Facebook comment about my blog: ´´Hi Rodrigo! Thank you for replying and sharing your work with us! Coincidentally this post was created by the Brazilian administrator of this page, who is Psychologist and currently lives in Melbourne, AUS. We are glad you enjoyed this post and congratulations for your work and your Blog! Cheers!´´ Thank you very much!! – What Is Probability? @ What is Thinking? @ The Science Behind Coincidence @ What Is Time? A Simple Explanation @ What Do Coincidences Really Mean? | The #WednesdayWisdom Show @ MIRACLES, COINCIDENCES, and SYNCHRONICITY – all signs from the universe @ What Is Synchronicity? Ask Deepak Chopra! @ What Is Intuition? Ask Deepak Chopra! @ Very Important Videos, Images, Websites And Links @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_University

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Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo´´My´´ Dissertation Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

´´Among rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance (2019–2020) and Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities (2011), which measured universities’ numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies.[149] According to annual polls done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named “dream colleges” in the United States, both for students and parents.[150][151][152] Additionally, having made significant investments in its engineering school in recent years, Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by Times Higher Education.[153]´´

https://www.facebook.com/neuros0/

https://neuros0.wordpress.com/?fbclid=IwAR2J7LsQt-ySd5r2gpLpicOQqzDliXkCdTX2KB5j3i6fn61NkimAR2WV0k8

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time

https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-time-4156799

https://www.facebook.com/neuros0/

http://www.facebook.com/scientificblog

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41895-7)?fbclid=IwAR1YTqz3Wjed8ys9X3a8Vmapa3hWluxOvZgb2egQUKpeqYsaqMUGiIreAnQ

https://changingminds.org/explanations/thinking/what_is_thinking.htm

https://web.ma.utexas.edu/users/mks/statmistakes/probability.html

https://www.discovermagazine.com/mind/the-science-behind-coincidence

COMMON MISTEAKS MISTAKES IN USING STATISTICS: Spotting and Avoiding Them

Introduction      Types of Mistakes       Suggestions      Resources     Table of Contents     About    Glossary    Blog


What Is Probability?

The notion of “the probability of something” is one of those ideas, like “point” and “time,”  that we can’t define exactly, but that are useful nonetheless. The following should give a good working understanding of the concept.

Events

First, some related terminology: The “somethings” that we consider the probabilities of are usually called events. For example, we may talk about the event that the number showing on a die we have rolled is 5; or the event that it will rain tomorrow; or the event that someone in a certain group will contract a certain disease within the next five years.

Four Perspectives on Probability

Four perspectives on probability are commonly used: ClassicalEmpiricalSubjective, and Axiomatic.

1. Classical (sometimes called “A priori” or “Theoretical”)

This is the perspective on probability that most people first encounter in formal education (although they may encounter the subjective perspective in informal education).

For example, suppose we consider tossing a fair die. There are six possible numbers that could come up (“outcomes”), and, since the die is fair, each one is equally likely to occur. So we say each of these outcomes has probability 1/6. Since the event “an odd number comes up” consists of exactly three of these basic outcomes, we say the probability of “odd” is 3/6, i.e. 1/2.

More generally, if we have a situation (a “random process”) in which there are n equally likely outcomes, and the event A consists of exactly m of these outcomes, we say that the probability of A is m/n. We may write this as “P(A) = m/n” for short.

This perspective has the advantage that it is conceptually simple for many situations. However, it is limited, since many situations do not have finitely many equally likely outcomes. Tossing a weighted die is an example where we have finitely many outcomes, but they are not equally likely. Studying people’s incomes over time would be a situation where we need to consider infinitely many possible outcomes, since there is no way to say what a maximum possible income would be, especially if we are interested in the future.

2. Empirical (sometimes called “A posteriori” or “Frequentist”)

This perspective defines probability via a thought experiment.

To get the idea,  suppose that we have a die which we are told is weighted, but we don’t know how it is weighted. We could get a rough idea of the probability of each outcome by tossing the die a large number of times and using the proportion of times that the die gives that outcome to estimate the probability of that  outcome.

This idea is formalized to define the probability of the event A as
P(A) = the limit as n approaches infinity of m/n,   
where n is the number of times the process (e.g., tossing the die) is performed, and m is the number of times the outcome A happens.
(Notice that m and n stand for different things in this definition from what they meant in Perspective 1.)

In other words, imagine tossing the die 100 times, 1000 times, 10,000 times, … . Each time we expect to get a better and better approximation to the true probability of the event A. The mathematical way of describing this is that the true probability is the limit  of the approximations, as the number of tosses “approaches infinity” (that just means that the number of tosses gets bigger and bigger indefinitely). Example

This view of probability generalizes the first view: If we indeed have a fair die, we expect that the number we will get from this definition is the same as we will get from the first definition (e.g., P(getting 1) = 1/6; P(getting an odd number) = 1/2). In addition, this second definition also works for cases when outcomes are not equally likely, such as the weighted die. It also works in cases where it doesn’t make sense to talk about the probability of an individual outcome. For example, we may consider randomly picking a positive integer ( 1, 2, 3, … ) and ask, “What is the probability that the number we pick is odd?”  Intuitively, the answer should be 1/2, since every other integer (when counted in order) is odd. To apply this definition, we consider randomly picking 100 integers, then 1000 integers, then 10,000 integers, … . Each time we calculate what fraction of these chosen integers are odd. The resulting sequence of fractions should give better and better approximations to 1/2.

However, the empirical perspective does have some disadvantages. First, it involves a thought experiment. In some cases, the experiment could never in practice be carried out more than once. Consider, for example the probability that the Dow Jones average will go up tomorrow. There is only one today and one tomorrow. Going from today to tomorrow is not at all like rolling a die. We can only imagine all possibilities of going from today to a tomorrow (whatever that means). We can’t actually get an approximation.

A second disadvantage of the empirical perspective is that it leaves open the question of how large n has to be before we get a good approximation. The example linked above shows that, as n increases, we may have some wobbling away from the true value, followed by some wobbling back toward it, so it’s not even a steady process.

The empirical view of probability is the one that is used in most statistical inference procedures. These are called frequentist statistics. The frequentist view is what gives credibility to standard estimates based on sampling. For example, if we choose a large enough random sample from a population (for example, if we randomly choose a sample of 1000 students from the population of all 50,000 students enrolled in the university), then the average of some measurement (for example, college expenses) for the sample is a reasonable estimate of the average for the population.

3. Subjective

Subjective probability is an individual person’s measure of belief that an event will occur. With this view of probability, it makes perfectly good sense intuitively to talk about the probability that the Dow Jones average will go up tomorrow. You can quite rationally take your subjective view to agree with the classical or empirical views when they apply, so the subjective perspective can be taken as an expansion of these other views.

However, subjective probability also has its downsides. First, since it is subjective, one person’s probability (e.g., that the Dow Jones will go up tomorrow) may differ from another’s. This is disturbing to many people. Sill, it models the reality that often people do differ in their judgments of probability.

The second downside is that subjective probabilities must obey certain “coherence” (consistency) conditions in order to be workable. For example, if you believe that the probability that the Dow Jones will go up tomorrow is 60%, then to be consistent you cannot believe that the probability that the Dow Jones will do down tomorrow is also 60%. It is easy to fall into subjective probabilities that are not coherent.

The subjective perspective of probability fits well with Bayesian statistics, which are an alternative to the more common frequentist statistical methods. (This website will mainly focus on frequentist statistics.)

4. Axiomatic

This is a unifying perspective. The coherence conditions needed for subjective probability can be proved to hold for the classical and empirical definitions. The axiomatic perspective codifies these coherence conditions, so can be used with any of the above three perspectives.

The axiomatic perspective says that probability is any function (we’ll call it P) from events to numbers satisfying the three conditions (axioms) below. (Just what constitutes events will depend on the situation where probability is being used.)

The three axioms of probability:

  1. 0 ≤ P(E) ≤ 1 for every allowable event E. (In other words, 0 is the smallest allowable probability and 1 is the largest allowable probability).
  2. The certain event has probability 1. (The certain event is the event “some outcome occurs.” For example, in rolling a die, the certain event is “One of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 comes up.” In considering the stock market, the certain event is “The Dow Jones either goes up or goes down or stays the same.”)
  3. The probability of the union of mutually exclusive events is the sum of the probabilities of the individual events. (Two events are called mutually exclusive if they cannot both occur simultaneously. For example, the events “the die comes up 1” and “the die comes up 4” are mutually exclusive, assuming we are talking about the same toss of the same die. The union of events is the event that at least one of the events occurs. For example, if E is the event “a 1 comes up on the die” and F is the event “an even number comes up on the die,” then the union of E and F is the event “the number that comes up on the die is either 1 or even.”

If we have a fair die, the axioms of probability require that each number comes up with probability 1/6: Since the die is fair, each number comes up with the same probability. Since the outcomes “1 comes up,” “2 comes up,” …”6 come up” are mutually exclusive and their union is the certain event, Axiom III says that
P(1 comes up) + P( 2 comes up) + … + P(6 comes up) = P(the certain event),
which is 1 (by Axiom 2). Since all six probabilities on the left are equal, that common probability must be 1/6.

 How we change what others think, feel, believe and do
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What is Thinking? Explanations > Thinking > What is Thinking?Recognizing | Remembering | Reasoning | Imagining | Deciding | So what? Thinking is the ultimate cognitive activity, consciously using our brains to make sense of the world around us and decide how to respond to it. Unconsciously our brains are still ‘thinking’ and this is a part of the cognitive process, but is not what we normally call ‘thinking’. Neurally, thinking is simply about chains of synaptic connections. Thinking as experienced is of ‘thoughts’ and ‘reasoning’ as we seek to connect what we sense with our inner world of understanding, and hence do and say things that will change the outer world.Our ability to think develops naturally in early life. When we interact with others, it becomes directed, for example when we learn values from our parents and knowledge from our teachers. We learn that it is good to think in certain ways and bad to think in other ways. Indeed, to be accepted into a social group, we are expected to think and act in ways that are harmonious with the group culture.RecognizingAt its most basic level, thinking answers the question ‘What’s that?’ As the real-time stream of information from the outer world hits your senses, you have to very quickly identity what it is and what you need to do about it, particularly if it could be a threat.This engages your remarkably powerful pattern recognition system that can recognize a friend standing behind a post. Pattern recognition can fail, which can be embarrassing when we greet strangers as friends, yet a few errors is a small price to pay for the ability to recognize obscured things with a mere glance.RememberingMemory is an annoying thing and we sometimes have to put in extra effort to bring to mind even trivial knowledge. Curiously, we have a lot less problem in naming the things we see as compared to bringing to mind something we already have stored away. The ‘tip of the tongue’ effect happens where we feel we can almost recall something, but it is just out of cognitive reach.Skill in recall can be enhanced significantly by using memory methods that deliberately put more effort into encoding.ReasoningReasoning uses principles of argument to assess facts and causality to determine what actions may lead to what outcomes, and how probable success or failure might be for various strategies and tactics. It typically employs a great deal of ‘if-then’ thinking and hopefully leads to reliable plans, though the future is far from certain, no matter how confident we are. Indeed, we many biases which invade our reasoning and lead us to confidence when perhaps we should not be so certain.A critical element of reasoning is relating, where two elements of knowledge are related in some way. It is often in this connection between things that new understanding is created. This includes relationships such as ‘A is caused by B’, ‘A and B are similar in some way and different in others’, or ‘If A does X then B does Y’.ImaginingAnother factor that distinguishes humanity is our ability to be creative and imagine possible futures. As an extension of reasoning, this becomes less certain but still lets us think about what may happen and how we can influence this. This includes achieving outlandish goals and avoiding potential disasters. Imagining is also a part of art and play where outcomes are not serious but may yet be life-changing.EmotingThe thought process is tied up with emotions, though not always as we wish, especially when the more primitive emotional process overrides the more reasoned thinking, leading us to rash actions that we may later regret. It can be very helpful to pay attention to emotions, both in ourselves and in those we wish to influence. If we can cognitively understand what is going on, then we have a far better chance of avoiding pure emotional reactions and choices.DecidingDeciding is the last step before acting, where we consider various options and choose those that seem to be most advantageous. Even though we may be confident at the moment of decision, there are many well-understood decision errors and traps into which we regularly fall.Decisions are based on an assumption of correct basic data. With false facts or theories, even ‘reasonable choice’ will come to the wrong conclusions. As computer people say, ‘Garbage In, Garbage Out’ (GIGO). This can be a trap when the truth of ‘facts’ cannot be tested. This is one reason why we pay close attention to the trustworthiness of sources. Academic journals, for example, are often trusted because they refuse to publish papers where methods or data seem weak.So what?Thinking makes what we are, yet it is a complex and deeply flawed process, even as we may be quite confident that we are correct in our thoughts, conclusions and consequent actions. Changing minds activity often needs to have a significant effect on how people think, yet it can be harder to change thoughts than we may hope. If we can understand how the other person is thinking, including when their reasoning is strong or weak, then we will have a far greater chance of persuading them.See alsoThe SIFT ModelMemoryDecision errors 
 

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The Science Behind Coincidence

What’s really going on when we encounter uncanny connections?

