Instagram Live Yesterday – Ontem – Mark Elliot Zuckerberg – I sent messages for him – Enviei mensagens p/ ele – Images – Time – Tempo(s) – Reading – My Messages – Minhas Mensagens – Probabilities – Leitura – Probabilidade(s) @ Links about Mark Elliot Zuckerberg – Videos @ COLLECTION | 12 MARCH 2020 – NATURE COMMUNICATIONS – Top 50 Chemistry and Materials Sciences Articles – ´´We are pleased to share with you the 50 most read Nature Communications articles* in chemistry and materials sciences published in 2019. Featuring authors from around the world, these papers highlight valuable research from an international community.´´ @ An updated guide to the coronavirus drugs and vaccines in development @ Scientists can now edit multiple genome fragments at a time @ Engineers Successfully Test New Chip With Download Speeds of 44.2 Terabits Per Second – MIKE MCRAE – 22 MAY 2020 @ T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria induce multimorbidity and premature senescence @ EDITORIAL 20 MARCH 2019 – Nature 567, 283 (2019) – doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-00874-8 – ´´It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better. In short, be sceptical, pick a good question, and try to answer it in many ways. It takes many numbers to get close to the truth.´´ Em resumo, seja cético, escolha uma boa pergunta e tente responder de várias maneiras. São necessários muitos números para se aproximar da verdade. @ VERY IMPORTANT WEBSITES, LINKS, IMAGES AND TEXTS (MESSAGES) @

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  • – > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics – ´´My´´ Dissertation @ #Innovation #energy #life #health #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto



Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto


Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

@ #reading #probability #respect #feelings #information #time #chat #world #país #importance #ways #facility #goal #MentalHealth #future #people #person #lives #history #cities #communications #analysis #life #age #longevity #countries #country #city #health #partners #friends #genetics #feelings #ScientificDiscovery #University #Harvard #Brazil #USA #EU #Europe #photo #image #tempo #statistics #Asia #Africa #Oceania #RealStatistics #numbers #America #Argentina #Russia #China #HongKong #names #imaginations #thinking #thoughts #question #affirmation #click #mouse #mice #humans #subjects #subject #issue #issues #phrases #phrase #interpretation #graphics #mind #mente #messages #message #words #ComputerScience #Engineering #Science #Technologies #innovations #ideas #projects #researches #references #reference #vision #ScientificDiscoveries @ ´´Innovation in its modern meaning is “a new idea, creative thoughts, new imaginations in form of device or method”.[1] Innovation is often also viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs.[2] Such innovation takes place through the provision of more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business models that are made available to markets, governments and society. An innovation is something original and more effective and, as a consequence, new, that “breaks into” the market or society.[3] Innovation is related to, but not the same as, invention,[4] as innovation is more apt to involve the practical implementation of an invention (ie new / improved ability) to make a meaningful impact in the market or society,[5] and not all innovations require an invention.´´

An updated guide to the coronavirus drugs and vaccines in development













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Mark Zuckerberg

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Mark Zuckerberg Elliot

Zuckerberg em abril de 2018.

Nome completo Mark Elliot Zuckerberg
Nascimento 14 de maio de 1984 (35 anos)
White PlainsNova Iorque
Residência Palo AltoCalifórnia
Nacionalidade norte-americano
Etnia Judaico
Fortuna Aumento US$ 75.7 bilhões (janeiro de 2018)[1]
Progenitores Mãe: Kristen Zuckerberg
Pai: Edward Zuckerberg
Parentesco Randi, Donna e Arielle (Irmãs)[2]
Cônjuge Priscilla Chan (2012-presente)
Filho(s) Maxima Zuckerberg
Ocupação Empresário e Programador
Principais trabalhos Facebook
Prémios Pessoa do Ano (2010)[3]
Cargo Vice-diretor executivo (co-CEO)
Religião Nenhuma
Mark Zuckerberg Signature.svg
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Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (White Plains14 de maio de 1984) é um programador e empresário norte-americano, que ficou conhecido internacionalmente por ser um dos fundadores do Facebook,[4] a rede social mais acessada do mundo.[5][6] Em março de 2011, a revista Forbes colocou Zuckerberg na 36ª posição da lista das pessoas mais ricas do mundo, com uma fortuna estimada em 17.5 bilhões de dólares.[2] Em junho de 2015, sua fortuna já estava avaliada em 38.4 bilhões de dólares,[1] em 2016 seu patrimônio líquido foi estimado em 51,8 bilhões de dólares.[7]

Junto aos seus colegas da faculdade da Universidade de Harvard, os estudantes Eduardo SaverinAndrew McCollumDustin Moskovitz e Chris Hughes, lançou o Facebook em 2004.[8][9] O Facebook expandiu-se rapidamente, com um bilhão de usuários até 2012. Zuckerberg foi envolvido em várias disputas legais que foram iniciadas por outros no grupo, que reivindicou uma participação da empresa com base na sua participação durante a fase de desenvolvimento do Facebook.

Em dezembro de 2012, Zuckerberg e sua esposa Priscilla Chan anunciaram que dariam a maior parte de sua riqueza ao longo de suas vidas para “fazer avançar o potencial humano e promover a igualdade” no espírito de The Giving Pledge.[10] Em 01 de dezembro de 2015, eles anunciaram que dariam 99% de suas ações do Facebook (no valor de cerca de 45 bilhões de dólares na época) para a Iniciativa Zuckerberg Chan.[11][12]

Desde 2010, a revista Time nomeou Zuckerberg entre as 100 pessoas mais ricas e influentes do mundo e também foi nomeado pela revista como a Pessoa do Ano.[13][14] Em dezembro de 2016, Zuckerberg ficou em 10º lugar na lista da Forbes das pessoas mais poderosas do mundo.[15]

Vida pessoal

Mark Elliot Zuckerberg nasceu em White Plains, Condado de Westchester no estado de Nova York, filho de Kristen, uma psiquiatra, e de Edward, um dentistaAluno.[2] Mark foi criado em Dobbs Ferry, Condado de Westchester no estado de Nova York, assim como suas três irmãs, Randi, Donna e Arielle.[2] Zuckerberg tem origem judaica, tendo um bar mitzvah, quando ele completou 13 anos,[16][17] embora ele já tenha declarado ser ateu,[17][18] em 2016, ao ser questionado se permanecia descrente, ele respondeu: “Não. Fui criado como judeu e depois passei por um período em questionei as coisas, mas agora acredito que a religião é muito importante.”[19]

Na escola onde estudava, a Ardsley High School, teve grande destaque em arte e cultura clássicas. Foi transferido para a Phillips Exeter Academy, onde ganhou vários prêmios em ciências da astronomiamatemática e física. Nos estudos clássicos, Mark aprendeu a ler e escrever francêshebraicolatim e grego antigo e ainda pertenceu a equipe de esgrima.[20][21][22] Na faculdade, ele era conhecido por recitar versos de poemas épicos como a Ilíada.[20] Em uma festa promovida por sua fraternidade durante seu segundo ano na Universidade Harvard, Zuckerberg conheceu a estudante de medicina Priscilla Chan, sua atual esposa. Em setembro de 2010, Zuckerberg convidou Chan, até então namorada, para morar em sua casa alugada em Palo AltoCondado de Santa Clara no estado da Califórnia.[2] Zuckerberg começou então a estudar mandarim chinês. O casal visitou a China em dezembro de 2010.[23] Zuckerberg e Chan se casaram em 19 de maio de 2012, um dia após a entrada do Facebook na bolsa de valores Nasdaq.

Em sua página no Facebook, Zuckerberg listou os seus interesses pessoais como “a abertura, fazendo coisas que ajudam as pessoas a se conectar e compartilhar o que é importante para elas, as revoluções, o fluxo de informações, o minimalismo”.[24] Zuckerberg vê azul melhor por causa do daltonismo vermelho-verde, azul também é a cor dominante do Facebook.[25]

Em 2011, uma brecha de segurança do Facebook permitiu que vazassem na Internet fotos que ele configurou como sendo privadas.[26][27][28] As imagens mostram Zuckerberg cozinhando, recebendo amigos e brincando com o cachorro.[29][30][31]

Desenvolvedor de Software

Zuckerberg começou a usar computadores e a escrever softwares ainda adolescente no ensino médio. Seu pai lhe ensinou Atari Programação Básica em 1990 e, posteriormente, contratou o desenvolvedor de software David Newman para lhe dar aulas particulares. Newman não hesitava em chamá-lo de “prodígio“, acrescentando que era “duro para ficar à frente dele.” Zuckerberg também fez um curso de pós-graduação no assunto no Mercy College perto de sua casa enquanto ele ainda estava no colégio.[2] Ele gostava de criar programas de computador, especialmente as ferramentas de comunicação e jogos. Em um desses programas que criou, surgiu o “ZuckNet”, a qual permitia que todos os computadores entre a casa e o consultório odontológico do seu pai pudessem se comunicar usando o ping para o outro. No que pode ser considerado uma versão simplificada do AOL Instant Messenger, que foi lançado no ano seguinte.[2]

Algumas crianças brincavam com jogos de computador que Mark criou.[2] Zuckerberg recorda esse período. “Eu tinha um monte de amigos que eram artistas. Eles desenhavam coisas, e eu criava os jogos depois.”. Mais tarde ele havia se tornado o capitão da sua escola de preparação de esgrima e obteve um diploma clássico.[2] O co-fundador da NapsterSean Parker, um amigo próximo, observa que Zuckerberg realmente aprendeu clássicos “de odisséias gregas e todas essas coisas”, lembrando que ele já citou as linhas em latim da poesia épica Eneida, de Virgílio, durante uma conferência do Facebook.[2]

Durante alguns anos Zuckerberg, trabalhou em uma empresa chamada Intelligent Media Group, onde ele construiu um leitor de música chamado “Synapse Media Player” que usa inteligência artificial para aprender hábitos de escuta do usuário, que foi postada no Slashdot,[32] e recebeu a classificação de 3 de 5 da PC Magazine.[33] A Microsoft e AOL tentaram comprar o Synapse e contratar Zuckerberg, porém ele preferiu se matricular na Universidade Harvard em setembro de 2002.

