and other structural changes that exome sequencing misses.

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The PCAWG study’s 1300-strong team then dug into the data, which the other groups had made freely available in databases. Its analysis didn’t find many new so-called “driver” mutations within genes or noncoding DNA that power cell growth in tumors. But the researchers found “many more ways … to change those pathways” of cancer growth, said project member Lincoln Stein of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research during a press call. For example, about one-fifth of the tumors had cells in which chromosomes shattered and rearranged, a bizarre phenomenon known as chromothripsis.  

Each tumor had four to five driver mutations on average. In all, the PCAWG project was able to find at least one driver mutation in about 95% of the tumor samples, compared with just 67% with exome sequencing, says Peter Campbell of the Wellcome Sanger Institute, another project member. This means many more cancer patients can in principle now be matched to a drug that targets the protein made by that driver gene.

One PCAWG team also figured out how to trace the evolution of the mutations in a single tumor biopsy. The group confirmed that the initial mutations often cropped up years or decades before the cancers were diagnosed, suggesting many could be detected and treated much earlier. Another team found new patterns of mutations that result from environmental exposures such as tobacco smoke. The papers in other journals explore topics such as how often tumor genomes contain DNA from viruses that may have triggered the cancer (13% of the samples).

Some countries, such as the United Kingdom, are moving toward whole-genome sequencing of every cancer patient’s tumor to guide treatment; the full cost is still thousands of dollars per genome, Campbell says. The PCAWG analysis could be “a blueprint for these national programs,” he says. The PCAWG consortium has also begun to pool clinical records and genomes for 100,000 patients to create a “knowledge bank” that doctors could consult to determine the best treatment based on a patient’s tumor genome.

Cieslik and Chinnaiyan note that most of the same information could be gleaned by combining exome data with cheaper tests such as RNA sequencing and assays for rearrangements. “Whether whole-genome sequencing is ultimately the best method in the clinic remains to be seen,” Cieslik says. But the wealth of data from the PCAWG study, which is now freely available to researchers, will help biologists understand the mechanisms of cancer, they say.

Another caveat is that although targeted drugs can be less toxic and more powerful than chemotherapy, most patients’ tumors grow back as a few cells that resist the drug begin to expand. The patient may then need another drug to kill the resistant cells. “It’s certainly true that this kind of sequencing will not mean that all cancers are cured,” Campbell says. “But it points us to where we should be thinking about developing drugs for preventing resistance or treating it once it arises.” Posted in: 

doi:10.1126/science.abb1834

Jocelyn Kaiser

Jocelyn is a staff writer for Science magazine.

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Research

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchThis article is about the search for knowledge. For other uses, see Research (disambiguation).”Researcher” redirects here. For other uses, see Researcher (disambiguation).”Original research” redirects here. For the Wikipedia prohibition against user-generated, unpublished research, see Wikipedia:No original research

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Basrelief sculpture “Research holding the torch of knowledge” (1896) by Olin Levi WarnerLibrary of CongressThomas Jefferson Building, in Washington, D.C.

Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.”[1] or in other hand Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. At a general level, research consists of three steps: 1. Pose a question. 2. Collect data to answer the question. 3. Present an answer to the question. This should be a familiar process. You engage in solving problems every day and you start with a question, collect some information, and then form an answer Research is important for three reasons.1. Research adds to our knowledge: Adding to knowledge means that educators undertake research to contribute to existing information about issues 2.Research improves practice: Research is also important because it suggests improvements for practice. Armed with research results, teachers and other educators become more effective professionals. 3. Research informs policy debates: research also provides information to policy makers when they research and debate educational topics.[2]

A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student’s research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentationdiscoveryinterpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientifichumanitiesartistic, economic, social, business, marketingpractitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

Aristotle, (384–322 BC), one of the early figures in the development of the scientific method.[3]

The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche“, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.[4] The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.[4]

Definitions[edit]

Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.