By Amy PaturelJanuary 2, 2019 10:00 PM

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The most notable coincidence in my life was just a few days shy of my first Thanksgiving without my dad — at least as I’d known him. He’d had heart surgery in January 2017, followed by complications ranging from strokes to a life-threatening bacterial infection. The repeated assaults on his system transformed him. Last Thanksgiving, he had run circles around my 3-year-old. This year, he sat motionless in a chair, unable to spoon his own mashed potatoes.

I needed a distraction. So I hit eBay in search of a license plate for my boys’ transportation-themed bedroom. I decided to look for a Massachusetts plate, because I spent a lot of time there with my dad.

When the first one popped up, the numbers nearly leapt off my screen. It was a 1938 plate, the same year my dad was born, with the numbers 143264. My mom was born in February (2) of 1943, and they married in 1964. I contacted the seller, who told me the plate was part of his father’s vintage collection. He had thousands of them.

“I lost my dad last December, after a 10-year battle with Parkinson’s disease,” he wrote. “He was my best friend. Every time I box up a plate, it kills me, but I do it for my son and nephew’s college fund.”

Was it a coincidence that almost all of the numbers lined up with different aspects of my parents’ lives? That the seller and I shared a yearning for dads who were no longer there? The majority of scientists say it’s simple mathematics. Some researchers subscribe to the fringe claim that invisible forces “make things happen.” But most camps agree such scenarios are part of our brain’s innate need to create order out of chaos — and we experience them more often when we’re paying attention.

We Are All Connected

Stumbling upon that 1938 plate at the moment I was missing my dad — and the fact that the plate led me to someone who was also missing his dad — isn’t a coincidence. At least according to psychiatrist Bernard Beitman, a visiting psychiatry and neurobehavioral sciences professor at the University of Virginia, and a coincidence researcher.

He says it’s synchronicities, indicators of an invisible network that connects everyone and everything. Beitman suspects humans transmit some unobserved energetic information, which other people then process or organize into emotion and behavior.

“Just as sharks have ampullae in their skin that detect small electromagnetic changes to help them locate their prey … it’s plausible, maybe even probable, that humans have similar mechanisms that detect coincidences,” he says.

There’s no evidence for this, but he’s not the first one to pursue this fringe line of thinking. Austrian biologist Paul Kammerer believed coincidences arise out of unknown forces, or waves, that he called seriality. He wrote a book on the subject in 1919. Albert Einstein even commented on it, saying it was “by no means absurd.” And in the 1950s, psychiatrist Carl Jung came up with a similar idea, his so-called synchronicity theory, to describe these bizarre occurrences.

The most pervasive argument, though, may be a combination of our brain’s need to seek patterns and order, and plain ol’ math.

Order Out of Chaos

A 2015 study published in New Ideas in Psychology reported that coincidences are “an inevitable consequence of the mind searching for causal structure in reality.” That search for structure is a mechanism that allows us to learn and adapt to our environment.

The very definition of coincidence relies on us picking out similarities and patterns. “Once we spot a regularity, we learn something about what events go together and how likely they are to occur,” says Magda Osman, an experimental psychologist at the University of London and one of the study’s authors. “And these are valuable sources of information to begin to navigate the world.”

But it’s not only recognizing the pattern that makes a coincidence. It’s also the meaning we ascribe to it — especially meaning that provides solace or clarification. So when we see an unusual configuration, we think it must hold some significance, that it must be special. Yet most statisticians argue that unlikely occurrences happen frequently because there are so many opportunities for surprising events to happen. “It’s chance,” says David Spiegelhalter, a risk researcher at the University of Cambridge.

Spiegelhalter collects anecdotes of coincidences. In fact, he’s accumulated more than 5,000 stories since 2012 as part of an ongoing project. In 2016, an independent data firm analyzed these stories and revealed 28 percent of them involve dates and numbers. But no matter what the nature of a coincidence is, Spiegelhalter claims coincidences are in the eye of the beholder.

A classic example: In a room of 23 people, there’s just over a 50/50 chance two of them will share a birthday. Most of us would view that as an inexplicable coincidence, but mathematical law suggests such events are random and bound to happen. Any meaning we attribute to them is all in our heads.

Take the tale of my license plate and how the numbers jumped out at me. “Had it instead been the full date of your father’s birth, or your mother’s, or your own, or some other combination of these, then you would still have thought it striking,” says David Hand, a mathematics professor at the Imperial College London and author of The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences, Miracles and Rare Events Happen Every Day. “The point is, there are lots of ways an interesting number could arise. If any of these ‘lots of ways’ would make you take notice, then it’s not so unusual after all.”

And as Beitman pointed out, my plate also came with a rub: Where does the number 1 on the plate fit in? I reasoned it’s from the month of my dad’s birth (October, or 10) — or maybe, as a romantic, I could decode 143 as short hand for “I love you” because of the number of letters in each word.

But 1 isn’t 10, and 143 could, with my logic, mean other things, like “I hate you.” “And that’s the predisposition of those who want to see a coincidence,” Beitman says. “The brain sees a pattern that does not exist.”

Cultivating Coincidence

Regardless of what triggers coincidences, research suggests they’re more likely to happen to certain people. “People who describe themselves as religious or spiritual, those who are more connected with the world around them and those who are seeking meaning — or in distress and searching for signs — are more likely to experience coincidences,” Beitman says. Back in 2002, researchers published a study in Perceptual and Motor Skills noting that people who are more likely to be surprised by coincidences are also more likely to believe in the paranormal.

So perhaps it’s not surprising I homed in on that plate. I was emotional, missing my dad, and I do hold strong paranormal beliefs. Had the seller shared my dad’s birthday, I would have likely felt that, too, was an uncanny coincidence. And admittedly, when I asked my husband and sister if they recognized the plate as destined for me, both were stumped. They didn’t see the sequence as anything unique.

The irony of my story? Through a comedy of errors involving insufficient knowledge of eBay logistics and a busy holiday weekend, I lost the auction. Channeling my dad’s fighting spirit, I contacted the winner through the seller. The 1938 Massachusetts plate is now on my boys’ wall.


Connect With Coincidence

Certain people are more coincidence-prone than others, but all of us can learn how to cultivate them. “The more you notice the events, the more they happen,” says mathematician David Hand. Want the world to feel like a more magical place? Try these strategies:

1. Pay attention. Coincidences happen to people who are mindful and notice things. When you go about your daily activities, keep your senses open to coincidental opportunities.

2. Talk to strangers. According to work by risk researcher David Spiegelhalter, coincidences often arise out of talking to someone you don’t know. If you don’t introduce yourself to your neighbor, you can’t possibly know both of you were born in the same hospital, on the same day, in a city several hundred miles away from your current homes.

3. Seek meaning. Whether you see a string of numbers on a license plate or hear a song on the radio, ask yourself if you can make meaning out of the experience.

4. Write it down. Keep a log of the coincidences that occur in your daily life. The more you notice coincidences, the more likely they are to happen to you.

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Science, Tech, Math› Science

What Is Time? A Simple Explanation

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Businessman checking the time on his watch
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Science

By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.Updated November 26, 2019

Time is familiar to everyone, yet it’s hard to define and understand. Science, philosophy, religion, and the arts have different definitions of time, but the system of measuring it is relatively consistent.

Clocks are based on seconds, minutes, and hours. While the basis for these units has changed throughout history, they trace their roots back to ancient Sumeria. The modern international unit of time, the second, is defined by the electronic transition of the cesium atom. But what, exactly, is time?

Scientific Definition

Long exposure of a colorful rainbow of light
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Physicists define time as the progression of events from the past to the present into the future. Basically, if a system is unchanging, it is timeless. Time can be considered to be the fourth dimension of reality, used to describe events in three-dimensional space. It is not something we can see, touch, or taste, but we can measure its passage.

The Arrow of Time

Post-it notes reading past, now, and future
Bogdan Vija / EyeEm / Getty Images

Physics equations work equally well whether time is moving forward into the future (positive time) or backward into the past (negative time.) However, time in the natural world has one direction, called the arrow of time. The question of why time is irreversible is one of the biggest unresolved questions in science.

One explanation is that the natural world follows the laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics states that within a closed system, the entropy of the system remains constant or increases. If the universe is considered to be a closed system, its entropy (degree of disorder) can never decrease. In other words, the universe cannot return to exactly the same state in which it was at an earlier point. Time cannot move backward.

Time Dilation

Light trails on modern building background in Shanghai
zhuyufang / Getty Images 

In classical mechanics, time is the same everywhere. Synchronized clocks remain in agreement. Yet we know from Einstein’s special and general relativity that time is relative. It depends on the frame of reference of an observer. This can result in time dilation, where the time between events becomes longer (dilated) the closer one travels to the speed of light. Moving clocks run more slowly than stationary clocks, with the effect becoming more pronounced as the moving clock approaches light speed. Clocks in jets or in orbit record time more slowly than those on Earth, muon particles decay more slowly when falling, and the Michelson-Morley experiment confirmed length contraction and time dilation.

Time Travel

Globes stretching in space
MARK GARLICK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Getty Images

Time travel means moving forward or backward to different points in time, much like you might move between different points in space. Jumping forward in time occurs in nature. Astronauts on the International Space Station jump forward in time when they return to Earth because of its slower movement relative to the station.

The idea of traveling back in time, however, poses problems. One issue is causality or cause and effect. Moving back in time could cause a temporal paradox. The “grandfather paradox” is a classic example. According to the paradox, if you travel back in time and kill your grandfather before your mother or father was born, you could prevent your own birth. Many physicists believe time travel to the past is impossible, but there are solutions to a temporal paradox, such as traveling between parallel universes or branch points.

Time Perception

Young and old hands
Catherine Falls Commercial / Getty Images

The human brain is equipped to track time. The suprachiasmatic nuclei of the brain is the region responsible for daily or circadian rhythms. But neurotransmitters and drugs affect time perceptions. Chemicals that excite neurons so they fire more quickly than normal speed up time, while decreased neuron firing slows down time perception. Basically, when time seems to speed up, the brain distinguishes more events within an interval. In this respect, time truly does seem to fly when one is having fun.

Time seems to slow down during emergencies or danger. Scientists at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston say the brain doesn’t actually speed up, but the amygdala becomes more active. The amygdala is the region of the brain that makes memories. As more memories form, time seems drawn out.

The same phenomenon explains why older people seem to perceive time as moving faster than when they were younger. Psychologists believe the brain forms more memories of new experiences than that of familiar ones. Since fewer new memories are built later in life, time seems to pass more quickly.

