EDITORIAL 20 MARCH 2019 – Nature 567, 283 (2019) – It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance – Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better. ´´Statistical significance is so deeply integrated into scientific practice and evaluation that extricating it would be painful. When working out which methods to use, researchers should also focus as much as possible on actual problems. People who will duel to the death over abstract theories on the best way to use statistics often agree on results when they are presented with concrete scenarios. Researchers should seek to analyse data in multiple ways to see whether different analyses converge on the same answer.´´ @ Moving to a World Beyond “p < 0.05” @ WHAT DOES STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT MEAN? by Jeff Sauro, PhD | October 21, 2014 @ Não houve diferença estatística significativa. E agora? @ Coronavirus and the $2bn race to find a vaccine @ Researchers discover new stem cells that can generate new bone & After 90 years, scientists reveal the structure of benzene @ With $115 million, more than 80 Boston researchers will collaborate to tackle COVID-19 @ A Collector of Math and Physics Surprises – Tadashi Tokieda discovers new physical phenomena by looking at the everyday world with the eyes of a child @ This 60 years old virus is causing all soughts of problems. History about corona virus & OTHER VERY IMPORTANT INFORMATION OF THE WORLD LIKE WEBSITES, VIDEOS, LINKS AND IMAGES

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EDITORIAL 

 

 

It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance

Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00874-8

Editorial

Moving to a World Beyond “p < 0.05”

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Scientists Have Observed A Rare Phenomenon Expanding Our Understanding Of The Quantum Universe.

Editorial

Moving to a World Beyond “p < 0.05”

Pages 1-19 | Published online: 20 Mar 2019
nfl5182@psu.edu allenschirm@gmail.com ron@amstat.org
 
 
EDITORIAL 

 

 

It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance

Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00874-8

 

What Does Statistically Significant Mean?

Não houve diferença estatística significativa. E agora?

https://biovignan.blogspot.com/2020/03/this-60-years-old-virus-is-causing-all.html?fbclid=IwAR2ZWmltzqpe2Kd0CEDXQLvN1x1VruOgNnuYn0y9BTPKjWOEpcXo4dO0imo

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https://phys.org/news/2020-03-years-scientists-reveal-benzene.html?fbclid=IwAR1nSn_mak1epvpIfsEjvfR5TFzloEO2lssHMO0R25CCHiCPBRNGKH74BV8

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Researchers discover new stem cells that can generate new bone

cells
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A population of stem cells with the ability to generate new bone has been newly discovered by a group of researchers at the UConn School of Dental Medicine.

In the journal Stem Cells, lead investigator Dr. Ivo Kalajzic, professor of reconstructive sciences, postdoctoral fellows Dr. Sierra Root and Dr. Natalie Wee, and collaborators at Harvard, Maine Medical Research Center, and the University of Auckland present a new population of cells that reside along the vascular channels that stretch across the bone and connect the inner and outer parts of the bone.

“This is a new discovery of perivascular cells residing within the bone itself that can generate new bone forming cells,” said Kalajzic. “These cells likely regulate bone formation or participate in bone mass maintenance and repair.”

Stem cells for bone have long been thought to be present within  and the outer surface of bone, serving as reserve cells that constantly generate new bone or participate in bone repair. Recent studies have described the existence of a network of vascular channels that helped distribute  out of the bone marrow, but no research has proved the existence of cells within these channels that have the ability to form new bones.

In this study, Kalajzic and his team are the first to report the existence of these progenitor cells within cortical bone that can generate new bone-forming cells—osteoblasts—that can be used to help remodel a bone.

To reach this conclusion, the researchers observed the  within an ex vivo bone transplantation model. These cells migrated out of the transplant, and began to reconstruct the bone marrow cavity and form new bone.

While this study shows there is a population of cells that can help aid bone formation, more research needs to be done to determine the ‘ potential to regulate  formation and resorption.


Explore further

After a bone injury, shape-shifting cells rush to the rescue


More information: Sierra H. Root et al, Perivascular osteoprogenitors are associated with transcortical channels of long bones, STEM CELLS (2020). DOI: 10.1002/stem.3159

Journal information: Stem Cells

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After 90 years, scientists reveal the structure of benzene

After 90 years, scientists reveal the structure of benzene

 

DVMS structures for benzene. a Voronoi site for the RHF/6-31G(d) wavefunction. The electron positions of an arbitrary spin are shown as small yellow spheres. b Cross sections through the wavefunction around the Voronoi site in a C–C bonding electrons are shown as blue lobes. C–H bonds are shown in grey. c. Voronoi site showing staggered spins. The electron positions of each spin are respectively shown as small yellow and green spheres. d. Cross sections around the Voronoi site in c. The two spins of the C–C bonding electrons are shown in blue and red. C–H bonds are shown in grey. Credit: Nature Communications (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-15039-9

One of the fundamental mysteries of chemistry has been solved by a collaboration between Exciton Science, UNSW and CSIRO – and the result may have implications for future designs of solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes and other next gen technologies.