One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”[5]

Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.[6]

The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”[4]

Forms of research[edit]

“Original research” redirects here. For the Wikipedia prohibition against user-generated, unpublished research, see Wikipedia:No original research

Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified).[7][8]

Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.[9]

The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and usually established by means of peer review.[10] Graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation.[11]

Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate).[12]

Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory.[13]

Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

Scientific research[edit]

Main article: Scientific method

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Primary scientific research being carried out at the Microscopy Laboratory of the Idaho National LaboratoryScientific research equipment at MITGerman maritime research vesselSonne

Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:

  1. Observations and formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of one’s interest and following that subject area to conduct subject related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic.
  2. Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.
  3. Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts.
  4. Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study.
  5. Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection must be valid and reliable.
  6. Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data to draw conclusions about it.
  7. Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures, and pictures, and then described in words.
  8. Test, revising of hypothesis
  9. Conclusion, reiteration if necessary

A common misconception is that a hypothesis will be proven (see, rather, null hypothesis). Generally, a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected (see falsifiability). However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true.

A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case, a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. Researchers can also use a null hypothesis, which states no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent variables.

Historical research[edit]

Main article: Historical methodGerman historian Leopold von Ranke (1795–1886), considered to be one of the founders of modern source-based history

The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history guidelines that are commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. This includes lower criticism and sensual criticism. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are part of most formal historical research:[14]

Artistic research[edit]

The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines.[15] One of the characteristics of artistic research is that it must accept subjectivity as opposed to the classical scientific methods. As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis.[16]

Artistic research has been defined by the University of Dance and Circus (Dans och Cirkushögskolan, DOCH), Stockholm in the following manner – “Artistic research is to investigate and test with the purpose of gaining knowledge within and for our artistic disciplines. It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context.”[17] Artistic research aims to enhance knowledge and understanding with presentation of the arts.[18] A more simple understanding by Julian Klein defines Artistic Research as any kind of research employing the artistic mode of perception.[19] For a survey of the central problematics of today’s Artistic Research, see Giaco Schiesser.[20]

According to artist Hakan Topal, in artistic research, “perhaps more so than other disciplines, intuition is utilized as a method to identify a wide range of new and unexpected productive modalities”.[21] Most writers, whether of fiction or non-fiction books, also have to do research to support their creative work. This may be factual, historical, or background research. Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research.[22]

The Society for Artistic Research (SAR) publishes the triannual Journal for Artistic Research (JAR),[23][24] an international, online, open access, and peer-reviewed journal for the identification, publication, and dissemination of artistic research and its methodologies, from all arts disciplines and it runs the Research Catalogue (RC),[25][26][27] a searchable, documentary database of artistic research, to which anyone can contribute.

Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research (ABR) genres: narrative inquiry, fiction-based research, poetry, music, dance, theatre, film, and visual art.[28]

In 2016 ELIA (European League of the Institutes of the Arts) launched The Florence Principles’ on the Doctorate in the Arts.[29] The Florence Principles relating to the Salzburg Principles and the Salzburg Recommendations of EUA (European University Association) name seven points of attention to specify the Doctorate / PhD in the Arts compared to a scientific doctorate / PhD The Florence Principles have been endorsed and are supported also by AECCILECT, CUMULUS and SAR.

Documentary research[edit]

Main article: Documentary research

Steps in conducting research[edit]

Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.[30] The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the method of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. The major steps in conducting research are:[31]

  • Identification of research problem
  • Literature review
  • Specifying the purpose of research
  • Determining specific research questions
  • Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses[32]
  • Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
  • Data collection
  • Verifying data
  • Analyzing and interpreting the data
  • Reporting and evaluating research
  • Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations

The steps generally represent the overall process; however, they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.[33] Most research begins with a general statement of the problem, or rather, the purpose for engaging in the study.[34] The literature review identifies flaws or holes in previous research which provides justification for the study. Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher(s) collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher(s) then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: starting with articulating findings and discussion of them, moving “up” to identification of a research problem that emerges in the findings and literature review. The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.

Rudolph Rummel says, “… no researcher should accept any one or two tests as definitive. It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results.”[35]

Plato in Meno talks about an inherent difficulty, if not a paradox, of doing research that can be paraphrased in the following way, “If you know what you’re searching for, why do you search for it?! [i.e., you have already found it] If you don’t know what you’re searching for, what are you searching for?!”[36]

Research methods[edit]

The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progressMaurice Hilleman, the preeminent vaccinologist of the 20th century, is credited with saving more lives than any other scientist in that time[37]

The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):

There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:Qualitative researchThis involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.[citation needed] Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses.[citation needed] Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social constructionism.

Social media posts are used for qualitative research.[38]Quantitative researchThis involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive).[39] Statistics derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.