The Beginning and End of Time

Time in a never-ending spiral
Billy Currie Photography / Getty Images

As far as the universe is concerned, time had a beginning. The starting point was 13.799 billion years ago when the Big Bang occurred. We can measure cosmic background radiation as microwaves from the Big Bang, but there isn’t any radiation with earlier origins. One argument for the origin of time is that if it extended backward infinitely, the night sky would be filled with light from older stars.

Will time end? The answer to this question is unknown. If the universe expands forever, time would continue. If a new Big Bang occurs, our time line would end and a new one would begin. In particle physics experiments, random particles arise from a vacuum, so it doesn’t seem likely the universe would become static or timeless. Only time will tell.

Key Points

  • Time is the progression of events from the past into the future.
  • Time moves only in one direction. It’s possible to move forward in time, but not backward.
  • Scientists believe memory formation is the basis for human perception of time.

Sources

  • Carter, Rita. The Human Brain Book. Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2009, London.
  • Richards, E. G. Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History. Oxford University Press, 1998, Oxford.
  • Schwartz, Herman M. Introduction to Special Relativity, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968, New York.

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BrainNet: A Multi-Person Brain-to-Brain Interface for Direct Collaboration Between Brains

Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 6115 (2019) Cite this article

Abstract

We present BrainNet which, to our knowledge, is the first multi-person non-invasive direct brain-to-brain interface for collaborative problem solving. The interface combines electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain signals and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deliver information noninvasively to the brain. The interface allows three human subjects to collaborate and solve a task using direct brain-to-brain communication. Two of the three subjects are designated as “Senders” whose brain signals are decoded using real-time EEG data analysis. The decoding process extracts each Sender’s decision about whether to rotate a block in a Tetris-like game before it is dropped to fill a line. The Senders’ decisions are transmitted via the Internet to the brain of a third subject, the “Receiver,” who cannot see the game screen. The Senders’ decisions are delivered to the Receiver’s brain via magnetic stimulation of the occipital cortex. The Receiver integrates the information received from the two Senders and uses an EEG interface to make a decision about either turning the block or keeping it in the same orientation. A second round of the game provides an additional chance for the Senders to evaluate the Receiver’s decision and send feedback to the Receiver’s brain, and for the Receiver to rectify a possible incorrect decision made in the first round. We evaluated the performance of BrainNet in terms of (1) Group-level performance during the game, (2) True/False positive rates of subjects’ decisions, and (3) Mutual information between subjects. Five groups, each with three human subjects, successfully used BrainNet to perform the collaborative task, with an average accuracy of 81.25%. Furthermore, by varying the information reliability of the Senders by artificially injecting noise into one Sender’s signal, we investigated how the Receiver learns to integrate noisy signals in order to make a correct decision. We found that like conventional social networks, BrainNet allows Receivers to learn to trust the Sender who is more reliable, in this case, based solely on the information transmitted directly to their brains. Our results point the way to future brain-to-brain interfaces that enable cooperative problem solving by humans using a “social network” of connected brains.

Introduction

Direct brain-to-brain interfaces (BBIs) in humans1,2,3,4,5 are interfaces which combine neuroimaging and neurostimulation methods to extract and deliver information between brains, allowing direct brain-to-brain communication. A BBI extracts specific content from the neural signals of a “Sender” brain, digitizes it, and delivers it to a “Receiver” brain. Because of ethical and safety considerations, existing human BBIs rely on non-invasive technologies, typically electroencephalography (EEG), to record neural activity and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deliver information to the brain. For example, the first human BBI demonstrated by Rao and colleagues in 20132 decoded motor intention signals using EEG in the Sender and conveyed the intention via TMS directly to the motor cortex of the Receiver to complete a visual-motor task1. Stocco and colleagues5 extended these results by showing that a Sender and a Receiver can iteratively exchange information using a BBI to identify an unknown object from a list, using a question-and-answer paradigm akin to “20 Questions.” Grau and colleagues4 proposed a related but offline non-iterative BBI.

Early interest in human BBIs came from the potential for expanding human communication and social interaction capabilities6,7,8,9,10. However, previous BBIs have lacked several key features of real-world human communication. First, the degree of interactivity has been minimal; for example, in the case of the “20 Questions” BBI5, the Sender only responds to the question the Receiver chooses, and the Receiver’s performance does not affect the Sender’s decision. Second, their interface required physical action: the Receiver touched the screen to select a question. Thus, the communication loop was completed via a motor output channel rather than a brain interface. Third, all past human BBIs have only allowed two subjects. Human communication, on the other hand, has become increasingly dominated by means such as social media that allow multiple parties to interact in a network. The potential for BBIs that allow interactions between multiple humans has previously been theorized3,11 but not demonstrated.

Here, we present BrainNet (Fig. 1), a next-generation BBI that addresses many of the limitations of past BBIs. First, BrainNet is designed to be a BBI for more than two human subjects; its current implementation allows two Senders and one Receiver to communicate, but it can be readily scaled up to include larger numbers of Senders. The Senders have the same role in observing the current state of the task and conveying their decisions to the Receiver. The Receiver has the role of integrating these independent decisions and deciding on a course of action. Second, BrainNet’s design incorporates a second round of interactions between the Senders and the Receiver, so that the action of the Receiver in the first round can be perceived by the Senders, giving them a second chance to convey (potentially corrective) decisions to the Receiver. Third, the Receiver is equipped with both TMS (to receive Senders’ decisions) and EEG (to perform an action in the task), thereby completely eliminating the need to use any physical movements to convey information. We report results from five groups, each with three human subjects (henceforth, “triad”), who successfully used BrainNet to perform a collaborative task based on a Tetris-like game.

figure1
Figure 1

An important feature of communication in social networks is deciding which sources of information to pay attention to when deciding on a course of action13. To investigate whether BrainNet allows such a capability, we additionally explored whether the Receiver can learn the reliability of each Sender over the course of their brain-to-brain interactions. We varied the reliability of the information from one Sender compared to information from the other by injecting noise into the signals from one randomly chosen Sender. Our results show that like conventional social networks, BrainNet allows a Receiver to learn to trust the Sender who is more reliable, i.e., whose signal quality is not affected by our manipulation.

Results

To measure the direct brain-to-brain communication capabilities of BrainNet, we asked each triad of participants to perform 16 trials of an iterative Tetris-like game. In each trial, one participant, designated as the Receiver, is in charge of deciding whether or not to rotate a block before it drops to fill a gap in a line at the bottom of the screen. Critically, the Receiver is prevented from seeing the bottom part of the screen and must rely on the counsel of the other two participants, designated as the Senders, who can see the screen in its entirety. These Senders are tasked with making the correct decision (rotate or not) based on the shape of the current block and the gap at the bottom, and informing the Receiver of the decision via the brain-to-brain interface. All members of the triad communicate their decisions through an EEG-based interface using steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs; see Methods). The Senders’ decisions are delivered to the Receiver through two TMS pulses delivered sequentially to the occipital cortex, eliciting a phosphene for a “yes” decision or no phosphene for a “no” rotation decision for each Sender (see Methods). Each trial is composed of two rounds: the first round is as described above; after the first round, the Senders are given the opportunity to examine the Receiver’s decision, shown on their screen as the block (now potentially rotated) mid-way through its fall. The Senders are then given another chance to make new (possibly corrective) suggestions to the Receiver through the brain-to-brain interface. A successful completion of a trial thus requires accurate communication between the Senders and the Receiver across these two rounds (see Fig. 2). Further, to examine the issue of reliability of the Senders, our software randomly chooses one Sender to be less reliable by making the decision sent to the Receiver from that Sender incorrect in ten out of sixteen trials. The order of trials requiring the block to be rotated and trials not requiring rotation was pseudo-randomized, with the constraint that each half of the session contained 4 rotation and 4 non-rotation trials. Trials 8–12 for the first triad were excluded from all analysis due to a problem with the timestamp routine. We analyzed both the EEG and behavioral data from the subjects in the remaining trials.

figure2
Figure 2

Overall Performance

The simplest measure of overall performance of the interface is the proportion of correct block rotations (equivalently, the proportion of number of lines cleared, or the proportion of the maximum theoretical total score, i.e. 16 points, achieved) for each of the five triads of participants. Figure 3 shows the results. The mean accuracy across all triads was 0.8125, corresponding to 13 correct trials out of 16. A corresponding p-value was calculated using the binomial distribution, which confirmed that the mean performance was indeed higher than expected by chance (p = 0.002).

figure3
Figure 3

Another important metric is the mean performance of participants in the SSVEP task since both Senders and the Receiver in each triad had to use this method to share information. In the task, subjects focused their attention on a 17 Hz flashing LED to indicate a “Rotate” decision and a 15 Hz flashing LED to indicate a “Do Not Rotate” decision. Figure 4 shows that before and after the SSVEP task, the 17 Hz and 15 Hz average power values overlap, whereas during the task, the average power of the frequency corresponding to the correct answer in the trial is significantly larger than that of the frequency corresponding to the wrong answer (two-sample t-test; t(15) = 9.709, p < 0.0001 for “Rotate” signal; t(15) = 10.725, p < 0.0001 for “Do Not Rotate” signal). Since our SSVEP classifier compares the magnitude of power values to decode a Sender’s decision, the large difference in power values implies good performance for our EEG-based brain interfaces.

figure4
Figure 4

As noted in previous studies from our group1,5,14, raw accuracy can be an inadequate measure of performance because it does not differentiate the kind of mistakes being made, i.e., whether they are misses or false positives. A better measure of performance can be obtained by calculating each triad’s Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve15, which plots the True Positive Rate versus the False Positive rate, and calculating the area under this curve (AUC; Fig. 5). Responding uniformly at random yields an AUC of 0.5 while the AUC of an ideal observer is 1.0. Because the distribution of AUC values is constrained between 0 and 1, it does not conform to the normal distribution. Thus, to properly conduct statistical tests of these values, we followed two complementary approaches. First, we conducted t-tests on the angular transformation (i.e., the arcsine square root transformation) of the AUC values, a common technique used to normalize data distributions16. Second, we entered the raw, untransformed values in a Wilcoxon test, a non-parametric test with a continuity correction. Both tests confirmed that the mean AUC value of 0.83 across all triads of participants was significantly higher than the performance expected by chance (one-sample t-test on angular transformed data: t(4) = 11.366, p < 0.001; one-sample Wilcoxon test: V = 15, p = 0.031).

figure5
Figure 5

As Fig. 5 shows, the overall AUC value for each triad of brains is affected by the bad Sender’s performance, but not by much. The overall AUC values are smaller than the AUC values of the good Senders (two-sample t-test on angular transformed data: t(4) = −2.897, p = 0.021; Wilcoxon test: W = 2, p = 0.036) but significantly larger than those of the bad Senders (two-sample t-test on angular transformed data: t(4) = 9.184, p < 0.001; Wilcoxon test: W = 25, p = 0.008).

Mutual Information Between Participants

An important measure of a brain-to-brain interface is the mutual information (MI)17 transmitted between subjects, which is defined as:[Math Processing Error]MI(R,S)=∑r∈{0,1}∑s∈{0,1}pR,S(r,s)logpR,S(r,s)pR(r)pS(s)

where r represents a decision made by the Receiver (0 or 1 corresponding to “do not rotate” or “rotate”), s represents a decision made by one of the Senders, pR(r) represents the probability of the Receiver making the decision rpS(s) represents the probability of one of the Senders making the decision s, and pR,S(r,s) represents the joint probability of the Receiver making the decision r and a Sender making the decision s. Note that, in this case, chance performance corresponds to MI = 0.0 while perfect communication corresponds to MI = 1.0. Because mutual information values are also constrained between 0 and 1 and, therefore, are not normally distributed, we analyzed them using the statistical methods we applied to the AUC values (i.e., t-test on angular transformed data and Wilcoxon test with continuity correction).