Ever since the 1930s debate has raged inside chemistry circles concerning the fundamental electronic structure of benzene. It is a debate that in recent years has taken on added urgency, because benzene – which comprises six carbon atoms matched with six hydrogen atoms – is the fundamental building-block of many opto-electronic materials, which are revolutionising renewable energy and telecommunications tech.

The flat hexagonal ring is also a component of DNA, proteins, wood and petroleum.

The controversy around the structure of the molecule arises because although it has few atomic components the electrons exist in a state comprising not just four dimensions – like our everyday “big” world – but 126.

Analysing a system that complex has until now proved impossible, meaning that the precise behaviour of benzene electrons could not be discovered. And that represented a problem, because without that information, the stability of the molecule in tech applications could never be wholly understood.

Now, however, scientists led by Timothy Schmidt from the ARC Centre of Excellence in Exciton Science and UNSW Sydney have succeeded in unravelling the mystery – and the results came as a surprise. They have now been published in the journal Nature Communications.

Solving a mystery in 126 dimensions

 

An image of how the 126-dimensional wave function tile is cross-sectioned into our 3-dimensions 42 times, once for each electron. This shows the domain of each electron, in that tile. Credit: UNSW Sydney

Professor Schmidt, with colleagues from UNSW and CSIRO’s Data61, applied a complex algorithm-based method called dynamic Voronoi Metropolis sampling (DVMS) to benzene molecules in order to map their wavefunctions across all 126 dimensions.

Key to unravelling the complex problem was a new mathematical algorithm developed by co-author Dr Phil Kilby from CSIRO’s Data61. The algorithm allows the scientist to partition the dimensional space into equivalent “tiles”, each corresponding to a permutation of electron positions.

Of particular interest to the scientists was understanding the “spin” of the electrons. All electrons have spin – it is the property that produces magnetism, among other fundamental forces – but how they interact with each other is at the base of a wide range of technologies, from light-emitting diodes to quantum computing.

“What we found was very surprising,” said Professor Schmidt. “The electrons with what’s known as up-spin double- bonded, where those with down-spin single-bonded, and vice versa.

“That isn’t how chemists think about benzene. Essentially it reduces the energy of the molecule, making it more stable, by getting electrons, which repel each other, out of each other’s way.”

Co-author Phil Kilby from Data61 added: “Although developed for this chemistry context, the algorithm we developed, for ‘matching with constraints’ can also be applied to a wide variety of areas, from staff rostering to kidney exchange programs.”


Explore further

Theoreticians finally prove that ‘curly arrows’ tell the truth about chemical reactions


More information: Yu Liu et al. The electronic structure of benzene from a tiling of the correlated 126-dimensional wavefunction, Nature Communications (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-15039-9

Journal information: Nature Communications
Provided by ARC Centre of Excellence in Exciton Science

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More than $100 million from an enormous Chinese real estate company is slated to advance research into COVID-19, including studies of patient samples.

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With $115 million, more than 80 Boston researchers will collaborate to tackle COVID-19

A $115 million collaboration to tackle the rapidly spreading viral disease COVID-19, led by heavy hitters of Boston science and funded by a Chinese property development company, kicked off today as the group’s leaders pledged to take on the virus on many fronts. The project brings together researchers at many of the city’s top academic institutions, along with local biotechnology companies such as Moderna. Those leading it hope they can quickly funnel money into studies that will build off a new repository of samples from infected people and community surveillance, materials that can be rapidly shared among scientists. The project, they anticipate, should answer critical questions about how COVID-19 is spreading and how best to prevent and treat infections.

“It was time to harness the whole breadth of knowledge that’s available” in the Boston region, says immunologist Bruce Walker, a leader in HIV/AIDS research; director of the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard; and joint head of the collaboration. He leads the project with Arlene Sharpe, co-director of the Evergrande Center for Immunologic Diseases at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Walker and Sharpe were among more than 80 scientists and clinicians who met Monday at Harvard Medical School—in person or, in the case of collaborators in China, remotely—to hammer out the details of the effort, including how to prioritize funding needs.

Walker and four others, including Sharpe, announced the venture this afternoon in an opinion piece in The Boston Globe. Other prominent researchers in the collaboration include George Daley, dean of Harvard Medical School; Harvard epidemiologist Marc Lipsitch; and immunologist Pardis Sabeti of the Broad Institute. The money comes from the China Evergrande Group, which has supported initiatives at Harvard, including opening the center Sharpe co-leads. The company is not garnering a return on its investment, Walker says.