The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.[citation needed] These methods produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize.[citation needed] Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.

If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments (this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment).[citation needed] If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.[40]

In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher(s) may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.[41]

Mixed-method research, i.e. research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both primary and secondary data, is becoming more common.[42] This method has benefits that using one method alone cannot offer. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights.[43]

Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not put much effort into data collection; furthermore, methods to analyze easily available huge amounts of data have also been developed.[44]Non-empirical research

Non-empirical (theoretical) research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation. As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach. Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science. Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on. See Scientific method.

A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge. Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects.

Research ethics[edit]

Research ethics is concerned with the moral issues that arise during or as a result of research activities, as well as the ethical conduct of researchers. Historically, the revelation of scandals such as Nazi human experimentation and the Tuskegee syphilis experiment led to the realisation that clear measures are needed for the ethical governance of research to ensure that people, animals and environments are not unduly harmed in research.

When making ethical decisions, we may be guided by different things and philosophers commonly distinguish between approaches like deontologyconsequentialismvirtue ethics and value (ethics). Regardless of approach, the application of ethical theory to specific controversial topics is known as applied ethics and research ethics can be viewed as a form of applied ethics because ethical theory is applied in real-world research scenarios.

Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation. There may also be consequences for the environment, for society or for future generations that need to be considered. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research, the most notable Code being the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Research in other fields such as social sciencesinformation technologybiotechnology, or engineering may generate different types of ethical concerns to those in medical research.[45][46][47][48]

Nowadays, research ethics is commonly distinguished from matters of research integrity that includes issues such as: scientific misconduct (such as fraud, fabrication of data and plagiarism), etc.

Problems in research[edit]

Meta-research[edit]

Main article: Meta-research

Meta-research is the study of research through the use of research methods. Also known as “research on research”, it aims to reduce waste and increase the quality of research in all fields. Meta-research concerns itself with the detection of bias, methodological flaws, and other errors and inefficiencies. Among the finding of meta-research is a low rates of reproducibility across a large number of fields. This widespread difficulty in reproducing research has been termed the “replication crisis.”[49]

Methods of research[edit]

In many disciplines, Western methods of conducting research are predominant.[50] Researchers are overwhelmingly taught Western methods of data collection and study. The increasing participation of indigenous peoples as researchers has brought increased attention to the lacuna in culturally-sensitive methods of data collection.[51] Western methods of data collection may not be the most accurate or relevant for research on non-Western societies. For example, “Hua Oranga” was created as a criterion for psychological evaluation in Māori populations, and is based on dimensions of mental health important to the Māori people – “taha wairua (the spiritual dimension), taha hinengaro (the mental dimension), taha tinana (the physical dimension), and taha whanau (the family dimension)”.[52]

Linguicism[edit]

Periphery scholars face the challenges of exclusion and linguicism in research and academic publication. As the great majority of mainstream academic journals are written in English, multilingual periphery scholars often must translate their work to be accepted to elite Western-dominated journals.[53] Multilingual scholars’ influences from their native communicative styles can be assumed to be incompetence instead of difference.[54]

Publication peer review[edit]

Ambox current red.svgThis article needs to be updated. In particular: This subsection’s claims are potentially outdated in the “digital age” given that near-total penetration of Web access among scholars worldwide enables any scholar[s] to submit papers to any journal anywhere. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2017)

Peer review is a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper’s suitability for publication. Usually, the peer review process involves experts in the same field who are consulted by editors to give a review of the scholarly works produced by a colleague of theirs from an unbiased and impartial point of view, and this is usually done free of charge. The tradition of peer reviews being done for free has however brought many pitfalls which are also indicative of why most peer reviewers decline many invitations to review.[55] It was observed that publications from periphery countries rarely rise to the same elite status as those of North America and Europe, because limitations on the availability of resources including high-quality paper and sophisticated image-rendering software and printing tools render these publications less able to satisfy standards currently carrying formal or informal authority in the publishing industry.[54] These limitations in turn result in the under-representation of scholars from periphery nations among the set of publications holding prestige status relative to the quantity and quality of those scholars’ research efforts, and this under-representation in turn results in disproportionately reduced acceptance of the results of their efforts as contributions to the body of knowledge available worldwide.