Due to our experimental design, we expect significantly higher MI values (i.e., larger amounts of information being transferred) between a good Sender and the Receiver than between a bad Sender and the Receiver. This is corroborated by our results (Fig. 6).

figure6
Figure 6

The information transmitted was significantly greater than the MI for chance performance for both the good Senders (MI = 0.336, t-test on angular transformed data: t(4) = 5.374, p = 0.006; Wilcoxon test: V = 15, p = 0.031) and the bad Senders (MI = 0.051; t-test on angular transformed data: t(4) = 3.544, p = 0.024; Wilcoxon test: V = 15, p = 0.031). The difference between good and bad Senders was also statistically significant (two-sided t-test on angular transformed data, t(8) = 5.187, p = 0.002; Wilcoxon test: W = 0, p = 0.031), with the good Senders transmitting, on average, more information than the bad Senders.

For consistency with previous studies1,5,6, we have reported uncorrected estimates of MI. Given the relatively small number of samples, uncorrected MI values might overestimate the true amount of information shared by two participants. For this reason, we used a recently proposed method18 to calculate the amount of bias in our estimates. Under the conditions of our experiment, the bias b can be approximated as b = −NR/[2 × NS × log(2)], with NR being the number of possible responses (in our case, NR = 2) and NS the number of samples (in our case, NS = 32 for each pair of participants). The bias thus estimated was found to be negligible (b = −0.045) and does not affect the results of any of our statistical tests.

Learning of Sender Reliability by Receiver

The differences in accuracy and mutual information between the “good” and “bad” Senders in the previous section suggest that the Receiver successfully learned which of the two Senders is a more reliable source of information. Confirming that this is indeed the case would bring BrainNet a step closer to conventional social networks where users utilize differential weighting for different sources of information. To further investigate this issue, we divided each experimental session into four consecutive blocks of four trials each. We quantified the time course of the Receiver’s learning process using two measures: (1) block-by-block estimates of the linear regression weights for the Receiver’s decisions versus each Sender’s decisions; and (2) the block-by-block correlation of decisions made by the Receiver and by each Sender1. Because of the small number of trials (N = 4) in each block, the decision vectors for Senders and Receivers were created by concatenating the decisions of participants with the same role (Receiver, good Sender, or bad Sender) across the five triads; this procedure captures group-level behavior and is less sensitive to outliers. Thus, if [Math Processing Error]R∈R20×1 is a decision vector for the five Receivers in a four-trial block (each decision is encoded as a 0 or 1), and [Math Processing Error]S∈R20×1 is a decision vector for one type of Sender (“good” or “bad”), the linear regression weights β can be estimated using the standard pseudoinverse method19 as: β = (STS)−1STR. The same concatenated vectors R and S were also used to estimate the Pearson correlation coefficients for each four-trial block.

As shown in Fig. 7, the time course of both the beta weights and correlation coefficients show a steep ascending trend for the good Sender, but not for the bad Sender. To test the difference between these trends, we estimated two simple linear trend models of the relationship between each measure and the block number, one for the good Sender and one for the bad Sender. The difference between the linear trend model’s slope coefficients βg and βb for the good and bad Senders respectively was then tested for statistical significance using the formula derived by Paternoster and colleagues20:[Math Processing Error]Z=βg−βbSEβg2+SEβb2

where [Math Processing Error]SEβg2 and [Math Processing Error]SEβb2 are the variances of βg and βb, respectively. The difference in linear trends was statistically significant for both measures (beta weight measure: Z = 5.87, p < 0.001; correlation coefficient measure: Z = 7.31, p < 0.001). These results strongly suggest that Receivers were able to learn which Sender was more reliable during the course of their brain-to-brain interactions with the two Senders.

figure7
Figure 7

Discussion

This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first successful demonstration of multi-person non-invasive direct brain-to-brain interactions for collaboratively solving a task. We believe our brain-to-brain interface, which we call BrainNet, improves upon previous human brain-to-brain interfaces (BBIs) on three fronts: (1) BrainNet expands the scale of BBIs to multiple human subjects working collaboratively to solve a task. (2) BrainNet is the first BBI to combine brain recording (EEG) and brain stimulation (TMS) in a single human subject, eliminating the need to use any physical movements to convey information (although we did not explicitly instruct subjects to avoid eye movements when using the SSVEP interface, other researchers have shown that an SSVEP BCI can be operated without eye movements21,22). With sufficient hardware, our system can be scaled to the case where every subject can both send and receive information using the brain interface. (3) Using only the information delivered by BrainNet, Receivers are able to learn the reliability of information conveyed to their brains by other subjects and choose the more reliable sender. This makes the information exchange mediated by BrainNet similar to real-life social communication, bringing us a step closer to a “social network of brains.”

Our results on combining information from multiple users builds on previous work in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) linking the individual contributions of more than two brains to control a computer. In humans, researchers have studied “collaborative BCIs” (rather than BBIs) that pool information from multiple human brains to improve performance in a delayed saccade-or-reach task23; however, subjects performed the task on different days and no brain stimulation was used to convey information directly to subjects’ brains. A different study12 demonstrated that three non-human primates can jointly control a 3D virtual avatar arm using brain signals recorded with invasive electrodes implanted in the motor cortex; again, the goal was distributing a single task across multiple individuals linked to a common BCI without encoding any neural information for feedback and interaction via stimulation. More closely related to our study is the work of Pais-Vieira et al.24, who used implanted electrodes to both decode information from and transmit information to the somatosensory cortices of multiple rodents to demonstrate the possibility of distributing computations across multiple brains. The brains of the rats were linked to solve several computational problems including a weather forecasting task based on weather data from a local airport. However, the animals were entirely unaware of both the actual task being solved and of their collaboration with others; by contrast, in BrainNet, the participants are completely aware of the task and are conscious of being collaborators within a “network of brains.”

BrainNet could be improved in several ways: (1) From the first human BBI1 to BrainNet, the level of information complexity has remained binary, i.e., only a bit of information is transmitted during each iteration of communication. Additionally, this low bit rate required a disproportionate amount of technical hardware and setup. To address the limitation of low bit rate, we are currently exploring the use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to increase the bandwidth of human BBIs. Other approaches worth exploring include combining EEG and fMRI to achieve both high spatial and temporal resolution25 for decoding, and using TMS to stimulate higher-order cortical areas to deliver more complex information such as semantic concepts. (2) We purposefully introduced a “bad” sender in BrainNet design to study whether the Receiver can learn which Sender is more reliable. It would be interesting to investigate whether the Receiver can learn the reliability of Senders in more natural scenarios where the unreliability originates from the noisy nature of a Sender’s brain recordings or from a Sender’s lack of knowledge, diminished attention, or even malicious intent. (3) From an implementation standpoint, BrainNet uses a typical server-client TCP protocol to transmit information between computers. However, the server is solely designed for BrainNet’s experimental task and is not a general-purpose server. A cloud-based BBI server could direct information transmission between any set of devices on the BBI network and make it globally operable through the Internet, thereby allowing cloud-based interactions between brains on a global scale. Such BBIs, when developed within an ethically-grounded framework, have the potential to not only open new frontiers in human communication and collaboration but also provide a new scientific tool to explore questions in neuroscience and gain a deeper understanding of the human brain.

Methods

Participants

Fifteen healthy participants (aged 18–35 yrs, average 22.7 yrs, eight female), took part in a controlled laboratory experiment. All participants were recruited through word of mouth, were fully informed about the experimental procedure and its potential risks and benefits, and gave written consent prior to the beginning of the experiment according to the guidelines put forth by the University of Washington. Both the experimental and the recruitment procedures were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Washington (IRB Application #52392). The participants were divided into five groups, with each group being a triad of one participant playing the role of the “Receiver” and two playing the roles of “Senders.” To maintain their decision to participate free of any external influence, all participants received monetary compensation that was independent of their role and proportional to the total amount of time devoted to the study.

Experimental Task

During each session, a triad of three participants collaborated to play a simplified Tetris-like game. The game consisted of independent trials, each of which involved deciding whether or not to rotate a single block of a particular shape by 180 degrees. At the bottom of the screen, there was a partially filled line whose gaps could be filled by either the top or bottom part of the block at the top of screen. The goal of the game was to achieve the highest possible score by making the correct decision to rotate or not rotate the current block so that when dropped at the end of the trial, it would fill the missing parts of the line at the bottom. We designed the task such that the actual player of the game, namely the Receiver, could only see the block at the top of screen and not the bottom line. The other two subjects, namely the Senders, could see both the block at top and the line at bottom (see Fig. 2). Thus, the only way for the Receiver to achieve a high score was by integrating the decisions transmitted by both Senders and make his/her own decision for the game.

Each session was made of sixteen independent trials; in half of them the falling block had to be rotated and in the other half, it had to be left in the original orientation. The order of rotation and non-rotation trials was randomized, with the constraint that each half of the session had to contain 4 rotation and 4 non-rotation trials.

Each trial comprised of two rounds of interactions between the Senders and the Receiver. Each round offered a chance to rotate the block. After the first round, the block was rotated or remained in the same orientation based on Receiver’s decision. The block then dropped halfway and the screens shown to all three subjects were updated to show the (possibly rotated) block at the halfway location (see Fig. 2). Note that one decision is sufficient to complete the task of filling the bottom line but because of our two-step design, the Senders receive feedback on the Receiver’s action in the first round and can send the Receiver new suggestons, allowing the Receiver to potentially correct a mistake made in the first round and still successfully complete a trial.

The three participants in a triad were located in different rooms in the same building on the University of Washington campus and could only communicate with each other through the brain-to-brain interface.

BrainNet: Multi-Person Brain-to-Brain Interface

Figure 1 depicts the architecture of BrainNet. BrainNet relies on two well-known technologies: Electroencephalography (EEG)26 for non-invasively recording brain signals from the scalp and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)27 for non-invasively stimulating the visual cortex. The Senders convey their decisions of “rotate” or “do not rotate” by controlling a horizontally moving cursor (Fig. 8) using steady-state visually-evoked potentials (SSVEPs)28: to convey a “Rotate” decision, Senders focused their attention on a “Yes” LED light flashing at 17 Hz placed on the left side of their computer screen; to convey a “Do Not Rotate” decision, they focused on the “No” LED light flashing at 15 Hz placed on the right side. These LEDs are depicted as circles attached to the screens in Fig. 1. The cursor position provided real-time visual feedback to the Senders. The direction of movement of the cursor was determined by comparing the EEG power at 17 Hz versus 15 Hz, with a higher power at 17 Hz over that at 15 Hz moving the cursor towards the left side near the “Yes” LED, and vice-versa for the “No” LED. A “Rotate” (“Do Not Rotate”) decision was made when the cursor hit the side of the screen appropriately marked “YES” (“NO”) (see Fig. 8). In trials where the cursor did not reach either side of the screen due to trial time elapsing, the decision closest to the last location of the cursor was chosen as the subject’s decision.

figure8
Figure 8

The decisions of the two Senders were sent to the Receiver’s computer through a TCP/IP network and were further translated into two pulses of transcranial magentic stimulation (TMS) delivered sequentially to the occipital cortex of the Receiver. Each TMS pulse lasted 1 ms. An eight-second delay was enforced between the two pulses to remain within the strictest safety guidelines of TMS stimulation29. The intensity of the stimulation was set above or below the threshold at which the Receiver could perceive a flash of light known as a phosphene: a “Yes” response was translated to an intensity above the threshold, and “No” was translated to an intensity below the threshold. During each round of trials, the Receiver always received the decision from one Sender first, then the other. The screen the Receiver saw also had visual prompts to remind them whose decision the current TMS stimulation was conveying. Receivers made their decision based on whether a phosphene was perceived and conveyed their decision (rotate or do not rotate) to the game using the same SSVEP-based procedure used by both Senders. After the game state was updated, the trial moved into the second round and the above process was repeated. At the end of each trial, all three subjects received feedback on the result of the trial (Fig. 2, bottom row).

Differential Reliability of Senders

When the decisions from the two Senders do not agree with each other, the Receiver must decide which Sender to trust. To investigate whether the Receiver can learn the reliability of each Sender and choose the more reliable Sender for making decisions, we designed the system to deliberately make one of the Senders less accurate than the other. Specifically, for each session, one Sender was randomly chosen as the “Bad” Sender and, in 10 out of sixteen trials, this Sender’s decision when sent to the Receiver was forced to be incorrect, both in the first and second round of each trial.