As part of Monday’s meeting, the Boston team had a video conference with researchers in China led by Zhong Nanshan at the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health. Zhong is helping coordinate China’s response to its massive COVID-19 outbreak and was a scientific leader during the 2002–03 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak. (Weeks of negotiation preceded the Chinese government allowing an international team organized by the World Health Organization to visit the country in mid-February, both to offer expertise and to learn from the country’s response to the epidemic.)

For Walker, the 7 February death of 34-year-old Li Wenliang, the Wuhan, China–based ophthalmologist who was punished for alerting colleagues to the outbreak in late December 2019, was especially alarming. “I thought, ‘I’ve never known a health care worker to die from influenza,’” Walker says. “This is not influenza.”

Goals of the new effort include improving diagnostic tests, better modeling to predict how the disease will spread, understanding the coronavirus’s basic biology and how it interacts with the human immune system, and developing new treatments. “There will be challenges in terms of competing priorities,” Walker acknowledges. Decisions about where to direct money will be made by a team of researchers.

The new money was welcomed by other researchers, especially because it came from a nonscientific source—reinforcing the global impact of COVID-19 and the need for varied sources to help combat it. “This is incredibly positive,” says Jeremy Farrar, director of biomedical research charity the Wellcome Trust. “We need the private sector to step up,” as the China Evergrande Group did.

“Coronavirus is not good for real estate,” any more than it’s good for any other part of society, says Sten Vermund, an epidemiologist and dean of the Yale School of Public Health.

The project has many priorities, including developing an animal model to test vaccines and treatments, creating an antibody test of infection to better gauge how deep into communities the virus has reached, and understanding exactly how transmission is happening.

Walker hopes other regions will establish similar collaborations in which researchers drop “institutional allegiances.” The local strategy, he believes, has potential: “We know each other,” he says. “We can’t begin to reorganize the whole world, but we can attempt to reorganize Boston.”

Finally, he argues that using philanthropic funds offers flexibility and speed that federal dollars cannot. Also today, Congress approved $8.3 billion in emergency coronavirus aid, a bill media reports say President Donald Trump is expected to sign. It’s not clear yet when the money will become available, especially to researchers who likely will have to write grant proposals and wait for them to be reviewed. Philanthropic funding allows scientists “to make their own decisions about what can be the most catalytic for entering into a new field,” Walker says. “We just can’t do that with federal funding.”

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EDITORIAL  20 MARCH 2019

It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance

Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better.

  •  
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Bar chart made of measuring cylinders filled with different amounts of varied coloured liquids
Some statisticians are calling for P values to be abandoned as an arbitrary threshold of significance.Credit: Erik Dreyer/Getty

Fans of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy know that the answer to life, the Universe and everything is 42. The joke, of course, is that truth cannot be revealed by a single number.

And yet this is the job often assigned to values: a measure of how surprising a result is, given assumptions about an experiment, including that no effect exists. Whether a P value falls above or below an arbitrary threshold demarcating ‘statistical significance’ (such as 0.05) decides whether hypotheses are accepted, papers are published and products are brought to market. But using P values as the sole arbiter of what to accept as truth can also mean that some analyses are biased, some false positives are overhyped and some genuine effects are overlooked.Scientists rise up against statistical significance

Change is in the air. In a Comment in this week’s issue, three statisticians call for scientists to abandon statistical significance. The authors do not call for P values themselves to be ditched as a statistical tool — rather, they want an end to their use as an arbitrary threshold of significance. More than 800 researchers have added their names as signatories. A series of related articles is being published by the American Statistical Association this week (R. L. Wasserstein et al. Am. Stat. https://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2019.1583913; 2019). “The tool has become the tyrant,” laments one article.

Statistical significance is so deeply integrated into scientific practice and evaluation that extricating it would be painful. Critics will counter that arbitrary gatekeepers are better than unclear ones, and that the more useful argument is over which results should count for (or against) evidence of effect. There are reasonable viewpoints on all sides; Nature is not seeking to change how it considers statistical analysis in evaluation of papers at this time, but we encourage readers to share their views (see go.nature.com/correspondence).

If researchers do discard statistical significance, what should they do instead? They can start by educating themselves about statistical misconceptions. Most important will be the courage to consider uncertainty from multiple angles in every study. Logic, background knowledge and experimental design should be considered alongside values and similar metrics to reach a conclusion and decide on its certainty.

When working out which methods to use, researchers should also focus as much as possible on actual problems. People who will duel to the death over abstract theories on the best way to use statistics often agree on results when they are presented with concrete scenarios.