Influence of the open-access movement[edit]

The open access movement assumes that all information generally deemed useful should be free and belongs to a “public domain”, that of “humanity”.[56] This idea gained prevalence as a result of Western colonial history and ignores alternative conceptions of knowledge circulation. For instance, most indigenous communities consider that access to certain information proper to the group should be determined by relationships.[56]

There is alleged to be a double standard in the Western knowledge system. On the one hand, “digital right management” used to restrict access to personal information on social networking platforms is celebrated as a protection of privacy, while simultaneously when similar functions are used by cultural groups (i.e. indigenous communities) this is denounced as “access control” and reprehended as censorship.[56]

Future perspectives[edit]

Even though Western dominance seems to be prominent in research, some scholars, such as Simon Marginson, argue for “the need [for] a plural university world”.[57] Marginson argues that the East Asian Confucian model could take over the Western model.

This could be due to changes in funding for research both in the East and the West. Focussed on emphasizing educational achievement, East Asian cultures, mainly in China and South Korea, have encouraged the increase of funding for research expansion.[57] In contrast, in the Western academic world, notably in the United Kingdom as well as in some state governments in the United States, funding cuts for university research have occurred, which some[who?] say may lead to the future decline of Western dominance in research.

Professionalisation [edit]

Globe icon.The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (January 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: Academic ranksAcademics, and ScientistsFurther information: Research fellowResearch associate, and Research assistant

In several national and private academic systems, the professionalisation of research has resulted in formal job titles.

In Russia[edit]

In present-day Russia, the former Soviet Union and in some post-Soviet states the term researcher (Russian: Научный сотрудник, nauchny sotrudnik) is both a generic term for a person who carried out scientific research, as well as a job position within the frameworks of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Soviet universities, and in other research-oriented establishments.

The following ranks are known:

  • Junior Researcher (Junior Research Associate)
  • Researcher (Research Associate)
  • Senior Researcher (Senior Research Associate)
  • Leading Researcher (Leading Research Associate)[58]
  • Chief Researcher (Chief Research Associate)

Publishing[edit]

Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869

Academic publishing is a system that is necessary for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience. The system varies widely by field and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. There is also a large body of research that exists in either a thesis or dissertation form. These forms of research can be found in databases explicitly for theses and dissertations. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine. Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields, from the print to the electronic format. A study suggests that researchers should not give great consideration to findings that are not replicated frequently.[59] It has also been suggested that all published studies should be subjected to some measure for assessing the validity or reliability of its procedures to prevent the publication of unproven findings.[60] Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since about the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access.[61] There are two main forms of open access: open access publishing, in which the articles or the whole journal is freely available from the time of publication, and self-archiving, where the author makes a copy of their own work freely available on the web.

Research funding[edit]

See also: Funding of science

 This section needs expansion with: funding for research in the humanities and other areas. Presently, only scientific research is addressed. You can help by adding to it. (April 2019)

Most funding for scientific research comes from three major sources: corporate research and development departments; private foundations, for example, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; and government research councils such as the National Institutes of Health in the USA[62] and the Medical Research Council in the UK. These are managed primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors. Many senior researchers (such as group leaders) spend a significant amount of their time applying for grants for research funds. These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research but also as a source of merit. The Social Psychology Network provides a comprehensive list of U.S. Government and private foundation funding sources.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  58. ^ Job qualifications for Leading Researcher (in Russian)
  59. ^ Heiner Evanschitzky, Carsten Baumgarth, Raymond Hubbard and J. Scott Armstrong (2006). “Replication Research in Marketing Revisited: A Note on a Disturbing Trend” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
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  62. ^ “NIH Reporter”.

Further reading[edit]

  • Groh, Arnold (2018). Research Methods in Indigenous Contexts. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-72774-5.
  • Cohen, N.; Arieli, T. (2011). “Field research in conflict environments: Methodological challenges and snowball sampling”. Journal of Peace Research48 (4): 423–436. doi:10.1177/0022343311405698.
  • Soeters, Joseph; Shields, Patricia and Rietjens, Sebastiaan. 2014. Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies New York: Routledge.
  • Talja, Sanna and Pamela J. Mckenzie (2007). Editor’s Introduction: Special Issue on Discursive Approaches to Information Seeking in Context, The University of Chicago Press.

External links[edit]

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  •  The dictionary definition of research at Wiktionary
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