EEG Procedure for Senders

Each Sender performed the task in a dedicated room in front of a 21” LCD monitor, with two Arduino-controlled LED lights attached to the left and right outer frames of the monitor for eliciting SSVEPs. EEG signals were recorded through an 8-channel OpenBCI Cyton system (OpenBCI: Brooklyn, NY) with a sampling rate of 250 Hz at a resolution of 16 bits. Signals were acquired from gold-plated electrodes and a layer of electro-conductive paste was applied between each electrode and the participant’s scalp. For the experimental session, three electrodes were set up along the midline in a custom montage with the signal recorded from one occipital electrode (location Oz in the 10–10 placement system) and two frontal electrodes (locations AFz and FCz in the 10–10 system) used as the ground and reference, respectively.

Incoming EEG data was passed through a 4th-order Butterworth filter30 between 0 and 30 Hz to remove signal drifting and line noise. The time-series EEG data was then divided into 1-second epochs and transformed to the frequency domain using Welch’s method31. The intention to rotate the falling block or not was decoded by comparing the power at 17 Hz and 15 Hz obtained from Welch’s method. The final decision was made by tallying up the number of epochs in which the greatest power was recorded at either 17 Hz or 15 Hz over a 10-second period. Signal processing and data storage were managed through a custom software library developed by two of the authors (LJ and DL).

There is no prior training required for controlling the cursor using SSVEPs. During the experiment, the Sender’s monitor displays either the cursor-control interface or a gray background with a text prompt indicating that the Receiver is making a decision.

TMS Procedure for the Receiver

Participants playing the role of the Receiver came in for two consecutive sessions. During the first session, as part of informed consent, they were asked to complete a TMS safety screening questionnaire, aimed at identifying potential conditions (such as family history of seizures or frequent migraines) that might represent potential risk factors for adverse side effects of TMS. No participant was rejected for failing the safety questionnaire. In addition to the safety screening, all Receivers underwent a procedure to determine their absolute phosphene threshold, that is, the minimum amount of stimulation necessary to elicit the perception of an induced phosphene 50% of the time. The absolute threshold was assessed using the PEST method32. The absolute threshold was then used as the starting point to identify the stimulation levels associated with the binary “Rotate” and “Do Not Rotate” decisions. Starting from the absolute threshold, the stimulation intensity was first adjusted upwards in increments of 5% until phosphenes could be elicited for 10 consecutive pulses; this value was then used for conveying a “Rotate” decision from a Sender. Then, starting from the absolute threshold value, the stimulation intensity was lowered in 5% increments until no phosphene was elicited for 10 consecutive pulses. This value was then used to convey a “Do Not Rotate” decision from a Sender. During both the testing session and the experimental session, TMS was delivered through a 70-mm Figure-8 Alpha coil (Magstim, UK) positioned over the left occipital lobe in a location corresponding to site O1 in the 10–20 system. The coil was positioned flushed to the head, with the handle parallel to the ground and extending towards the left. The coil was attached to a SuperRapid2 magnetic stimulator (Magstim, UK). The maximum intensity of the electric field for our TMS equipment is 530 V/m, and with our coil, the maximum intensity of the induced magnetic field is 2.0 T.

EEG Procedure for the Receiver

The EEG procedure for the Receiver was identical to that used for the Senders, except that the signal was acquired from a BrainAmp system (BrainVision, Berlin, Germany) with a sampling rate of 5000 Hz and a resolution of 20 bits. The system was equipped with a DC voltage amplifier to reduce signal distortions due to the TMS pulses. Participants wore a standard 32-channel headcap, using AFz and FCz as the ground and reference, respectively. As in the case of the Senders, only data from the Oz channel was recorded. After downsampling to 500 Hz, the incoming data underwent the same preprocessing steps described above for the Senders.

Data Availability

Experiment data and code are available upon request.

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Acknowledgements

This work is made possible by a W.M. Keck Foundation Award to AS, CP, and RPNR, and a Levinson Emerging Scholars Award to LJ. RPNR was also supported by NSF grant no. EEC-1028725 and a CJ and Elizabeth Hwang Endowed Professorship. We thank Nolan Strait for software testing.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. University of Washington, Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
    • Linxing Jiang
    •  & Rajesh P. N. Rao
  2. University of Washington, Department of Psychology, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
    • Andrea Stocco
    • , Justin A. Abernethy
    •  & Chantel S. Prat
  3. University of Washington, Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
    • Andrea Stocco
    • , Justin A. Abernethy
    •  & Chantel S. Prat
  4. Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Machine Learning, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA
    • Darby M. Losey
  5. Carnegie Mellon University, Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA
    • Darby M. Losey
  6. University of Washington Institute for Neuroengineering, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
    • Andrea Stocco
    • , Chantel S. Prat
    •  & Rajesh P. N. Rao
  7. University of Washington, Center for Neurotechnology, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
    • Andrea Stocco
    • , Chantel S. Prat
    •  & Rajesh P. N. Rao

Contributions

R.P.N.R., A.S., C.P. conceived the experiment, L.J., J.A. conducted the experiment, L.J., D.L. implemented the software, L.J. and A.S. analyzed the results. All authors were involved in writing and reviewing the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rajesh P. N. Rao.

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Jiang, L., Stocco, A., Losey, D.M. et al. BrainNet: A Multi-Person Brain-to-Brain Interface for Direct Collaboration Between Brains. Sci Rep 9, 6115 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41895-7

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Brain Plasticity and Behaviour.

Abstract

Although the brain was once seen as a rather static organ, it is now clear that the organization of brain circuitry is constantly changing as a function of experience. These changes are referred to as brain plasticity, and they are associated with functional changes that include phenomena such as memory, addiction, and recovery of function. Recent research has shown that brain plasticity and behavior can be influenced by a myriad of factors, including both pre- and postnatal experience, drugs, hormones, maturation, aging, diet, disease, and stress. Understanding how these factors influence brain organization and function is important not only for understanding both normal and abnormal behavior, but also for designing treatments for behavioral and psychological disorders ranging from addiction to stroke.

Keywords

addiction; recovery; experience; brain plasticity

            One of the most intriguing questions in behavioral neuroscience concerns the manner in which the nervous system can modify its organization and ultimately its function throughout an individual’s lifetime, a property that is often referred to as plasticity. The capacity to change is a fundamental characteristic of nervous systems and can be seen in even the simplest of organisms, such as the tiny worm C. elegans,whose nervous system has only 302 cells. When the nervous system changes, there is often a correlated change in behavior or psychological function. This behavioral change is known by names such as learning, memory, addiction, maturation, and recovery. Thus, for example, when people learn new motor skills, such as in playing a musical instrument, there are plastic changes in the structure of cells in the nervous system that underlie the motor skills. If the plastic changes are somehow prevented from occurring, the motor learning does not occur. Although psychologists have assumed that the nervous system is especially sensitive to experience during development, it is only recently that they have begun to appreciate the potential for plastic changes in the adult brain. Understanding brain plasticity is obviously of considerable interest both because it provides a window to understanding the development of the brain and behavior and because it allows insight into the causes of normal and abnormal behavior. 

THE NATURE OF BRAIN PLASTICITY

The underlying assumption of studies of brain and behavioral plasticity is that if behavior changes, there must be some change in organization or properties of the neural circuitry that produces the behavior. Conversely, if neural networks are changed by experience, there must be some corresponding change in the functions mediated by those networks. For the investigator interested in understanding the factors that can change brain circuits, and ultimately behavior, a major challenge is to find and to quantify the changes. In principle, plastic changes in neuronal circuits are likely to reflect either modifications of existing circuits or the generation of new circuits. But how can researchers measure changes in neural circuitry? Because neural networks are composed of individual neurons, each of which connects with a subset of other neurons to form interconnected networks, the logical place to look for plastic changes is at the junctions between neurons, that is, at synapses. However, it is a daunting task to determine if synapses have been added or lost in a particular region, given that the human brain has something like 100 billion neurons and each neuron makes on average several thousand synapses. It is clearly impractical to scan the brain looking for altered synapses, so a small subset must be identified and examined in detail. But which synapses should be studied? Given that neuroscientists have a pretty good idea of what regions of the brain are involved in particular behaviors, they can narrow their search to the likely areas, but are still left with an extraordinarily complex system to examine. There is, however, a procedure that makes the job easier.

In the late 1800s, Camillo Golgi invented a technique for staining a random subset of neurons (1-5%) so that the cell bodies and the dendritic trees of individual cells can be visualized (Fig. 1). The dendrites of a cell function as the scaffolding for synapses, much as tree branches provide a location for leaves to grow and be exposed to sunlight. The usefulness of Golgi’s technique can be understood by pursuing this arboreal metaphor. There are a number of ways one could estimate how many leaves are on a tree without counting every leaf. Thus, one could measure the total length of the tree’s branches as well as the density of the leaves on a representative branch. Then, by simply multiplying branch length by leaf density, one could estimate total leafage. A similar procedure is used to estimate synapse number. About 95% of a cell’s synapses are on its dendrites (the neuron’s branches). Furthermore, there is a roughly linear relationship between the space available for synapses (dendritic surface) and the number of synapses, so researchers can presume that increases or decreases in dendritic surface reflect changes in synaptic organization. 

FACTORS AFFECTING BRAIN PLASTICITY

By using Golgi-staining procedures, various investigators have shown that housing animals in complex versus simple environments produces widespread differences in the number of synapses in specific brain regions. In general, such experiments show that particular experiences embellish circuitry, whereas the absence of those experiences fails to do so (e.g., Greenough & Chang, 1989). Until recently, the impact of these neuropsychological experiments was surprisingly limited, in part because the environmental treatments were perceived as extreme and thus not characteristic of events experienced by the normal brain. It has become clear, however, not only that synaptic organization is changed by experience, but also that the scope of factors that can do this is much more extensive than anyone had anticipated. Factors that are now known to affect neuronal structure and behavior include the following:

§         experience (both pre- and postnatal)

§         psychoactive drugs (e.g., amphetamine, morphine)

§         gonadal hormones (e.g., estrogen, testosterone)

§         anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., COX-2 inhibitors)

§         growth factors (e.g., nerve growth factor)

§         dietary factors (e.g., vitamin and mineral supplements)

§         genetic factors (e.g., strain differences, genetically modified mice)

§         disease (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, epilepsy, stroke)

  • stress
  • brain injury and disease

We discuss two examples to illustrate.

Early Experience

            It is generally assumed that experiences early in life have different effects on behavior than similar experiences later in life. The reason for this difference is not understood, however. To investigate this question, we placed animals in complex environments either as juveniles, in adulthood, or in senescence (Kolb, Gibb, & Gorny, 2003). It was our expectation that there would be quantitative differences in the effects of experience on synaptic organization, but to our surprise, we also found qualitativedifferences. Thus, like many investigators before us, we found that the length of dendrites and the density of synapses were increased in neurons in the motor and sensory cortical regions in adult and aged animals housed in a complex environment (relative to a standard lab cage). In contrast, animals placed in the same environment as juveniles showed an increase in dendritic length but a decrease in spine density. In other words, the same environmental manipulation had qualitatively different effects on the organization of neuronal circuitry in juveniles than in adults. 

To pursue this finding, we later gave infant animals 45 min of daily tactile stimulation with a little paintbrush (15 min three times per day) for the first 3 weeks of life. Our behavioral studies showed that this seemingly benign early experience enhanced motor and cognitive skills in adulthood. The anatomical studies showed, in addition, that in these animals there was a decrease in spine density but no change in dendritic length in cortical neurons; yet another pattern of experience-dependent neuronal change. (Parallel studies have shown other changes, too, including neurochemical changes, but these are beyond the current discussion.) Armed with these findings, we then asked whether prenatal experience might also change the structure of the brain months later in adulthood. Indeed, it does. For example, the offspring of a rat housed in a complex environment during the term of her pregnancy have increased synaptic space on neurons in the cerebral cortex in adulthood. Although we do not know how prenatal experiences alter the brain, it seems likely that some chemical response by the mother, be it hormonal or otherwise, can cross the placental barrier and alter the genetic signals in the developing brain.          