Universidade Harvard

Mark Zuckerberg na Universidade Harvard.

Até ele começar a ter aulas em Harvard, ele já tinha conseguido a reputação de um prodígio de programação. Mark estudou psicologia e Ciência da Computação e era membro da Alpha Epsilon Pi, uma fraternidade judaica.[2][3][4] Em seu segundo ano, ele escreveu um programa chamado CourseMatch, que permitia que os usuários jogassem Atari Asteroids 1968 entre si, sem conexões, cabos ou internet, o que acabava também por ajudá-los a formar grupos de estudo. Pouco tempo depois, ele criou um programa bem diferente, inicialmente chamado Facemash que permitia que os alunos escolhessem entre duas garotas, qual seria a mais bonita(“sexy”). De acordo com o colega de Zuckerberg, Arie Hasit, ele construiu o site para se divertir. Hasit explica:

site estava indo muito bem, mas de manhã a universidade desativou o site porque sua popularidade tinha sobrecarregado o servidor de Harvard e impedindo que os estudantes acessassem a web. Além disso, muitos alunos reclamaram que suas fotos estavam sendo manipuladas no Photoshop. Zuckerberg, pediu desculpas publicamente e, após o incidente, o estudante publicou artigos informando que seu site estava “completamente inadequado”, e está até hoje.[carece de fontes]

No entanto, os alunos já tinham solicitado para que a universidade desenvolvesse um web site semelhante que incluísse fotos e detalhes de contato para fazerem parte da rede de informática da faculdade. De acordo com Hasit. “Mark ouviu esses argumentos e decidiu que se a universidade não fizesse, ele iria para um local que seria melhor que a universidade para construir o site.”[34]


Zuckerberg doou uma quantia não revelada à Diaspora, um servidor pessoal da web de código-fonte aberto que implementa um serviço de rede social distribuída. Ele chamou de “uma ideia legal”.[35]

Zuckerberg fundou o Start-up:. fundação da Educação.[36] Em 22 de setembro de 2010, foi relatado que Zuckerberg havia doado 100 milhões de dólares para a Newark Public Schools, o sistema de escolas públicas de NewarkCondado de Essex no estado de Nova Jersey.[37][38] Os críticos notaram que o momento da doação como sendo próximo do lançamento do filme A Rede Social, que deu uma imagem um tanto negativa para Zuckerberg,[39][40] dividindo o público entre os que concordavam com sua atitude e os que o condenavam, chegando a ser considerada a hipótese de ele sofrer algum grau de Síndrome de Asperger.[41] Zuckerberg respondeu às críticas, dizendo: “A única coisa que eu fiz foi ser mais sensível sobre a hora do filme, eu não queria que a imprensa fizesse confusão entre o filme “A Rede Social” com o projeto de Newark. Eu estava pensando em fazer isso anonimamente apenas para que as duas coisas pudessem ser mantidas separadas.”[39] O prefeito de Newark Cory Booker afirmou que ele e o governador de Nova Jersey Chris Christie tiveram que convencer a equipe de Zuckerberg a não fazer a doação anonimamente.[39]

Em 8 de dezembro de 2010, Zuckerberg declarou que havia se tornado um dos signatários do The Giving Pledge,[9] iniciativa criada por Bill Gates e Warren Buffett.[42]

No dia 1 de dezembro de 2015, logo após o nascimento de sua filha Max, Zuckerberg surpreendeu o mundo, ao anunciar que doará ao longo de sua vida, 99% do valor das ações do Facebook (atualmente calculadas em US$ 45 bilhões) para a caridade. O criador do Facebook e sua esposa Priscilla Chan justificaram a decisão, alegando que vão lutar por um mundo melhor, não só para sua filha mas para toda uma geração futura.[43][44][45][46]

Filmes e Aparições

A Rede Social

Um filme baseado na história de Mark e os fundadores do Facebook, com o titulo de A Rede Social, foi lançado em 01 de outubro de 2010, e Mark foi interpretado pelo ator Jesse Eisenberg que lhe rendeu uma indicação ao Oscar de melhor ator. O filme deu uma imagem um tanto negativa para Zuckerberg, dividindo o público entre os que concordavam com sua atitude e os que o condenavam, chegando a ser considerada a hipótese de ele sofrer algum grau de Síndrome de Asperger.[carece de fontes]

Após ganhar o Globo de Ouro[47] de Melhor Filme em 16 de janeiro de 2011, o produtor Scott Rudin agradeceu Facebook e Zuckerberg “pela sua disponibilidade para nos permitir usar sua vida e obra como uma metáfora através da qual se contar uma história sobre a comunicação e a forma como se relacionam entre si”.

Os Simpsons

Mark Zuckerberg ganhou uma participação especial na série de maior sucesso, Os Simpsons.[48] O episódio foi ao ar no dia 10 de abril de 2010 nos Estados Unidos, Zuckerberg ao contrário de como foi na participação do filme A Rede Social, foi mostrado como um cara legal e capaz de fazer amizades, inclusive com o personagem Bart Simpson.[carece de fontes]

Ver também


  1. ↑ Ir para:a b «Mark Zuckerberg»Forbes
  2. ↑ Ir para:a b c d e f g h i j k «Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg opens up» (em inglês). Consultado em 20 de setembro de 2010
  3. ↑ Ir para:a b «Mark Zuckerberg – Person of the Year 2010» (em inglês). Consultado em 15 de dezembro de 2010
  4. ↑ Ir para:a b «Esboço biográfico do fundador» Consultado em 19 de março de 2011
  5.  «Twitter ultrapassa MySpace e é 3º maior rede social do mundo»IDG Now!. Consultado em 29 de setembro de 2010. Arquivado do original em 6 de dezembro de 2010
  6.  «Facebook reaches 500 million users» (em inglês). Consultado em 21 de julho de 2010
  7.  «Mark Zuckerberg»
  8.  «Is Zuckerberg Person of the Year? – Quentin Hardy – At Your Servers» (em inglês). Consultado em 6 de dezembro de 2010
  9. ↑ Ir para:a b «Zuckerberg to donate wealth». Consultado em 8 de dezembro de 2010
  10.  «Home – The Giving Pledge»Giving Pledge
  11.  Marston, Rebecca (2 de dezembro de 2015). «The great Facebook giveaway» – via
  12.  «Zuckerberg to give away 99% of shares». 2 de dezembro de 2015 – via
  13.  Grossman, Lev (15 de dezembro de 2010). «Person of the Year 2010 – TIME» – via
  14.  Stein, Joel (18 de abril de 2012). «The All-Time TIME 100 of All Time – The World’s 100 Most Influential People: 2012 – TIME» – via
  15.  «The World’s Most Powerful People»Forbes. Dezembro de2016. Consultado em 14 de dezembro de 2016 Verifique data em: |data= (ajuda)
  16.  «Mark Zuckerberg: He’s got the whole world on his site – Profiles, People – The Independent». Consultado em 24 de julho de 2010
  17. ↑ Ir para:a b «The billionaire Facebook founder making a fortune from your secrets (though you probably don’t know he’s doing it) – Mail Online». Consultado em 21 de maio de 2010
  18.  «Too Much Information? –». Consultado em 28 de novembro de 2007
  19.  Julie Zauzmer (30 de dezembro de 2016). «Mark Zuckerberg says he’s no longer an atheist, believes ‘religion is very important’». The Washington Post. Consultado em 30 de dezembro de 2016
  20. ↑ Ir para:a b «What we learned about Mark Zuckerberg this week – The Big Money». Consultado em 5 de março de 2010
  21.  «Mark E. Zuckerberg ’06: The whiz behind – The Harvard Crimson». Consultado em 10 de junho de 2004
  22.  «The Facebook effect: the inside – Google Livros». Consultado em 22 de fevereiro de 2011
  23.  «E-Commerce News: Search: Zuckerberg Goes Searching in China». Consultado em 20 de dezembro de 2010
  24.  «Mark Zuckerberg – Facebook». Consultado em 23 de fevereiro de 2011
  25.  Sutter, John D.“Why Facebook is blue – six facts about Mark Zuckerberg”CNN. 20 de setembro de 2010. Acesso em 9 de junho de 2012.
  26.  «Hackers aproveitam-se de falha no Facebook para publicarem fotos privadas de Zuckerberg». Consultado em 7 de dezembro de 2011. Arquivado do original em 21 de abril de 2012
  27.  «Fotos privadas de Mark Zuckerberg caem na web»
  28.  «Imgur»
  29.  «Hacker invade Facebook de Mark Zuckerberg e divulga fotos»
  30.  «Fotos de Mark Zuckerberg vazam após falha na segurança do Facebook – Notícias – UOL TV e Famosos»
  31.  «Fotos de Zuckerberg vazam após falha na segurança do Facebook»
  32.  «Machine Learning and MP3s – Slashdot». Consultado em 21 de abril de 2003
  33.  «Synapse Media Player 1.01 Review & Rating –». Consultado em 8 de fevereiro de 2005
  34. ↑ Ir para:a b «Facebook founder’s roommate recounts creation of Internet giant – Haaretz Daily Newspaper». Consultado em 5 de outubro de 2009
  35.  «Mark Zuckerberg: I Donated to Open Source, Facebook Competitor – Epicenter –». Consultado em 28 de maio de 2010
  36.  «Mayor Says Newark Is 40% There in Matching Facebook Founder’s Grant – The Chronicle of Philanthropy». Consultado em 27 de setembro de 2010
  37.  «Can Mark Zuckerberg’s Money Save Newark’s Schools? – Newsweek – Education». Consultado em 23 de novembro de 2010. Arquivado do original em 30 de novembro de 2010
  38.  «Facebook CEO to Gift $100M to Newark Schools – CBS News». Consultado em 23 de setembro de 2010
  39. ↑ Ir para:a b c «Zuckerberg Pressured To Announce $100 Million Donation To Newark – Velocity – Remaking Personal Technology – Forbes». Consultado em 24 de setembro de 2010
  40.  «Mark Zuckerberg’s Well-Timed $100 Million Donation to Newark Public Schools — Daily Intel». Consultado em 22 de setembro de 2010
  41.  «Síndrome de Asperger: de Lisbeth Salander a Mark Zuckerberg». Consultado em 3 de março de 2011
  42.  «Bilionários dos EUA prometem doar metade de suas fortunas para caridade – O Globo». Consultado em 4 de agosto de 2010
  43.  «Mark Zuckerberg vira pai e anuncia doação de US$ 45 bilhões»Terra. Consultado em 2 de dezembro de 2015
  44.  «Mark Zuckerberg vai doar 99% das suas ações do Facebook»JN. Consultado em 2 de dezembro de 2015
  45.  «Mark Zuckerberg anuncia nascimento da filha Max e publica foto do bebê»Tecnologia e Games. Consultado em 2 de dezembro de 2015
  46.  «Mark Zuckerberg vai doar ao longo da vida 99% das suas acções do Facebook»PÚBLICO. Consultado em 2 de dezembro de 2015
  47.  «’A rede social’ é o grande vencedor do Globo de Ouro». 17 de janeiro de 2011
  48.  «Mark Zuckerberg participa de episódio de Os Simpsons»