Researchers should seek to analyse data in multiple ways to see whether different analyses converge on the same answer. Projects that have crowdsourced analyses of a data set to diverse teams suggest that this approach can work to validate findings and offer new insights.

In short, be sceptical, pick a good question, and try to answer it in many ways. It takes many numbers to get close to the truth.

Nature 567, 283 (2019)doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-00874-8

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Statistical_Association

American Statistical Association

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search

The American Statistical Association (ASA) is the main professional organization for statisticians and related professionals in the United States. It was founded in Boston, Massachusetts on November 27, 1839, and is the second oldest continuously operating professional society in the US (only the Massachusetts Medical Society, founded in 1781, is older). The ASA services statisticians, quantitative scientists, and users of statistics across many academic areas and applications. The association publishes a variety of journals and sponsors several international conferences every year.

Contents

Mission[edit]

The organization’s mission is to promote good application of statistical science, specifically to:[1]

  • support excellence in statistical practice, research, journals, and meetings
  • work for the improvement of statistical education at all levels
  • promote the proper application of statistics
  • anticipate and meet member needs
  • use the discipline of statistics to enhance human welfare
  • seek opportunities to advance the statistics profession

Membership[edit]

ASA has about 18,000 members, found in government, academia, and the private sector. The membership is involved in a wide variety of activities including:[2]

  • research in medical areas such as AIDS
  • environmental risk assessment
  • the development of new therapeutic drugs
  • the exploration of space
  • quality assurance in industry
  • the examination of social issues such as the homeless and the poor
  • analytic research on current business problems and economic forecasting
  • the setting of standards for statistics used at all levels of government
  • the promotion and development of statistical education for the public and the profession, and
  • the expansion of methods and the use of computers and graphics to advance the science of statistics

Fellowship[edit]

Main article: List of Fellows of the American Statistical Association

New Fellowships of the ASA are granted annually by the ASA Committee on Fellows. Candidates must have been members for the preceding three years but may be nominated by anyone. The maximum number of recipients each year is one-third of one percent of the ASA membership.[3]

Organizational structure[edit]

ASA is organized in Sections, Chapters and Committees. Chapters are arranged geographically, representing 78 areas across the US and Canada. Sections are subject-area and industry-area interest groups covering 22 sub-disciplines. ASA has more than 60 committees coordinating meetings, publications, education, careers, and special-interest topics involving statisticians.

Accredited Professional Statistician[edit]

As of April 2010, the ASA offers the Accredited Professional Statistician status (PStat), to members who meet the ASA’s credentialing requirements, which include an advanced degree in statistics or related quantitative field, five years of documented experience, and evidence of professional competence.[4] A list of current members with PStat status is available.[5]

The ASA also offers the Graduate Statistician status (GStat) as of April 2014.[6] It serves as a preparatory accreditation suitable for graduate students.

Publications[edit]

Main category: American Statistical Association academic journals

The ASA publishes several scientific journals:

Online-only journals:

It co-sponsors:

Quarterly magazine:

Historical publications include:

  • Edward Jarvis, William Brigham and John Wingate ThorntonMemorial Of The American Statistical Association Praying The Adoption Of Measures For The Correction Of Errors In The Census, 1844
  • Publications of the American Statistical Association, 1888-1919 (Vols. 1-16)[7] and Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association, 1920-1921[8][9]

Meetings[edit]

Meetings provide a platform for scholars and practitioners to exchange research, job opportunities and ideas with each other. ASA holds an annual meeting called Joint Statistical Meetings (JSM),[10] a conference on statistical methodologies and applications called Spring Research Conference (SRC),[11] Conference on Statistical Practice (CSP),[12] and sponsors multiple international meetings and special-interest group meetings.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to American Statistical Association.

References[edit]

  1. ^ “About ASA”. American Statistical Organization. 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
  2. ^ “ASA members”. American Statistical Association. 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
  3. ^ “Awards and Recognition”. American Statistical Association. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
  4. ^ “ASA Professional Accreditation” (PDF). American Statistical Association. Retrieved 2012-07-29.
  5. ^ “Statisticians with PStat status”.
  6. ^ “ASA Unveils New GStat Accreditation”. May 1, 2014.
  7. ^ “Publications of the American Statistical Association”. JSTOR. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  8. ^ “Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association”. JSTOR. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  9. ^ “The American Statistical Association”. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  10. ^ “JSM 2020”. American Statistical Association. 2020. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  11. ^ “SRC 2020”. American Statistical Association. 2020. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  12. ^ “CSP 2020”. American Statistical Association. 2020. Retrieved 2020-02-29.

External links[edit]

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