Our studies showing that experience can uniquely affect the developing brain led us to wonder if the injured infant brain might be repaired by environmental treatments. We were not surprised to find that postinjury experience, such as tactile stroking, could modify both brain plasticity and behavior because we had come to believe that such experiences were powerful modulators of brain development (Kolb, Gibb, & Gorny, 2000). What was surprising, however, was that prenatal experience, such as housing the pregnant mother in a complex environment, could affect how the brain responded to an injury that it would not receive until after birth. In other words, prenatal experience altered the brain’s response to injury later in life. This type of study has profound implications for preemptive treatments of children at risk for a variety of neurological disorders.

Psychoactive Drugs

            Many people who take stimulant drugs like nicotine, amphetamine, or cocaine do so for their potent psychoactive effects. The long-term behavioral consequences of abusing such psychoactive drugs are now well documented, but much less is known about how repeated exposure to these drugs alters the nervous system. One experimental demonstration of a very persistent form of drug experience-dependent plasticity is known as behavioral sensitization. For example, if a rat is given a small dose of amphetamine, it initially will show a small increase in motor activity (e.g., locomotion, rearing). When the rat is given the same dose on subsequent occasions, however, the increase in motor activity increases, or sensitizes, and the animal may remain sensitized for weeks, months, or even years, even if drug treatment is discontinued.

            Changes in behavior that occur as a consequence of past experience, and can persist for months or years, like memories, are thought to be due to changes in patterns of synaptic organization. The parallels between drug-induced sensitization and memory led us to ask whether the neurons of animals sensitized to drugs of abuse exhibit long-lasting changes similar to those associated with memory (e.g., Robinson & Kolb, 1999). A comparison of the effects of amphetamine and saline treatments on the structure of neurons in a brain region known as the nucleus accumbens, which mediates the psychomotor activating effects of amphetamine, showed that neurons in the amphetamine-treated brains had greater dendritic material, as well as more densely organized spines . These plastic changes were not found throughout the brain, however, but rather were localized to regions such as the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, both of which are thought to play a role in the rewarding properties of these drugs. Later studies have shown that these drug-induced changes are found not only when animals are given injections by an experimenter, but also when animals are trained to self-administer drugs, leading us to speculate that similar changes in synaptic organization be found in human drug addicts.

Other Factors

All of the factors outlined in Table 1 have effects that are conceptually similar to the two examples that we just discussed. For instance, brain injury disrupts the synaptic organization of the brain, and when there is functional improvement after the injury, there is a correlated reorganization of neural circuits (e.g., Kolb, 1995). But not all factors act the same way across the brain. For instance, estrogen stimulates synapse formation in some structures but reduces synapse number in other structures (e.g., Kolb, Forgie, Gibb, Gorny, & Rowntree, 1998), a pattern of change that can also be seen with some psychoactive drugs, such as morphine. In sum, it now appears that virtually any manipulation that produces an enduring change in behavior leaves an anatomical footprint in the brain.

CONCLUSIONS AND ISSUES

There are several conclusions to draw from our studies. First, experience alters the brain, and it does so in an age-related manner. Second, both pre- and postnatal experience have such effects, and these effects are long-lasting and can influence not only brain structure but also adult behavior. Third, seemingly similar experiences can alter neuronal circuits in different ways, although each of the alterations is manifest in behavioral change. Fourth, a variety of behavioral conditions, ranging from addiction to neurological and psychiatric disorders, are correlated with localized changes in neural circuits. Finally, therapies that are intended to alter behavior, such as treatment for addiction, stroke, or schizophrenia, are likely to be most effective if they are able to further reorganize relevant brain circuitry. Furthermore, studies of neuronal structure provide a simple method of screening for treatments that are likely to be effective in treating disorders such as dementia. Indeed, our studies show that the new generation of antiarthritic drugs (known as COX-2 inhibitors), which act to reduce inflammation, can reverse age-related synaptic loss and thus ought to be considered as useful treatments for age-related cognitive loss.

            Although much is now known about brain plasticity and behavior, many theoretical issues remain. Knowing that a wide variety of experiences and agents can alter synaptic organization and behavior is important, but leads to a new question: How does this happen? This is not an easy question to answer, and it is certain that there is more than one answer. We provide a single example to illustrate.

            Neurotrophic factors are a class of chemicals that are known to affect synaptic organization. An example is fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The production of FGF-2 is increased by various experiences, such as complex housing and tactile stroking, as well as by drugs such as amphetamine. Thus, it is possible that experience stimulates the production of FGF-2 and this, in turn, increases synapse production. But again, the question is how. One hypothesis is that FGF-2 somehow alters the way different genes are expressed by specific neurons and this, in turn, affects the way synapses are generated or lost. In other words, factors that alter behavior, including experience, can do so by altering gene expression, a result that renders the traditional gene-versus-environment discussions meaningless.

            Other issues revolve around the limits and permanence of plastic changes. After all, people encounter and learn new information daily. Is there some limit to how much cells can change? It seems unlikely that cells could continue to enlarge and add synapses indefinitely, but what controls this? We saw in our studies of experience-dependent changes in infants, juveniles, and adults that experience both adds and prunes synapses, but what are the rules governing when one or the other might occur? This question leads to another, which is whether plastic changes in response to different experiences might interact. For example, does exposure to a drug like nicotine affect how the brain changes in learning a motor skill like playing the piano? Consider, too, the issue of the permanence of plastic changes. If a person stops smoking, how long do the nicotine-induced plastic changes persist, and do they affect later changes? 

One additional issue surrounds the role of plastic changes in disordered behavior. Thus, although most studies of plasticity imply that remodeling neural circuitry is a good thing, it is reasonable to wonder if plastic changes might also be the basis of pathological behavior. Less is known about this possibility, but it does seem likely. For example, drug addicts often show cognitive deficits, and it seems reasonable to propose that at least some of these deficits could arise from abnormal circuitry, especially in the frontal lobe.

            In sum, the structure of the brain is constantly changing in response to an unexpectedly wide range of experiential factors. Understanding how the brain changes and the rules governing these changes is important not only for understanding both normal and abnormal behavior, but also for designing treatments for behavioral and psychological disorders ranging from addiction to stroke.Posted byMuneer BanooriPosted inneuroscienceLeave a commenton Brain Plasticity and Behaviour.

Neural effects of acute stress on appetite.

Summary: Acute stress suppresses appetite, and the suppression is associated with alterations in neural activity in the frontal pole.

Source: Osaka City University

Stress is prevalent in modern society and can affect human health through its effects on appetite. However, knowledge about the neural mechanisms related to the alteration of the subjective level of appetite caused by acute stress in humans remains limited. We focused on the effects of stress caused by expecting critical personal events such as school examinations and public speaking engagements on appetite and aimed to clarify the neural mechanisms by which acute stress affects appetite in healthy, non-obese males during fasting.

In total, 22 fasted male volunteers participated in two experiments (stress and control conditions) on different days. The participants performed a stress-inducing speech-and-mental-arithmetic task under both conditions, and then viewed images of food, during which, their neural activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the stress condition, the participants were told to perform the speech-and-mental-arithmetic task again subsequently to viewing the food images; however, another speech-and-mental-arithmetic task was not performed actually. Subjective levels of stress and appetite were then assessed using a visual analog scale. Electrocardiography was performed to assess the index of heart rate variability reflecting sympathetic nerve activity.

The findings showed that subjective levels of stress and sympathetic nerve activity were increased during the MEG recording in the stress condition, whereas appetite gradually increased during the MEG recording only in the control condition.

The findings showed that subjective levels of stress and sympathetic nerve activity were increased during the MEG recording in the stress condition, whereas appetite gradually increased during the MEG recording only in the control condition. The decrease in alpha (8-13 Hz) band power in the frontal pole caused by viewing the food images was greater in the stress condition than in the control condition, suggesting that the acute stress can suppress the increase of appetite and this suppression is associated with the alteration of the neural activity in the frontal pole.

Since it has been reported that the frontal pole is involved in the thinking and planning of future actions and the cognitive control of appetite, it is speculated that the participants’ expectations of the forthcoming speech-and-mental-arithmetic task in our present study activated the frontal pole for the thinking and planning of future actions and this activation of the frontal pole might have interfered with the regulatory processes related to appetite that were also subserved by the frontal pole, resulting in the suppression of appetite under the stress caused in our experiment. These findings will provide valuable clues to gain a further understanding of the neural mechanisms by which acute stress affects appetite, and could contribute to the development of methods to prevent and reduce the adverse effects on health caused by stress.
Posted byMuneer BanooriPosted inneuroscienceLeave a commenton Neural effects of acute stress on appetite.

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February 2 at 2:42 PM · 

We have created “Neuroscience Discussion” group. You are requested to please join this group and invite your friends too.
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Yesterday at 10:09 AM · High Functioning TBI Suvivors.Like PageYesterday at 9:39 AM · 

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Yesterday at 8:27 AM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 12 at 11:32 PM · 

4 Psychology facts YOU SHOULD KNOW 🤓👇

1️⃣. According to the research, good relationships are more vital to a long life than exercise.

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February 13 at 3:02 AM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 13 at 2:55 AM · 

Memory exercise that will DEFINITELY help you remember more ))

This is actually a very simple exercise during which you should also listen to the audio of the t…See More991 Comment1 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 13 at 2:52 AM · Play-6:42Additional Visual SettingsEnter Watch And ScrollClick to enlargeUnmute55,438 ViewsABC ScienceLike PageFebruary 12 at 2:00 AM · 

How does the brain forget? A new study reveals how “microglia” gobble up mouse memories.Watch together with friends or with a groupStart11Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 13 at 2:50 AM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 12 at 7:21 AM · 

The Brain and the Arts ))

One of the most interesting branches of cognitive neuroscience is neuroesthetics.

It studies the biological mechanisms and psycholog…See More11Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 12 at 8:49 PM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 12 at 10:44 AM · 

Did you know? The eyes can measure hearing.

Summary: Eye-tracking and pupil dilation may be a new way to measure a person’s hearing ability.
Source: University …See More22Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 12 at 1:18 AM · You may not have heard of taijin-kyofusho, but you might have felt it.About this websiteINVERSE.COMBrain scan study links social anxiety to an empathy “imbalance”You may not have heard of taijin-kyofusho, but you might have felt it.You may not have heard of taijin-kyofusho, but you might have felt it.10103 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 11 at 6:37 PM · 

What’s the most transformative thing that you can do for your brain today? Exercise! says neuroscientist Wendy Suzuki. Get inspired to go to the gym as Suzuki discusses the science of how working out boosts your mood and memory — and protects your brain against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s

Published on Mar 21, 2018What’s the most transformative thing that you can do for your brain today? Exercise! says neuroscientist Wendy Suzuki. Get inspired to go to the gym as Suzuk…About this websiteYOUTUBE.COMThe brain-changing benefits of exercise | Wendy SuzukiWhat’s the most transformative thing that you can do for your brain today? Exercise! says neuroscientist Wendy Suzuki. Get inspired to go to the gym as Suzuk…What’s the most transformative thing that you can do for your brain today? Exercise! says neuroscientist Wendy Suzuki. Get inspired to go to the gym as Suzuk…12126 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 11 at 11:03 AM · 

Another amazing achievement of science improving quality of life!Thanks to an experimental new brain implant, a blind woman gets her first glimpse of lights, shapes, and people in 15 years.About this websiteSINGULARITYHUB.COMBlind Woman Sees With New Implant, Plays Video Game Sent Straight to Her BrainThanks to an experimental new brain implant, a blind woman gets her first glimpse of lights, shapes, and people in 15 years.Thanks to an experimental new brain implant, a blind woman gets her first glimpse of lights, shapes, and people in 15 years.15155 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 11 at 10:56 AM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 11 at 10:42 AM · 

Hallucinations underlie many neurological conditions, drug-induced or otherwise. Narcolepsy, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease are all associated with mome…See More33Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 11 at 9:33 AM · ‎Neuroscience News‎ toNeuroscience NewsFebruary 10 at 4:11 PM · Having a parent with an alcohol use disorder affects how your brain transitions between active and resting states, regardless of your own drinking habits.NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COMAlcoholism in the family affects how your brain switches between active and resting states – Neuroscience NewsHaving a parent with an alcohol use disorder affects how your brain transitions between active and resting states, regardless of your own drinking habits.Having a parent with an alcohol use disorder affects how your brain transitions between active and resting states, regardless of your own drinking habits.11Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 10 at 8:38 AM · 

Neuroscience changing lives!!!