Ligações externas

Commons possui uma categoria contendo imagens e outros ficheiros sobre Mark Zuckerberg
Precedido por
Ben Bernanke
Pessoa do Ano
Sucedido por
O Manifestante


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Mark Zuckerberg

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Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg

Zuckerberg in 2018
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg

May 14, 1984 (age 35)

Years active 2004–present
Known for Co-founding and leading Facebook, Inc.
Home town Dobbs Ferry, New York, U.S.
Net worth US $54.3 billion (March 2020)[1]
Priscilla Chan (m. 2012)
Children 2
Relatives Randi Zuckerberg (sister)
Donna Zuckerberg (sister)
Mark Zuckerberg Signature.svg

Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (/ˈzʌkərbɜːrɡ/; born May 14, 1984) is an American internet entrepreneur and philanthropist. He co-founded Facebook, Inc. and serves as its chairman, chief executive officer, and controlling shareholder.[3][4] He also co-founded and is a board member of the solar sail spacecraft development project Breakthrough Starshot.[5]

Born in White Plains, New York, Zuckerberg attended Harvard University, where he launched the Facebook social networking service from his dormitory room on February 4, 2004, with college roommates Eduardo SaverinAndrew McCollumDustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes.[6] Originally launched to select college campuses, the site expanded rapidly and eventually beyond colleges, reaching one billion users by 2012. Zuckerberg took the company public in May 2012 with majority shares. His net worth is estimated to be nearly $82 billion as of February 2019, increasing over the past year with Facebook stock as a whole.[7] In 2007, at age 23, he became the world’s youngest self-made billionaire. As of 2019, he is the only person under 50 in the Forbes ten richest people list, and the only one under 40 in the Top 20 Billionaires list.[8]

Since 2010, Time magazine has named Zuckerberg among the 100 wealthiest and most influential people in the world as a part of its Person of the Year award.[9][10][11] In December 2016, Zuckerberg was ranked 10th on Forbes list of The World’s Most Powerful People.[12]

Early life

Zuckerberg was born on May 14, 1984, in White Plains, New York.[13] His parents are Karen (née Kempner), a psychiatrist, and Edward Zuckerberg, a dentist.[14] He and his three sisters, RandiDonna and Arielle, were brought up in Dobbs Ferry, New York, a small Westchester County village about 21 miles north of Midtown Manhattan.[15] Zuckerberg was raised in a Reform Jewish household,[16][better source needed] and his ancestors hailed from Germany, Austria and Poland.[17] He had a Star Wars-themed bar mitzvah when he turned 13.[16][18]

At Ardsley High School, Zuckerberg excelled in classes. After two years, he transferred to the private school Phillips Exeter Academy, where he won prizes in mathematics, astronomy, physics, and classical studies. In his youth, he also attended the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth summer camp. On his college application, Zuckerberg stated that he could read and write French, Hebrew, Latin, and ancient Greek. He was captain of the fencing team.[19][20][21]

Software developer

Early years

Zuckerberg began using computers and writing software in middle school. His father taught him Atari BASIC Programming in the 1990s, and later hired software developer David Newman to tutor him privately. Zuckerberg took a graduate course in the subject at Mercy College near his home while still in high school. In one program, since his father’s dental practice was operated from their home, he built a software program he called “ZuckNet” that allowed all the computers between the house and dental office to communicate with each other. It is considered a “primitive” version of AOL‘s Instant Messenger, which came out the following year.[22][23]

According to writer Jose Antonio Vargas, “some kids played computer games. Mark created them.” Zuckerberg himself recalls this period: “I had a bunch of friends who were artists. They’d come over, draw stuff, and I’d build a game out of it.” Vargas notes that Zuckerberg was not, however, a typical “geek-klutz”, as he later became captain of his prep school fencing team and earned a classics diploma. Napster co-founder Sean Parker, a close friend, notes that Zuckerberg was “really into Greek odysseys and all that stuff”, recalling how he once quoted lines from the Roman epic poem Aeneid, by Virgil, during a Facebook product conference.[15]

During Zuckerberg’s high school years, he worked under the company name Intelligent Media Group to build a music player called the Synapse Media Player. The device used machine learning to learn the user’s listening habits, which was posted to Slashdot[24] and received a rating of 3 out of 5 from PC Magazine.[25]

College years

Mark Zuckerberg with a laptop, facing the camera

Zuckerberg in 2005

Vargas noted that by the time Zuckerberg began classes at Harvard, he had already achieved a “reputation as a programming prodigy”. He studied psychology and computer science and belonged to Alpha Epsilon Pi and Kirkland House.[10][15][26] In his sophomore year, he wrote a program that he called CourseMatch, which allowed users to make class selection decisions based on the choices of other students and also to help them form study groups. A short time later, he created a different program he initially called Facemash that let students select the best-looking person from a choice of photos. According to Arie Hasit, Zuckerberg’s roommate at the time, “he built the site for fun”. Hasit explains:

We had books called Face Books, which included the names and pictures of everyone who lived in the student dorms. At first, he built a site and placed two pictures or pictures of two males and two females. Visitors to the site had to choose who was “hotter” and according to the votes there would be a ranking.[27]

The site went up over a weekend, but by Monday morning, the college shut it down, because its popularity had overwhelmed one of Harvard’s network switches and prevented students from accessing the Internet. In addition, many students complained that their photos were being used without permission. Zuckerberg apologized publicly, and the student paper ran articles stating that his site was “completely improper.”[27]

The following semester, in January 2004, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website.[28] On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched “Thefacebook”, originally located at[29]

Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors, Cameron WinklevossTyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra, accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called, while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product.[30] The three complained to The Harvard Crimson, and the newspaper began an investigation in response.[citation needed]

Following the official launch of the Facebook social media platform, the three filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg that resulted in a settlement.[31] The agreed settlement was for 1.2 million Facebook shares.[32]

Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard in his sophomore year in order to complete his project.[33] In January 2014, he recalled:

I remember really vividly, you know, having pizza with my friends a day or two after—I opened up the first version of Facebook at the time I thought, “You know, someone needs to build a service like this for the world.” But I just never thought that we’d be the ones to help do it. And I think a lot of what it comes down to is we just cared more.[34]

On May 28, 2017, Zuckerberg received an honorary degree from Harvard.[35][36]


External video
 Mark Zuckerberg’s career in 90 secondsThe Daily Telegraph[37]