🧠”Instead of just crime and punishment, we should be thinking about crime, evaluation and treatment”
(…)
“So after 22 years and 83,000 scans, the single most important lesson my colleagues and I have learned is that you can literally change people’s brains, 💝and when you do, you change their life.💖…See MoreNever miss a talk! SUBSCRIBE to the TEDx channel: http://bit.ly/1FAg8hB In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized ev…About this websiteYOUTUBE.COMThe most important lesson from 83,000 brain scans | Daniel Amen | TEDxOrangeCoastNever miss a talk! SUBSCRIBE to the TEDx channel: http://bit.ly/1FAg8hB In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized ev…Never miss a talk! SUBSCRIBE to the TEDx channel: http://bit.ly/1FAg8hB In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized ev…21You and 20 others11 Comments7 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 10 at 4:23 AM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 9 at 8:58 AM · 

A new study offer clues on how we forget.

#Neuroscience
https://www.sciencenews.org/…/brain-microglia-memories-forg…Immune cells that eliminate connections between nerve cells may be one way that the brain forgets.About this websiteSCIENCENEWS.ORGBrain cells called microglia eat away mice’s memoriesImmune cells that eliminate connections between nerve cells may be one way that the brain forgets.Immune cells that eliminate connections between nerve cells may be one way that the brain forgets.11Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 10 at 4:22 AM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 9 at 8:23 AM · 

Jackie Micallef
Everybody cries. Unfortunately, many of us were raised in a society that regarded it as a sign of weakness. Boys were told not to cry to look to…See More661 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 9 at 9:00 PM · 

Infographic : Brain Aneurysm

A brain aneurysm is a bulge that forms in the brain’s blood vessel that could lead to severe health issues and possibly death.

Source: Small Pocket Library …See MoreInfographic : Brain AneurysmSMALLPOCKETLIBRARY.COMInfographic : Brain AneurysmInfographic : Brain AneurysmInfographic : Brain Aneurysm16You and 15 others4 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 9 at 7:03 PM · 

“We all know taking away screens and reading to our children during their formative years is the best thing for their brains. Now, there is new incredible science to back it up. We asked Jessica Ewing, CEO of subscription book club Literati and graduate of Stanford University in Cognitive Science, every question we could think of about kids, brains, and books.”

https://news.paperlanternpublishinggroup.com/brain-on-boo…/…The latest science, as explored by Literati CEO Jessica Ewing.NEWS.PAPERLANTERNPUBLISHINGGROUP.COMThis is Your Child’s Brain on BooksThe latest science, as explored by Literati CEO Jessica Ewing.The latest science, as explored by Literati CEO Jessica Ewing.16161 Comment4 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science — feeling positive.

February 9 at 9:48 AM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 9 at 7:36 AM · 

The little Brain with big potential.
————————————————-

Until recently, the cerebellum, often referred to as “the little brain,” was thought to regulate motor mo…See More551 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 9 at 9:46 AM · Neuro+science NewsFebruary 9 at 4:28 AM · 

The aging brain 🧠. See how Brain ages as we grow older. You see it Mil AN
————
Infographic.
#Neuroscience #Neurons #Braincells
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February 9 at 4:30 AM · 

Very Interesting!

Thermodynamic theory of Brain aims to understand consciousness.

#NeuroscienceSee MoreA new theory, inspired by thermodynamics, aims to understand how neural networks in the brain transiently organize to give rise to memories, thought and consciousness.About this websiteTECHNOLOGYNETWORKS.COMThermodynamic Theory of the Brain Aims To Understand ConsciousnessA new theory, inspired by thermodynamics, aims to understand how neural networks in the brain transiently organize to give rise to memories, thought and consciousness.A new theory, inspired by thermodynamics, aims to understand how neural networks in the brain transiently organize to give rise to memories, thought and consciousness.11Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 8 at 8:14 PM · 

The lookalike of brain is very instrumental.

https://neuros0.wordpress.com/…/walnuts-may-slow-cognitive…/Click here: Neurobiology books. Summary: Adding walnuts to your diet could help protect against age-related cognitive decline, a new study reports. Walnuts contain polyphenols and omega-3 fatty aci…About this websiteNEUROS0.WORDPRESS.COMWalnuts may slow cognitive decline in at-risk elderly.Click here: Neurobiology books. Summary: Adding walnuts to your diet could help protect against age-related cognitive decline, a new study reports. Walnuts contain polyphenols and omega-3 fatty aci…Click here: Neurobiology books. Summary: Adding walnuts to your diet could help protect against age-related cognitive decline, a new study reports. Walnuts contain polyphenols and omega-3 fatty aci…22You and 21 others4 Comments2 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science is feeling proud.

February 8 at 7:46 PM · 

Infographic : Concept Map , Synapse

Source: Small Pocket Library

#neuroscience #brain #neurons #synapses #neurophysiology #neuropsychology #psychologyInfographic : Concept Map , SynapseSMALLPOCKETLIBRARY.COMInfographic : Concept Map , SynapseInfographic : Concept Map , SynapseInfographic : Concept Map , Synapse25You and 24 others1 Comment7 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

February 8 at 11:46 AM · 

Brain tissue stiffness is crucial for neurogenesis.

Summary: Researchers define the proteome of neural stem cell niches & entire set of expressed protiens. The findings shed light on key regulators of neurogenesis.

https://neurosciencenews.com/neurogenesis-brain-tissue-sti…/Researchers define the proteome of neural stem cell niches and the entire set of expressed proteins. The findings shed light on key regulators of neurogenesis.NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COMBrain tissue stiffness is crucial for neurogenesis – Neuroscience NewsResearchers define the proteome of neural stem cell niches and the entire set of expressed proteins. The findings shed light on key regulators of neurogenesis.Researchers define the proteome of neural stem cell niches and the entire set of expressed proteins. The findings shed light on key regulators of neurogenesis.7You and 6 othersRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 8 at 12:00 AM · 

Computer simulation for understanding brain cancer growth

NEUROSCIENCE NEWS FEBRUARY 7, 2020

Summary: A new, freely available computer platform creates a 3D model that brings together the macroscopic scale of tissue with the microscopic scale of individual cells. This allows the platform to realistically model brain cancer’s mechanobiology while maintaining resolution power….See MoreA new, freely available computer platform creates a 3D model that brings together the macroscopic scale of tissue with the microscopic scale of individual cells. This allows the platform to realistically model brain cancer’s mechanobiology while maintaining resolution power.NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COMComputer simulation for understanding brain cancer growth – Neuroscience NewsA new, freely available computer platform creates a 3D model that brings together the macroscopic scale of tissue with the microscopic scale of individual cells. This allows the platform to realistically model brain cancer’s mechanobiology while maintaining resolution power.A new, freely available computer platform creates a 3D model that brings together the macroscopic scale of tissue with the microscopic scale of individual cells. This allows the platform to realistically model brain cancer’s mechanobiology while maintaining resolution power.11You and 10 others3 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 7 at 4:00 PM · 

Infographic : The Anatomy of Emotions

Source: Small Pocket Library

The Human Nervous System is such a perfect machine, don’t you think so?34You and 33 others5 Comments15 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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  • Frederico Correia Beautiful but far from perfect. We should be immune to stress. Stress eats the brain, the hippocampus specifically by high chronic cortisol release.2Hide or report thisView 1 more reply
    • AuthorNeuro+science Frederico Correia Interesting colocation! I’m just wondering that if stress is a natural reaction triggered by the necessity of fighting or fleeing, which is highly related to survival instinct, being totally immune to stress could possibly cause this mechanism to stop working properly. But it’s just a speculation, though.1Hide or report this
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Neuro+science is feeling curious.

February 7 at 9:16 AM · 

The Brain and Science of Emotions

In this article there are a selection of publications on the science of emotions

ّ…See MoreThe Brain and Science of EmotionsSMALLPOCKETLIBRARY.COMThe Brain and Science of EmotionsThe Brain and Science of EmotionsThe Brain and Science of Emotions18182 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 7 at 8:03 AM · 

🔖If you are a Psychologist looking for a book with great techniques related to Neurosciences, we highly recommend this one!!!
________________________________
🖋Description

🤓This book provides an overall grasp of the concepts of trauma, how it interacts with the brain, and the underlying reasons for healing. It introduces the parts of the technique that you can use by yourself to heal yourself. The book provides information about:…See MoreShared via Kindle. Description: This book provides an overall grasp of the concepts of trauma, how it interacts with the brain, and the underlying reasons for healing. It introduces the parts of the technique that you can use by yourself to heal yourself. T…LER.AMAZON.COM.BRBeyond the Trauma Vortex Into the Healing Vortex: A Guide for You (English Edition)Shared via Kindle. Description: This book provides an overall grasp of the concepts of trauma, how…Shared via Kindle. Description: This book provides an overall grasp of the concepts of trauma, how it interacts with the brain, and the underlying reasons for healing. It introduces the parts of the technique that you can use by yourself to heal yourself. T…77Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science is feeling curious.

February 7 at 4:00 AM · 

Metabolic rhythms: A framework for coordinating cellular function

(Helen C. Causton)
European Journal of Neuroscience
Volume 51, Issue 1…See MoreYeast grown at high density under aerobic conditions undergo short period oscillations in oxygen consumption that coordinate a number of metabolic and cellular processes. Although yeast are not known…ONLINELIBRARY.WILEY.COMMetabolic rhythms: A framework for coordinating cellular functionYeast grown at high density under aerobic conditions undergo short period oscillations in oxygen consumption that coordinate a number of metabolic and cellular processes. Although yeast are not known…Yeast grown at high density under aerobic conditions undergo short period oscillations in oxygen consumption that coordinate a number of metabolic and cellular processes. Although yeast are not known…552 CommentsRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 7 at 4:00 AM · 

Researchers Find A Web Of Factors Behind Multiple Sclerosis

https://www.npr.org/…/researchers-find-a-web-of-factors-beh…It’s looking like MS strikes when a variety of triggers gang up to impair neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Researchers are using their new knowledge to search for treatments.About this websiteNPR.ORGResearchers Find A Web Of Factors Behind Multiple SclerosisIt’s looking like MS strikes when a variety of triggers gang up to impair neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Researchers are using their new knowledge to search for treatments.It’s looking like MS strikes when a variety of triggers gang up to impair neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Researchers are using their new knowledge to search for treatments.99Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science is feeling festive.