On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched Facebook from his Harvard dormitory room.[38][39] An earlier inspiration for Facebook may have come from Phillips Exeter Academy, the prep school from which Zuckerberg graduated in 2002. It published its own student directory, “The Photo Address Book”, which students referred to as “The Facebook”. Such photo directories were an important part of the student social experience at many private schools. With them, students were able to list attributes such as their class years, their friends, and their telephone numbers.[38]

Once at college, Zuckerberg’s Facebook started off as just a “Harvard thing” until Zuckerberg decided to spread it to other schools, enlisting the help of roommate Dustin Moskovitz. They began with Columbia UniversityNew York UniversityStanfordDartmouthCornellUniversity of PennsylvaniaBrown, and Yale.[40] Samyr Laine, a triple jumper representing Haiti at the 2012 Summer Olympics, shared a room with Zuckerberg during Facebook’s founding. “Mark was clearly on to great things,” said Laine, who was Facebook’s fourteenth user.[41]

Zuckerberg, Moskovitz and some friends moved to Palo Alto, California in Silicon Valley where they leased a small house that served as an office. Over the summer, Zuckerberg met Peter Thiel, who invested in the company. They got their first office in mid-2004. According to Zuckerberg, the group planned to return to Harvard, but eventually decided to remain in California.[42][43] They had already turned down offers by major corporations to buy the company. In an interview in 2007, Zuckerberg explained his reasoning: “It’s not because of the amount of money. For me and my colleagues, the most important thing is that we create an open information flow for people. Having media corporations owned by conglomerates is just not an attractive idea to me.”[39]

He restated these goals to Wired magazine in 2010: “The thing I really care about is the mission, making the world open.”[44] Earlier, in April 2009, Zuckerberg sought the advice of former Netscape CFO Peter Currie about financing strategies for Facebook.[45] On July 21, 2010, Zuckerberg reported that the company reached the 500 million-user mark.[46] When asked whether Facebook could earn more income from advertising as a result of its phenomenal growth, he explained:

I guess we could … If you look at how much of our page is taken up with ads compared to the average search query. The average for us is a little less than 10 percent of the pages and the average for search is about 20 percent taken up with ads … That’s the simplest thing we could do. But we aren’t like that. We make enough money. Right, I mean, we are keeping things running; we are growing at the rate we want to.[44]

In 2010, Steven Levy, who wrote the 1984 book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, wrote that Zuckerberg “clearly thinks of himself as a hacker“. Zuckerberg said that “it’s OK to break things” “to make them better”.[47][48] Facebook instituted “hackathons” held every six to eight weeks where participants would have one night to conceive of and complete a project.[47] The company provided music, food, and beer at the hackathons, and many Facebook staff members, including Zuckerberg, regularly attended.[48] “The idea is that you can build something really good in a night”, Zuckerberg told Levy. “And that’s part of the personality of Facebook now … It’s definitely very core to my personality.”[47]

Vanity Fair magazine named Zuckerberg number 1 on its 2010 list of the Top 100 “most influential people of the Information Age“.[49] Zuckerberg ranked number 23 on the Vanity Fair 100 list in 2009.[50] In 2010, Zuckerberg was chosen as number 16 in New Statesmans annual survey of the world’s 50 most influential figures.[51]

In a 2011 interview with PBS shortly after the death of Steve Jobs, Zuckerberg said that Jobs had advised him on how to create a management team at Facebook that was “focused on building as high quality and good things as you are”.[52]

Zuckerberg and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev during their meeting at the Russian leader’s residence outside Moscow, October 1, 2012

On October 1, 2012, Zuckerberg visited Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook’s position in the Russian market.[53] Russia’s communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant’s founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. In 2012, Facebook had roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic clone VK had around 34 million.[54] Rebecca Van Dyck, Facebook’s head of consumer marketing, claimed that 85 million American Facebook users were exposed to the first day of the Home promotional campaign on April 6, 2013.[55]

On August 19, 2013, The Washington Post reported that Zuckerberg’s Facebook profile was hacked by an unemployed web developer.[56]

At the 2013 TechCrunch Disrupt conference, held in September, Zuckerberg stated that he is working towards registering the 5 billion people who were not connected to the Internet as of the conference on Facebook. Zuckerberg then explained that this is intertwined with the aim of the project, whereby Facebook, with the support of other technology companies, seeks to increase the number of people connected to the internet.[57][58]

Zuckerberg was the keynote speaker at the 2014 Mobile World Congress (MWC), held in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2014, which was attended by 75,000 delegates. Various media sources highlighted the connection between Facebook’s focus on mobile technology and Zuckerberg’s speech, claiming that mobile represents the future of the company.[59] Zuckerberg’s speech expands upon the goal that he raised at the TechCrunch conference in September 2013, whereby he is working towards expanding Internet coverage into developing countries.[60]

Alongside other American technology figures like Jeff Bezos and Tim Cook, Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the “Internet czar” for his influence in the enforcement of China’s online policy, at Facebook’s headquarters on December 8, 2014. The meeting occurred after Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, 2014, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin Chinese; although Facebook is banned in China, Zuckerberg is highly regarded among the people and was at the university to help fuel the nation’s burgeoning entrepreneur sector.[61]

Zuckerberg fielded questions during a live Q&A session at the company’s headquarters in Menlo Park on December 11, 2014. The founder and CEO explained that he does not believe Facebook is a waste of time, because it facilitates social engagement, and participating in a public session was so that he could “learn how to better serve the community”.[62][63]

Zuckerberg receives a one-dollar salary as CEO of Facebook.[64] In June 2016, Business Insider named Zuckerberg one of the “Top 10 Business Visionaries Creating Value for the World” along with Elon Musk and Sal Khan, due to the fact that he and his wife “pledged to give away 99% of their wealth — which is estimated at $55.0 billion.”[65]


A month after Zuckerberg launched Facebook in February 2004, i2hub, another campus-only service, created by Wayne Chang, was launched. i2hub focused on peer-to-peer file sharing. At the time, both i2hub and Facebook were gaining the attention of the press and growing rapidly in users and publicity. In August 2004, Zuckerberg, Andrew McCollumAdam D’Angelo, and Sean Parker launched a competing peer-to-peer file sharing service called Wirehog, a precursor to Facebook Platform applications.[66][67]

Platform, Beacon, and Connect

Waist high portrait of man in his twenties, looking into the camera and gesturing with both hands, wearing a black pullover shirt that says "The North Face" and wearing identification on a white band hanging from his neck

Zuckerberg at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland (January 2009).

On May 24, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Facebook Platform, a development platform for programmers to create social applications within Facebook. Within weeks, many applications had been built and some already had millions of users. It grew to more than 800,000 developers around the world building applications for Facebook Platform.[68]

On November 6, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Beacon, a social advertising system that enabled people to share information with their Facebook friends based on their browsing activities on other sites. For example, eBay sellers could let friends know automatically what they have for sale via the Facebook news feed as they listed items for sale. The program came under scrutiny because of privacy concerns from groups and individual users. Zuckerberg and Facebook failed to respond to the concerns quickly, and on December 5, 2007, Zuckerberg wrote a blog post on Facebook,[69] taking responsibility for the concerns about Beacon and offering an easier way for users to opt out of the service.

In 2007, Zuckerberg was added to MIT Technology Review‘s TR35 list as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35.[70] On July 23, 2008, Zuckerberg announced Facebook Connect, a version of Facebook Platform for users.[citation needed]

In a public Facebook post, Zuckerberg launched the project in late August 2013. He explained that the primary aim of the initiative is to provide Internet access to the five billion people who are not connected as of the launch date. According to Zuckerberg, would also create new jobs and open up new markets using a three-tier strategy. He stated in his post:

The world economy is going through a massive transition right now. The knowledge economy is the future. By bringing everyone online, we’ll not only improve billions of lives, but we’ll also improve our own as we benefit from the ideas and productivity they contribute to the world. Giving everyone the opportunity to connect is the foundation for enabling the knowledge economy. It is not the only thing we need to do, but it’s a fundamental and necessary step.[58] faced significant opposition in India, where activists said its limited internet ran counter to the idea of net neutrality; Zuckerberg said that a limited internet was better than no internet. was shut down in India in February 2016.[71] Zuckerberg later met with Narendra ModiSatya Nadella and Sundar Pichai in the San Francisco Bay Area to discuss how to effectively establish affordable internet access in less developed countries.[72] He also changed his Facebook profile picture to extend his support to Digital India to help rural communities stay connected to the internet.[73]

Legal controversies

ConnectU lawsuits

Harvard students Cameron WinklevossTyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally making them believe he would help them build a social network called (later called ConnectU).[74] They filed a lawsuit in 2004; it was dismissed on a technicality on March 28, 2007. It was refiled soon thereafter in federal court in Boston. Facebook countersued in regards to Social Butterfly, a project put out by The Winklevoss Chang Group, an alleged partnership between ConnectU and i2hub. On June 25, 2008, the case settled and Facebook agreed to transfer over 1.2 million common shares and pay $20 million in cash.[75]

In November 2007, confidential court documents were posted on the website of 02138, a magazine that catered to Harvard alumni. They included Zuckerberg’s Social Security number, his parents’ home address, and his girlfriend’s address. Facebook filed to have the documents removed; the judge ruled in favor of 02138.[76]

Saverin lawsuit

A lawsuit filed by Eduardo Saverin against Facebook and Zuckerberg was settled out of court. Though terms of the settlement were sealed, the company affirmed Saverin’s title as co-founder of Facebook. Saverin signed a non-disclosure contract after the settlement.[77]

Pakistan criminal investigation

In June 2010, Pakistani Deputy Attorney General Muhammad Azhar Sidiqque launched a criminal investigation into Zuckerberg and Facebook co-founders Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes after a “Draw Muhammad” contest was hosted on Facebook. The investigation named the anonymous German woman who created the contest. Sidiqque asked the country’s police to contact Interpol to have Zuckerberg and the three others arrested for blasphemy. On May 19, 2010, Facebook’s website was temporarily blocked in Pakistan until Facebook removed the contest from its website at the end of May. Sidiqque also asked its UN representative to raise the issue with the United Nations General Assembly.[78][79]

Paul Ceglia

In June 2010, Paul Ceglia, the owner of a wood pellet fuel company in Allegany County, upstate New York, filed suit against Zuckerberg, claiming 84 percent ownership of Facebook and seeking monetary damages. According to Ceglia, he and Zuckerberg signed a contract on April 28, 2003, that an initial fee of $1,000 entitled Ceglia to 50% of the website’s revenue, as well as an additional 1% interest in the business per day after January 1, 2004, until website completion. Zuckerberg was developing other projects at the time, among which was Facemash, the predecessor of Facebook, but did not register the domain name until January 1, 2004. Facebook management dismissed the lawsuit as “completely frivolous”. Facebook spokesman Barry Schnitt told a reporter that Ceglia’s counsel had unsuccessfully sought an out-of-court settlement.[80][81]

On October 26, 2012, federal authorities arrested Ceglia, charging him with mail and wire fraud and of “tampering with, destroying and fabricating evidence in a scheme to defraud the Facebook founder of billions of dollars.” Ceglia is accused of fabricating emails to make it appear that he and Zuckerberg discussed details about an early version of Facebook, although after examining their emails, investigators found there was no mention of Facebook in them.[82] Some law firms withdrew from the case before it was initiated and others after Ceglia’s arrest.[83][84]

Palestinian terror attacks

On July 2, 2016, Israeli cabinet minister Gilad Erdan accused Zuckerberg of having some responsibility for deadly attacks by Palestinians against Israelis.[85] According to him, the social network was not doing enough to ban posts to its platform that incite violence against Israelis.[86] “Some of the victims’ blood is on Zuckerberg’s hands”, Erdan said.[87]

Hawaiian land ownership

In January 2017, Zuckerberg filed eight “quiet title and partition” lawsuits against hundreds of native Hawaiians to purchase small tracts of land which they own. This land is contained within the 700 acres of land in the Hawaiian island of Kauai that Zuckerberg had purchased in 2014. When he learned that Hawaiian land ownership law differs from that of the other 49 states, he dropped the lawsuits.[88][89]

Testimony before U.S. Congress

On April 10 and April 11, 2018, Zuckerberg began testifying before the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation regarding the usage of personal data by Facebook in relation to the Facebook–Cambridge Analytica data breach.[90] He has called the whole affair a breach of trust between Aleksandr KoganCambridge Analytica, and Facebook.[91] Zuckerberg has refused requests to appear to give evidence on the matter to a Parliamentary committee in the United Kingdom.[92]

Depictions in media

The Social Network

A movie based on Zuckerberg and the founding years of Facebook, The Social Network was released on October 1, 2010, starring Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg. After Zuckerberg was told about the film, he responded, “I just wished that nobody made a movie of me while I was still alive.”[93] Also, after the film’s script was leaked on the Internet and it was apparent that the film would not portray Zuckerberg in a wholly positive light, he stated that he wanted to establish himself as a “good guy”.[94] The film is based on the book The Accidental Billionaires by Ben Mezrich, which the book’s publicist once described as “big juicy fun” rather than “reportage”.[95] The film’s screenwriter Aaron Sorkin told New York magazine, “I don’t want my fidelity to be the truth; I want it to be storytelling”, adding, “What is the big deal about accuracy purely for accuracy’s sake, and can we not have the true be the enemy of the good?”[96]

Upon winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Picture on January 16, 2011, producer Scott Rudin thanked Facebook and Zuckerberg “for his willingness to allow us to use his life and work as a metaphor through which to tell a story about communication and the way we relate to each other.”[97] Sorkin, who won for Best Screenplay, retracted some of the impressions given in his script:[98]

I wanted to say to Mark Zuckerberg tonight, if you’re watching, Rooney Mara‘s character makes a prediction at the beginning of the movie. She was wrong. You turned out to be a great entrepreneur, a visionary, and an incredible altruist.

On January 29, 2011, Zuckerberg made a surprise guest appearance on Saturday Night Live, which was hosted by Jesse Eisenberg. They both said it was the first time they had met.[99] Eisenberg asked Zuckerberg, who had been critical of his portrayal by the film, what he thought of the movie. Zuckerberg replied, “It was interesting.”[100] In a subsequent interview about their meeting, Eisenberg explained that he was “nervous to meet him, because I had spent now, a year and a half thinking about him …” He added, “Mark has been so gracious about something that’s really so uncomfortable … The fact that he would do SNL and make fun of the situation is so sweet and so generous. It’s the best possible way to handle something that, I think, could otherwise be very uncomfortable.”[101][102]

Disputed accuracy

Jeff Jarvis, author of the book Public Parts, interviewed Zuckerberg and believed Sorkin made up too much of the story. He stated, “That’s what the internet is accused of doing, making stuff up, not caring about the facts.”[103]

According to David Kirkpatrick, former technology editor at Fortune magazine and author of The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World, (2011),[104] “the film is only “40% true … he is not snide and sarcastic in a cruel way, the way Zuckerberg is played in the movie.” He says that “a lot of the factual incidents are accurate, but many are distorted and the overall impression is false”, and concludes that primarily “his motivations were to try and come up with a new way to share information on the Internet”.[103]

Although the film portrayed Zuckerberg’s creation of Facebook in order to elevate his stature after not getting into any of the elite final clubs at Harvard, Zuckerberg said he had no interest in joining the clubs.[15] Kirkpatrick agreed that the impression implied by the film is “false”. Karel Baloun, a former senior engineer at Facebook, noted that the “image of Zuckerberg as a socially inept nerd is overstated … It is fiction …” He likewise dismissed the film’s assertion that he “would deliberately betray a friend.”[103]

Other depictions

Graffiti depicting Zuckerberg on the Israeli West Bank barrier in Bethlehem, July 2018

Zuckerberg voiced himself on an episode of The Simpsons titled “Loan-a Lisa“, which first aired on October 3, 2010. In the episode, Lisa Simpson and her friend Nelson encounter Zuckerberg at an entrepreneurs’ convention. Zuckerberg tells Lisa that she does not need to graduate from college to be wildly successful, referencing Bill Gates and Richard Branson as examples.[105]

On October 9, 2010, Saturday Night Live lampooned Zuckerberg and Facebook.[106] Andy Samberg played Zuckerberg. The real Zuckerberg was reported to have been amused: “I thought this was funny.”[107]

Stephen Colbert awarded a “Medal of Fear” to Zuckerberg at the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear on October 30, 2010, “because he values his privacy much more than he values yours”.[108]

Zuckerberg appears in the climax of the documentary film Terms and Conditions May Apply.[109][110][111]

Zuckerberg was parodied in the South Park episode “Franchise Prequel“.[112]

On December 7, 2018, Epic Rap Battles of History released a rap battle between Zuckerberg and Elon Musk.[113]

Philanthropy and Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

Chan and Zuckerberg in PragueCzech Republic, 2013

Zuckerberg donated an undisclosed amount to Diaspora, an open-source personal Web server that implements a distributed social networking service. He called it a “cool idea”.[44]

Zuckerberg founded the Start-up: Education foundation.[114][115] On September 22, 2010, it was reported that Zuckerberg had donated $100 million to Newark Public Schools, the public school system of Newark, New Jersey.[116][117] Critics noted the timing of the donation as being close to the release of The Social Network, which painted a somewhat negative portrait of Zuckerberg.[118] Zuckerberg responded to the criticism, saying, “The thing that I was most sensitive about with the movie timing was, I didn’t want the press about The Social Network movie to get conflated with the Newark project. I was thinking about doing this anonymously just so that the two things could be kept separate.”[119] Newark Mayor Cory Booker stated that he and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie had to convince Zuckerberg’s team not to make the donation anonymously.[119] The money was largely wasted, according to journalist Dale Russakoff.[120][121]

On December 9, 2010, Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, and investor Warren Buffett signed “The Giving Pledge“, in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time, and invited others among the wealthy to donate 50 percent or more of their wealth to charity.[122]

In December 2012, Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan announced that over the course of their lives they would give the majority of their wealth to “advancing human potential and promoting equality” in the spirit of The Giving Pledge.[123][124]

On December 1, 2015, they announced they would eventually give 99 percent of their Facebook shares (worth about US$45 billion at the time) to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.[125][126]

On December 19, 2013, Zuckerberg announced a donation of 18 million Facebook shares to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, to be executed by the end of the month—based on Facebook’s valuation as of then, the shares totaled $990 million in value. On December 31, 2013, the donation was recognized as the largest charitable gift on public record for 2013.[127] The Chronicle of Philanthropy placed Zuckerberg and his wife at the top of the magazine’s annual list of 50 most generous Americans for 2013, having donated roughly $1 billion to charity.[128]

In October 2014, Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan donated US$25 million to combat the Ebola virus disease, specifically the West African Ebola virus epidemic.[129][130] in 2016, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative announced that it would give $600 million to Biohub, a collaborative research space in San Francisco’s Mission Bay District near the University of California, San Francisco, with the intent to foster interaction and collaboration between scientists at UCSF, University of California, Berkeley, and Stanford University. Intellectual property generated at Biohub would be jointly owned by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative and the discoverer’s home institution.[131]

On December 1, 2015, Zuckerberg and Chan pledged to transfer 99% of their Facebook shares, then valued at US$45 billion, to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, their new organization that will focus on health and education. The funds will not be transferred immediately, but over the course of their lives.[132][133] Instead of forming a charitable corporation to donate the value of the stock to, as Bill GatesWarren BuffettLarry PageSergey Brin and other billionaires have done, Zuckerberg and Chan chose to use the structure of a limited liability company (LLC). This has drawn criticism from a number of journalists.[134][135][136][137]


Zuckerberg listening to President Barack Obama before a private meeting where Obama dined with technology business leaders in Woodside, California, February 17, 2011.