February 6 at 9:17 AM · 

“Scientists have found a clue to how autism spectrum disorder disrupts the brain’s information highways.”Brains affected by autism appear to share a problem with cells that make myelin, the insulating coating surrounding nerve fibers that controls the speed at which the fibers convey electrical signals.About this websiteNPR.ORGResearchers Link Autism To A System That Insulates Brain WiringBrains affected by autism appear to share a problem with cells that make myelin, the insulating coating surrounding nerve fibers that controls the speed at which the fibers convey electrical signals.Brains affected by autism appear to share a problem with cells that make myelin, the insulating coating surrounding nerve fibers that controls the speed at which the fibers convey electrical signals.553 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 6 at 9:01 AM · 

This book is such a gem!
_________________________________
The phenomenon of hypnosis provides a rich paradigm for those seeking to understand the processes that underlie consciousness. Understanding hypnosis tells us about a basic human capacity for altered experiences that is often overlooked in contemporary western societies. Throughout the 200 year history of psychology, hypnosis has been a major topic of investigation by some of the leading experimenters and theorists of…See MoreThe phenomenon of hypnosis provides a rich paradigm for those seeking to understand the processes that underlie consciousness. Understanding hypnosis tells us about a basic human capacity for altered experiences that is often overlooked in contemporary western societies. Throughout the 200 year h…AMAZON.COM.AUHypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience PerspectiveThe phenomenon of hypnosis provides a rich paradigm for those seeking to understand the processes that underlie consciousness. Understanding hypnosis tells us about a basic human capacity for altered experiences that is often overlooked in contemporary western societies. Throughout the 200 year h…The phenomenon of hypnosis provides a rich paradigm for those seeking to understand the processes that underlie consciousness. Understanding hypnosis tells us about a basic human capacity for altered experiences that is often overlooked in contemporary western societies. Throughout the 200 year h…664 Comments1 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science is feeling relaxed.

February 6 at 7:52 AM · 

Low and then high frequency oscillations of distinct right cortical networks are progressively enhanced by medium and long term Satyananda Yoga meditation practice

Meditation proficiency is related to trait-like (learned) effects on brain function, developed over time. Previous studies show increases in EEG power in lower frequency bands (theta, alpha) in experienced meditators in both meditation states and baseline conditions. Higher gamma band power has been found in advanc…See MoreOfficial Full-Text Paper (PDF): Low and then high frequency oscillations of distinct right cortical networks are progressively enhanced by medium and long term Satyananda Yoga meditation practiceRESEARCHGATE.NETLow and then high frequency oscillations of distinct right cortical networks are progressively enhanced by medium and long term Satyananda Yoga meditation practice (PDF Download Available)Official Full-Text Paper (PDF): Low and then high frequency oscillations of distinct right cortical networks are progressively enhanced by medium and long term Satyananda Yoga meditation practiceOfficial Full-Text Paper (PDF): Low and then high frequency oscillations of distinct right cortical networks are progressively enhanced by medium and long term Satyananda Yoga meditation practice2You and 1 other1 Comment1 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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February 5 at 4:00 PM · 

https://www.facebook.com/102507341324744/posts/103061467935998?sfns=moNeuro+science NewsFebruary 5 at 8:49 AM · 

In 1997 self-confirmed atheist, advocate for the computational theory of the mind (CTM), and Harvard Professor Dr. Steven Pinker perhaps could not dream that in…See More5You and 4 othersRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science — feeling inspired.

February 5 at 9:48 AM · 

http://m.facebook.com/neurosciencenews8Neuro+science NewsEducation

'Don’t forget to join our group. Link is above☝️'

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February 3 at 8:33 AM · 

👉The highways of our brain.

Source:Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience – KNAW

Summary: Researchers found that myelin, the sheath around neurons, creates a coaxial cable producing multiple waves of electrical potentials traveling in a more complicated manner than was envisioned earlier. These findings allow us to create better theories and tools to understand demyelinating diseases, including the most common neurological disorder, multiple sclerosis….Continue Reading77Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

February 1 at 8:30 AM · 

Scientists breach brain barriers to attack tumors.

Summary:
The brain is equipped with barriers designed to keep out dangerous pathogens. Researchers have now found a novel way to circumvent the brain’s natural defenses when they’re counterproductive….Continue Reading771 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

February 1 at 7:29 AM · 

Powerful evidence based on the personal experience of a former heroin addict who became a brain scientist.

I spent most of my life mindlessly obsessing about the past and the future. I was consumed by anxiety and tormented by my mind, but completely unaware of the source of my suffering.
To escape my pain, I used drugs, resulting in 15 years of chronic heroin addiction. Heroin brought me to the very edge, but I was lucky. Pounded into submission by the most painful night of m…Continue Reading282827 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 31 at 7:30 AM · 

People may lie to appear honest.

Summary: The desire to appear honest can lead people to lie, researchers report.

Source: APA…Continue Reading22Rodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 30 at 8:28 AM · 

That’s why kids insist for watching Horror Movies 🎥
-Horror movies manipulate brain activity expertly to enhance excitement.

https://neuros0.wordpress.com/…/horror-movies-manipulate-b…/Summary: Neuroimaging reveals areas of the brain associated with visual and auditory processing are more active when anxiety slowly increases during horror movies. After a shocking scene, brain are…About this websiteNEUROS0.WORDPRESS.COMHorror movies manipulate brain activity expertly to enhance excitement.Summary: Neuroimaging reveals areas of the brain associated with visual and auditory processing are more active when anxiety slowly increases during horror movies. After a shocking scene, brain are…Summary: Neuroimaging reveals areas of the brain associated with visual and auditory processing are more active when anxiety slowly increases during horror movies. After a shocking scene, brain are…662 Comments2 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 29 at 11:01 PM · Neuro+scienceJanuary 10 · 

👉Best neuroscience book of 2019.
Get it from the link below👇

https://amzn.to/306heQQA 34-year-old man fighting for his life in the Intensive Care Unit is on an artificial respirator for over a month. Could it be that his chance of getting off the respirator is not how much his nurses know, but rather how much they care?A 75-year-old woman is heroically saved by a major trauma ce…About this websiteAMAZON.COMCompassionomics: The Revolutionary Scientific Evidence That Caring Makes a DifferenceA 34-year-old man fighting for his life in the Intensive Care Unit is on an artificial respirator for over a month. Could it be that his chance of getting off the respirator is not how much his nurses know, but rather how much they care?A 75-year-old woman is heroically saved by a major trauma ce…A 34-year-old man fighting for his life in the Intensive Care Unit is on an artificial respirator for over a month. Could it be that his chance of getting off the respirator is not how much his nurses know, but rather how much they care?A 75-year-old woman is heroically saved by a major trauma ce…222 Comments1 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 28 at 9:06 AM · 

Have you ever heard the term “BrainNet”?

This article presents an experiment done at University of Washington USA. BrainNet is the first multi-person non-invasive direct brain-to-brain interface for collaborative problem solving. The interface allows three human subjects to collaborate and solve a task using direct brain-to-brain communication.

If you want to learn more about this interesting experiment in which artificial intelligence made telepathy possible, click the link below!

Don’t hesitate to let us know your opinion about it!

Published: 16 April 2019
BrainNet: A Multi-Person Brain-to-Brain Interface for Direct Collaboration Between Brains
Linxing Jiang, Andrea Stocco, […]Rajesh P. N. RaoWe present BrainNet which, to our knowledge, is the first multi-person non-invasive direct brain-to-brain interface for collaborative problem solving. The interface combines electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain signals and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deliver information nonin…About this websiteNATURE.COMBrainNet: A Multi-Person Brain-to-Brain Interface for Direct Collaboration Between BrainsWe present BrainNet which, to our knowledge, is the first multi-person non-invasive direct brain-to-brain interface for collaborative problem solving. The interface combines electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain signals and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deliver information nonin…We present BrainNet which, to our knowledge, is the first multi-person non-invasive direct brain-to-brain interface for collaborative problem solving. The interface combines electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain signals and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deliver information nonin…9You and 8 others4 Comments5 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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  • AuthorNeuro+science Well, this is really going to kill magician card-trick trade.Unbelievable & interesting article.Hide or report this
  • Rodrigo Cal Great post! I was invited by direct message through Internet to participate in 76 very important events in 32 cities of different countries in a little time (Hong Kong, Auckland, Melbourne, Toronto, Edinburgh, Madrid, Suzhou, Stanbul, Miami, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Abu Dhabi, San Diego, Bangkok, Dublin, Sao Paulo, Dubai, Boston, Berlin, Stockholm, Prague, Valencia, Osaka, Amsterdam, Helsinki, Paris, Tokyo, Vienna, Rome, Zurich, London and Frankfurt) because I participated of very innovative and important researches. Information about it are in my blog. So, visit the blog! Share!! Greetings from Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State Brazil. Thanks in advance! Best wishes for you! www.science1984.wordpress.comEdit or delete thisLatest news about health science by Rodrigo Nunes CalSCIENCE1984.WORDPRESS.COMLatest news about health science by Rodrigo Nunes CalLatest news about health science by Rodrigo Nunes Cal1
    • AuthorNeuro+science Rodrigo Cal Hi Rodrigo! Thank you for replying and sharing your work with us! Coincidentally this post was created by the Brazilian administrator of this page, who is Psychologist and currently lives in Melbourne, AUS.
      We are glad you enjoyed this post and congratulations for your work and your Blog!
      Cheers!Hide or report this
    • Rodrigo Cal Neuro+science Thank you very much!!Edit or delete this
    Rodrigo CalWrite a reply…
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Neuro+science

January 28 at 9:02 AM · 

Did you know?
Crying is a sign of emotional intelligence & not of weakness.
Read full article.

https://neuros0.wordpress.com/…/crying-is-not-a-sign-of-we…/Everybody cries. Unfortunately, many of us were raised in a society that regarded it as a sign of weakness. Boys were told not to cry to look tough, girls were seen as spoilt if they cried often. W…About this websiteNEUROS0.WORDPRESS.COMCrying Is Not A Sign Of Weakness – It’s A Sign Of Emotional Intelligence.Everybody cries. Unfortunately, many of us were raised in a society that regarded it as a sign of weakness. Boys were told not to cry to look tough, girls were seen as spoilt if they cried often. W…Everybody cries. Unfortunately, many of us were raised in a society that regarded it as a sign of weakness. Boys were told not to cry to look tough, girls were seen as spoilt if they cried often. W…26262 Comments6 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 27 at 8:02 AM · 

-Introduction to Neuroimaging Analysis.

This book might be your need. Have a look.
https://amzn.to/2t15B1JMRI has emerged as a powerful way of studying in-vivo brain structure and function in both healthy and disease states. Whilst new researchers may be able to call upon advice and support for acquisition from operators, radiologists and technicians, it is more challenging to obtain an understanding…About this websiteAMAZON.COMIntroduction to Neuroimaging Analysis (Oxford Neuroimaging Primers)MRI has emerged as a powerful way of studying in-vivo brain structure and function in both healthy and disease states. Whilst new researchers may be able to call upon advice and support for acquisition from operators, radiologists and technicians, it is more challenging to obtain an understanding…MRI has emerged as a powerful way of studying in-vivo brain structure and function in both healthy and disease states. Whilst new researchers may be able to call upon advice and support for acquisition from operators, radiologists and technicians, it is more challenging to obtain an understanding…551 Comment1 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 27 at 2:45 AM · 

Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the nervous system. When applied to our professional lives, neuroscience can help us to unlock our greatest potential.

Increasing your meaningful productivity on your day-to-day work and can greatly influence your professional success over a long period of time.

This week on the , we’re examining the fascinating field of neuroscience and how it can positively influenc…Continue Reading20203 Comments8 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 26 at 8:00 AM · 

Study explores cognitive function in people with mental illness.

Summary: Study finds few differences in the profiles of genes that influence cognition between those with severe mental health disorders and the general population.

Source: University of Miami…Continue Reading994 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 25 at 8:45 AM · 

Did you know?

The eyes can measure hearing.

Summary: Eye-tracking and pupil dilation may be a new way to measure a person’s hearing ability….Continue Reading17172 SharesRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 24 at 11:09 PM · 

Guess why? 😊
Comment below your experience if happened so.
#Sciencehumor
#BrainAwakeWhileAsleep12121 ShareRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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Neuro+science

January 24 at 2:27 AM · 

Coffee lovers read this post!

How coffee affects the brain, body, and health?👇

Summary: From helping to protect against certain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases to causing anxiety and insomnia, researchers investigate how coffee affects the brain, body, and overall health….Continue Reading551 CommentRodrigo CalLikeCommentShare

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