In 2002, Zuckerberg registered to vote in Westchester County, New York, where he grew up, but did not cast a ballot until November 2008. Santa Clara County Registrar of Voters Spokeswoman, Elma Rosas, told Bloomberg that Zuckerberg is listed as “no preference” on voter rolls, and he voted in at least two of the past three general elections, in 2008 and 2012.[138][139]

Zuckerberg has never revealed his own political views: some news outlets consider him to be a conservative,[140][141] while others consider him liberal.[142]

On February 13, 2013, Zuckerberg hosted his first ever fundraising event for New Jersey Governor Chris Christie. Zuckerberg’s particular interest on this occasion was education reform, and Christie’s education reform work focused on teachers unions and the expansion of charter schools.[143][144] Later that year, Zuckerberg hosted a campaign fundraiser for Newark mayor Cory Booker, who was running in the 2013 New Jersey special Senate election.[145] In September 2010, with the support of Governor Chris Christie, Booker obtained a US$100 million pledge from Zuckerberg to Newark Public Schools.[146] In December 2012, Zuckerberg donated 18 million shares to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, a community organization that includes education in its list of grant-making areas.[147][148]

Zuckerberg with Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, 2015

On April 11, 2013, Zuckerberg led the launch of a 501(c)(4) lobbying group called The founders and contributors to the group were primarily Silicon Valley entrepreneurs and investors, and its president was Joe Green, a close friend of Zuckerberg.[149][150][151][152] The goals of the group include immigration reform, improving the state of education in the United States, and enabling more technological breakthroughs that benefit the public,[153][154] yet it has also been criticized for financing ads advocating a variety of oil and gas development initiatives, including drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Keystone XL pipeline.[155] In 2013, numerous liberal and progressive groups, such as The League of Conservation, the Sierra ClubDemocracy for America, CREDO, Daily, and Presente and Progressives United agreed to either pull their Facebook ad buys or not buy Facebook ads for at least two weeks, in protest of Zuckerberg ads funded by that were in support of oil drilling and the Keystone XL pipeline, and in opposition to Obamacare among Republican United States senators who back immigration reform.[clarification needed][156]

A media report on June 20, 2013 revealed that Zuckerberg actively engaged with Facebook users on his own profile page after the online publication of a video. In response to a claim that the organization is “just about tech wanting to hire more people”, the Internet entrepreneur replied: “The bigger problem we’re trying to address is ensuring the 11 million undocumented folks living in this country now and similar folks in the future are treated fairly.”[157]

In June 2013, Zuckerberg joined Facebook employees in a company float as part of the annual San Francisco Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Celebration. The company first participated in the event in 2011, with 70 employees, and this number increased to 700 for the 2013 march. The 2013 pride celebration was especially significant, as it followed a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that deemed the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional.[158][159]

Zuckerberg and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 2016

When questioned about the mid-2013 PRISM scandal at the TechCrunch Disrupt conference in September 2013, Zuckerberg stated that the U.S. government “blew it.” He further explained that the government performed poorly in regard to the protection of the freedoms of its citizens, the economy, and companies.[57]

Zuckerberg placed a statement on his Facebook wall on December 9, 2015 which said that he wants “to add my voice in support of Muslims in our community and around the world” in response to the aftermath of the November 2015 Paris attacks and the 2015 San Bernardino attack.[160][161][162][163] The statement also said that Muslims are “always welcome” on Facebook, and that his position was a result of the fact that “as a Jew, my parents taught me that we must stand up against attacks on all communities.”[164][165]

On February 24, 2016, Zuckerberg sent out a company-wide internal memo to employees formally rebuking employees who had crossed out handwritten “Black Lives Matter” phrases on the company walls and had written “All Lives Matter” in their place. Facebook allows employees to free-write thoughts and phrases on company walls. The memo was then leaked by several employees. As Zuckerberg had previously condemned this practice at previous company meetings, and other similar requests had been issued by other leaders at Facebook, Zuckerberg wrote in the memo that he would now consider this overwriting practice not only disrespectful, but “malicious as well.” According to Zuckerberg’s memo, “Black Lives Matter doesn’t mean other lives don’t – it’s simply asking that the black community also achieves the justice they deserve.” The memo also noted that the act of crossing something out in itself, “means silencing speech, or that one person’s speech is more important than another’s.” Zuckerberg also said in the memo that he would be launching investigations into the incidents.[166][167][168] New York’s Daily News interviewed Facebook employees who commented anonymously that, “Zuckerberg was genuinely angry about the incident and it really encouraged staff that Zuckerberg showed a clear understanding of why the phrase ‘Black Lives Matter’ must exist, as well as why writing through it is a form of harassment and erasure.”[166]

In January 2017, Zuckerberg criticized Donald Trump’s executive order to severely limit immigrants and refugees from some countries.[169]

Cambridge Analytica whistleblower Christopher Wylie criticized Zuckerberg over Facebook’s role in spreading religious intolerance in Sri Lanka.[170] Moulavi Zahran Hashim, a radical Islamist imam believed to be the mastermind behind the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, preached on a pro-ISIL Facebook account, known as “Al-Ghuraba” media.[171][172]

The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative has funded a state-level ballot initiative for the 2020 general election that would raise taxes by altering Proposition 13 to require the tax assessment of commercial and industrial properties in California at market rate.[173]

Personal life

Zuckerberg met his then-future wife, fellow student Priscilla Chan, at a fraternity party during his sophomore year at Harvard. They began dating in 2003.[174][175]

In September 2010, Zuckerberg invited Chan, by then a medical student at the University of California,[176] to move into his rented Palo Alto house. Zuckerberg studied Mandarin in preparation for the couple’s visit to China in December 2010.[177][178] On May 19, 2012, Zuckerberg and Chan married in Zuckerberg’s backyard in an event that also celebrated her graduation from medical school.[179][180][181] On July 31, 2015, Zuckerberg announced that the couple was expecting a baby girl and revealed that Chan had experienced three miscarriages previously.[182] On December 1, Zuckerberg announced the birth of their daughter, Maxima Chan Zuckerberg (“Max”).[183][184] The couple announced in their Chinese New Year video that Maxima’s official Chinese name is Chen Mingyu (Chinese陈明宇).[185] They welcomed their second daughter, August, in August 2017.[186]

Their Puli dog, Beast[187] has over two million followers on Facebook.[188]

Zuckerberg has been very active in China. He has been a member of Tsinghua University business school’s advisory board since 2014.[189]

Raised Jewish, Zuckerberg once identified as an atheist, yet has since revised his views. In 2016, he said: “I was raised Jewish and then I went through a period where I questioned things, but now I believe religion is very important.”[19][190][191]

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Mark Zuckerberg: o estudante que revolucionou as relações sociais na era digital

Nome completo:  Mark Elliot Zuckerberg
Ocupação:  Desenvolvedor e empresário
Local de Nascimento:  White Plains, Estados Unidos
Data de Nascimento:  14 de maio de 1984
Fortuna:  US$ 77 bilhões

Quem é Mark Zuckerberg?

É difícil encontrar alguém que nunca tenha tido ao menos uma interação com algum dos aplicativos do grupo comandado por Mark Zuckerberg, como Facebook, Instagram e Whatsapp.

Enquanto seus aplicativos são praticamente unanimidade, o homem por trás desse império das redes sociais teve sua relativamente curta trajetória nos negócios envolta em polêmicas.

Quando Mark Zuckerberg começou a escrever os primeiros códigos do Facebook, ainda com 19 anos, no seu alojamento em Harvard, ele passou a redefinir o conceito de interação na internet — e também a colecionar desafetos.

Vindo de uma família de classe média, Zuckerberg sempre gostou de programação de computadores. Desde cedo, desenvolveu diversos aplicativos fechados para sua família e amigos ou abertos ao público, antes de começar o que pode ser chamado de sua obra-prima: o Facebook.

O potencial da rede social parecia tamanho que Zuckerberg abandonou sua formação em psicologia e ciência da computação, em Harvard, para transformar o Facebook em um negócio viável, na companhia de seus colegas de faculdade e cofundadores: Chris Hughes, Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz e Andrew McCollum.

Além do projeto de sua vida, foi também em Harvard que conheceu Priscilla Chan, com quem se casou em 2012 e tem duas filhas. Chan é sua companheira na iniciativa de doar 99% da fortuna de US$ 77 bilhões para projetos sociais.

Família e formação

O bilionário criador do Facebook nasceu em uma família de classe média alta no subúrbio de Nova York, filho da psiquiatra Karen Zuckerberg e do dentista Edward Zuckerberg. Seus irmãos são Randi, Donna e Arielle.

Como a maioria dos jovens nascidos nos anos 1980 nos EUA, Mark Zuckerberg teve contato logo cedo com computadores. Na adolescência, já brincava de escrever códigos de programas.

O primeiro empurrão veio de seu pai, Edward, que o ensinou a linguagem BASIC utilizada nos consoles do Atari. Ao perceber o interesse de seu filho, contratou um professor particular de programação.

Os resultados da tutoria particular começaram a aparecer em pouco tempo. Aos 11 anos, Mark escreveu um programa para conectar os computadores da família e aquele utilizado por seu pai, que trabalhava de casa.

O objetivo era simples: poder falar com o pai entre as consultas e avisar quando o próximo paciente havia chegado, sem precisar correr pela casa. A solução foi batizada de ZuckNet e era uma rede com comunicador instantâneo que permitia a troca de mensagens entre as máquinas.

Desenvolvimento em série

Depois do mensageiro, Zuckerberg criou um tocador de música que embutia uma das principais características do que seria o Facebook no futuro: a tentativa de prever o que o usuário quer consumir.

Desenvolvido em parceria com seu colega e o futuro diretor de tecnologia da rede social, Adam D’Angelo, o programa em sua aparência não era tão diferente dos diversos tocadores de MP3 da época, como o Winamp ou Windows Media Player.

Seu diferencial aparecia depois de uns dias de uso, quando o programa cruzava dados das músicas já ouvidas e passava a indicar as próximas músicas.

O uso de inteligência artificial para prever o futuro chamou a atenção de gigantes como a AOL e a Microsoft, que fizeram oferta para comprar por cerca de US$ 1 milhão o Synapse Media Player da dupla, com uma proposta de emprego para seguir desenvolvendo o programa.

Talvez por rebeldia, eles recusaram a oferta de compra, mas decidiram publicar o código-fonte gratuitamente, enquanto se preparavam para entrar na faculdade.

Antes da matrícula, no entanto, o pai de Zuckerberg ofereceu ao filho – e às suas três irmãs – a possibilidade de abrir uma franquia do McDonald´s em vez de ir para a faculdade.

Essa proposta também foi recusada, e Zuckerberg se matriculou na prestigiosa Universidade de Harvard para cursar Ciência da Computação e Psicologia.

Em seu segundo ano de estudo, ele criou mais um sistema que trouxe características que conhecemos hoje no Facebook, o CourseMatch, que utilizava inteligência coletiva para dar sugestões de matérias aos alunos de Harvard.

O sistema ajudava a escolher as aulas com base nas decisões de outros usuários, além de facilitar a criação de grupos de estudos.

Em outubro do mesmo ano, Zuckerberg desenvolveu o Facemash, uma tipo de precursor do Facebook. Recuperando-se de uma desilusão amorosa, ele criou uma brincadeira para alunos de Harvard escolherem seus colegas mais bonitos em “batalhas virtuais”.

Para montar o Facemash, ele acessou ilegalmente os sites dos alojamentos e capturou registros com nomes e fotos dos moradores. Em um final de semana de outubro de 2003, o site foi ao ar. Mas ao menos a coordenação da universidade não achou muita graça na brincadeira.

Com a viralização da página, o sistema recebeu, em quatro horas, 450 visitas que avaliaram 22.000 fotos, o suficiente para derrubar um dos switches da universidade, atrapalhando a conexão à internet. Na segunda-feira seguinte, o site foi retirado do ar.

Junto com o sucesso, vieram as primeiras queixas sobre privacidade. Diversos alunos reclamaram de que sua imagem foi utilizada por Zuckerberg sem sua permissão.

Mark reconheceu o erro e pediu desculpas, o que contribuiu para que Harvard não o expulsasse e retirasse as acusações de quebra de copyright, quebra de segurança e violação de intimidade.

A criação do Facebook

Naquela época, havia uma demanda entre os estudantes para que Harvard criasse um site que incluísse mais informações sobre os alunos e facilitasse a comunicação entre eles.

Neste ambiente, Zuckerberg decidiu se antecipar e desenvolver seu próprio site para unir os colegas, pois, segundo ele, “poderia fazer melhor do que eles, e conseguiria fazer em uma semana”.

Em janeiro de 2004, começou a escrever em seu alojamento as primeiras linhas do novo projeto para integrar os alunos de Harvard. A ideia foi dividida com seu colega, o brasileiro Eduardo Saverin, e cada um investiu US$ 1.000 no projeto.

Mas o intenso trabalho de programação de Zuckerberg faria com que a divisão da sociedade fosse de dois terços para ele e um terço para o brasileiro. Assim, no dia 4 de fevereiro do mesmo ano, foi ao ar Thefacebook.

Mark Zuckerberg foi a primeira pessoa a se inscrever no próprio site, mas, curiosamente, seu número de série é 4, atrás de três perfis falsos criados por ele mesmo para testar o sistema.

Com o site no ar, Zuckerberg passou a convidar os amigos, pedindo que eles se inscrevessem e convidassem outras pessoas. Nas primeiras 24 horas, o site já tinha mais de mil alunos de Harvard cadastrados e, no fim do primeiro mês, metade dos estudantes da universidade já tinham seu perfil no Thefacebook.

O site não era nada parecido com a gigante rede social que pode ser acessada hoje. Não havia o mural, nem o feed de notícias. Tratava-se de um ambiente online para o usuário inserir informações pessoais e conectar-se com amigos de Harvard – apenas Harvard, já que, para fazer o cadastro, era necessário ter um e-mail interno da universidade.

Apesar da interface relativamente simples, a adesão foi massiva. Com o sucesso, Zuckerberg chegou a ser entrevistado para o jornal da universidade. Afirmou que não havia criado o site para gerar receita e que “não venderia endereço de e-mail de ninguém”, pois essa busca por dinheiro deixaria tudo “mais sério e menos divertido”.

O sucesso inicial levou Zuckerberg e Saverin a buscar ajuda. Pouco depois de colocar o site no ar, eles chamaram os colegas de faculdade Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum e Chris Hughes para fazer parte do projeto. É por isso que, hoje, os cinco são considerados fundadores do Facebook.

Dois meses após a criação do site, os fundadores decidiram ir além de Harvard e abriram as inscrições para outras universidades da chamada Ivy League, que incluem as melhores escolas dos Estados Unidos.

Com o crescimento explosivo do Facebook, e contra a vontade dos pais, Zuckerberg decidiu interromper os estudos e mudar-se para Palo Alto, na Califórnia, junto com seus sócios.

Lá, alugaram uma casa para servir de escritório. Uma das primeiras ações oficiais dos jovens empresários foi comprar o domínio por US$ 200.000 e tirar o “the” do nome oficial da empresa.

No processo de abertura da rede para mais membros, o Facebook chegou a universidades em diversos países e abriu acesso para jovens do ensino médio dos EUA e para funcionários de grandes empresas como Apple e Microsoft.

Até que, em setembro de 2006, dois anos e meio após a fundação, o Facebook foi finalmente aberto para todas as pessoas com e-mail válido, acima dos 13 anos.

O crescimento no número de usuários foi explosivo. Ao final de 2008, eram mais de 100 milhões de contas. Em julho de 2010, esse número havia batido 500 milhões. O primeiro bilhão veio em setembro de 2012, e o segundo bilhão em julho de 2017.

O tamanho do império

Para financiar o crescimento, o Facebook recebeu US$ 500.000 em uma rodada de investimento anjo liderada por Peter Thiel em meados de 2004, nos primeiros meses da rede social. Cofundador do PayPal, o alemão ficou com 10,2% da companhia e assumiu uma cadeira no conselho.

A rodada Series A, de US$ 12,7 milhões, foi liderada pela Accel em abril de 2005. Com a capitalização, a rede social foi avaliada em US$ 98 milhões. No ano seguinte, a Greylock liderou a Series B com US$ 27,5 milhões, ao atribuir um valor de US$ 500 milhões ao Facebook.

O sucesso também atraiu as gigantes da tecnologia. Zuckerberg negou diversas tentativas de venda para empresas como Yahoo, Microsoft e Google até que, em outubro de 2007, a Microsoft adquiriu 1,6% do Facebook por US$ 240 milhões, o que colocava a rede social com um valor de mercado de US$ 15 bilhões.

O próximo passo na capitalização veio em fevereiro de 2012, com o IPO (sigla em inglês de oferta inicial de ações) na Nasdaq. Ao preço de US$ 38 por ação, o objetivo inicial de levantar cerca de US$ 5 bilhões.

Foi a terceira maior oferta inicial realizada em bolsa de valores até aquela data, com os lotes extras levando o volume de captação a US$ 16 bilhões.

No começo de 2020, o Facebook operava acima dos US$ 220, um retorno total de 480% sobre o valor do IPO. Zuckerberg segue como o principal acionista com cerca de 20% do capital e mais de 50% do direito de voto, o que dá a ele total controle sobre os caminhos da companhia.

Zuckerberg vai às compras

Após as rodadas de financiamento e com a rede social passando a dar lucro pela primeira vez em setembro de 2009, o Facebook começou a olhar para o mercado, em busca de empresas para adquirir e adicionar valor ao seu negócio.

A primeira compra ocorreu em 2009, com a incorporação do agregador de notícias e redes sociais FriendFeed por US$ 47,5 milhões, sendo US$ 15 milhões em dinheiro e US$ 32,5 milhões em ações da rede social. O projeto, no entanto, foi encerrado em 2015.

Em seguida, o Facebook comprou uma série empresas para se fortalecer com soluções prontas, em vez de desenvolver tudo internamente. Em 2010, a rede social agregou a Octazen Solution, especialista em importação de contatos, e a Divvyshot, para compartilhamento de imagens.

O primeiro nome de peso apareceu em 2012, com a compra do Instagram por US$ 1 bilhão. O momento foi estratégico para as duas empresas: o Instagram acabava de abrir seu feed para aparelhos Android, enquanto o Facebook completava poucas semanas de seu IPO.

O ano seguinte foi de aquisições de menor porte, com a incorporação do time de desenvolvimento da Storylane, por valor não revelado, e a empresa de análises Onavo, por US$ 120 milhões.

Essas compras abriram caminho para a mais pesada aquisição da história do Facebook. Em fevereiro de 2014, a rede social desembolsou US$ 19 bilhões em dinheiro e ações para comprar o WhatsApp, concorrente de seu produto Messenger. Na época, o aplicativo tinha quase 600 milhões de usuários e superou o marco de 1 bilhão de usuários dois anos após a compra.

Em uma aposta na realidade virtual, comprou a startup Oculus VR, que desenvolve óculos, por US$ 2 bilhões em 2014. O projeto, que por enquanto rendeu poucos frutos ao Facebook, segue sendo desenvolvido com a crença de que a tecnologia será essencial no futuro.

Na última grande polêmica, o Facebook anunciou em 2019 a criação de uma criptomoeda, a Libra, que deverá entrar em operação em 2020. A ideia é criar uma moeda lastreada em dólares, euros, ienes, libras e dólares de Singapura para gerir os pagamentos na rede social.

O projeto sofreu ataques pesados de organizações, banco centrais e governos de diversos países. A Europa criticou fortemente o controle de meios de pagamento pelo Facebook, enquanto a França avisou que a Libra seria proibida no país e a Alemanha ameaçou classificar a empresa como um banco informal. Os reguladores americanos pediram para que o Facebook interrompesse o projeto.

A crítica pública e as disputas internas fizeram com que gigantes como PayPal, eBay, Visa, Mastercard e Mercado Pago abandonassem o projeto em outubro de 2019.

Cambridge Analytics e disputas na Justiça

A ascensão meteórica do Facebook tem um capítulo importante de disputas legais e éticas, que acabaram afetando a imagem de Mark Zuckerberg e da própria rede social.

No caso mais emblemático, Zuckerberg e Facebook sofreram um grande abalo em suas imagens  ao reagir com pouca transparência no caso do roubo de dados pela Cambridge Analytics. Em 2018, um ex-funcionário da Cambridge contou que a empresa havia capturado irregularmente dados de milhões de americanos para uso em campanhas políticas.

O caso era de conhecimento do Facebook desde, ao menos, 2015, mas a rede social se recusou a comentar publicamente o roubo de dados e alertar os usuários afetados. O escândalo fez desaparecer mais de US$ 100 bilhões em valor de mercado do Facebook e fortaleceu a posição daqueles que defendem uma regulação governamental das redes sociais.

Mark Zuckerberg pediu desculpas após o caso vir a público, mas evitou rotular o escândalo como roubo de dados, ao defender que as pessoas aceitaram compartilhar suas informações com a Cambridge Analytics.

Em depoimento ao Congresso americano em 2018, a imagem do empresário ficou ainda mais abalada com sua aparição com rosto pálido e atitude evasiva ao evitar responder diretamente diversas perguntas de deputados e senadores.

O Facebook recebeu uma multa de cerca de US$ 5 bilhões do governo dos EUA e ainda deverá ser punido em diversos outros países afetados, como o Reino Unido. Na esteira do escândalo, diversos grupos passaram a defender mais ativamente a regulação e possível divisão da empresa, considerada monopolista, além de movimentos de boicote ao Facebook e muitos memes com o rosto pálido de Zuckerberg.

Entre as controvérsias já resolvidas, está a disputa entre os fundadores Zuckerberg e o brasileiro Eduardo Saverin. No primeiro ano da rede social, Zuckerberg decidiu reduzir a participação do seu sócio, que não estava trabalhando diariamente na companhia.

Em uma jogada societária, criou uma empresa que incorporou o Facebook e, na mudança, distribuiu um valor menor de ações para Saverin. A resposta? Saverin bloqueou todas as contas bancárias da empresa.

O brasileiro entrou na Justiça contra Zuckerberg e o Facebook e conseguiu um acordo extrajudicial, cujos termos não foram revelados. Parte da disputa foi contada no filme A Rede Social, de 2010.

Zuckerberg também enfrentou a acusação de que mentiu para colegas de Harvard ao fingir participar de um projeto de uma rede social da faculdade – chamada de HarvardConnection e rebatizada, posteriormente, de ConnectU –, enquanto ganhava tempo desenvolvendo o Facebook.

Em acordo judicial em que foi acusado de roubar a ideia de rede social e intencionalmente atrasar o projeto concorrente, o Facebook pagou US$ 20 milhões em dinheiro e 1,2 milhão em ações.

Mark Zuckerberg na F8 2019

Mark Zuckerberg na F8 2019 (Reprodução)

Leia também:
• Como comprar ações do Facebook; passo a passo para investir

Jeito Zuck de ser

Mark Zuckerberg é descrito como um nerd bastante competitivo por seus amigos e colegas de trabalho, que não mede esforços para limpar o caminho que trilha para o Facebook.

Ainda jovem, quando não estava programando, competia com sua equipe de matemática, disputava olimpíadas de ciência e participava de “batalhas” na sociedade de latim da qual fazia parte.

Esportes também entravam na lista. Em 2000, por exemplo, foi considerado o melhor atleta na competição regional de esgrima de Nova York.

O seu perfil agressivo rendeu diversas disputas com amigos e colegas como o brasileiro Eduardo Saverin e o fundador do Naspter e ex-presidente do Facebook, o investidor Sean Parker, que foi colocado na berlinda após ser preso em uma festa.

Para alimentar seu espírito competitivo, Zuckerberg costuma criar desafios aleatórios anuais para si. Em 2009, decidiu que usaria gravata o ano inteiro para demonstrar como aquele período seria importante para o Facebook.

Isso veio do jovem que anos antes se reuniu de pijamas com investidores da Sequoia Capital, em um sinal de que não mudaria sua identidade.

Sua forte personalidade reflete na própria empresa. Inclusive na cor escolhida como símbolo. Daltônico, ele escolheu a cor azul, por ser uma das únicas que consegue enxergar bem em diferentes tons.

No começo da carreira, Zuckerberg carregava dois cartões de visita. Um, muito profissional, com seu nome, cargo e endereço. E outro que incluía a frase “I’m CEO… Bitch”. Era uma tentativa de impor autoridade e soar como Steve Jobs, o gênio por trás da Apple e fonte de inspiração de Zuckerberg.

O empresário é casado com sua namorada de faculdade, a médica Priscilla Chan. Os dois se conheceram em uma festa da fraternidade em 2003 estão juntos desde então.

O casamento ocorreu um dia após o IPO do Facebook, em maio de 2012, no jardim da sua casa, em uma cerimônia íntima e surpresa para 100 convidados, que achavam que participariam de uma cerimônia para a formatura de Priscilla.

O casal tem dois filhas, a mais velha Maxima, nascida em dezembro de 2015, e a August, de agosto de 2017. A família tem ainda um cachorro, o Beast, da raça Puli, que tem mais de 2,5 milhões de seguidores no Facebook.

Em 2015, Mark e Priscilla criaram a empresa Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, que contou com aporte inicial de US$ 1 bilhão em ações do Facebook.

Juntos, apoiam startups de educação com foco na África e na Índia, além de pesquisas científicas na área de saúde. O casal também faz doações pontuais para hospitais, escolas e políticas de combate a surtos como o Ebola.

No espírito do Giving Plegde, iniciativa criada pelo casal Bill e Melinda Gates e o investidor Warren Buffett para que bilionários doem sua fortuna para caridade, a Chan Zuckerberg Initiative servirá como meio para que Zuckerberg e Priscilla possam doar 99% de sua fortuna no Facebook.

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Para saber mais:

Quer saber mais sobre Mark Zuckerberg e a sua trajetória? Confira a seleção do InfoMoney com filmes, livros e entrevistas.

A Rede Social, filme de 2010
O Efeito Facebook, livro de David Kirkpatrick de 2011
Bilionários por Acaso, livro de Ben Mezrich de 2009
Os heróis da revolução: Como Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg e outros mudaram para sempre as nossas vidas, livro de Steven Levy de 2012
The Battle For Facebook, matéria de Claire Hoffaman da Rolling Stones em 2010