Department of Defense — United States of America – USA @ Live – Information – My messages to be read by Department of Defense of USA – Probability # Minhas mensagens para serem lidas pelo Departamento de Defesa dos Estados Unidos da América – Probabilidade(s) & Leitura – Reading – Informações – Informações & Conhecimento – Knowledgement @ Global race to a COVID-19 vaccine – Team at Harvard plans to launch clinical trial in fall @ Jim Allison: Breakthrough – Trailer – Jim Allison won the Nobel Prize for discovering the immune system’s role in defeating cancer, but his lengthy journey to get there was filled with barriers and criticism. @ HOW IS IT POSSIBLE THAT THE UNIVERSE EXTENDS TO 93 BILLION LIGHT-YEARS IF IT IS ONLY 13.8 BILLION YEARS OLD? @ FDA warns against using hydroxychloroquine for coronavirus NBC News Erika Edwards ,NBC News•April 24, 2020 #¨$&@ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog @ Links about ´´my´´ dissertation, my monograph and animal models for human diseases like cardiovascular diseases & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer @ The discussion of certain facts in science envolving stastistics is fundamental to the scientific community, for example, the analysis and interpretation of very important, innovative and interesting graphics with no statistical difference between them can have a big value to the researches and to the future researches. So, the quality and efficiency of researches can increase so much in a little time, increasing the possiblities of excellent references and new scientific discoveries. The facts veracity and the disclosure of them are essential for the scientific community, of course & VERY IMPORTANT WEBSITES, SOCIAL NETWORKS, LINKS AND IMAGES

Do the downloads!! Share!! The diffusion of very important information and knowledge is essential for the world progress always!! Thanks!!

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Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1 – GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2 – GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2 – GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

´´We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance from 0.05 to 0.005 for claims of new discoveries.´´ https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0189-z Published:  Daniel J. Benjamin, James O. Berger, […]Valen E. Johnson Nature Human Behaviour volume 2, pages6–10 (2018)

Um mundo além de p < 0,05 « Sandra Merlo – Fonoaudiologia da Fluência

´´My´´ Monografia – Monograph – Induction of benznidazole resistance in human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates – Indução de resistência ao benzonidazol em isolados humanos de Trypanosoma cruzi – UFTM – Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro – Uberaba 

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

Article – ´´My´´ dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação pelo Messenger – Facebook. Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Facebook – Messenger. Year – Ano: 2018

LISTA DE NOMES DE PESSOAS QUE ME DERAM FEEDBACK POSITIVO SOBRE A LISTA DE EMAILS QUE FIZ EM 2015 (PROJETO) – PEOPLE´S NAMES (POSITIVE FEEDBACK ABOUT THE EMAIL LIST I DID IN 2015) – E-MAIL LIST – LISTA DE E-MAILS – PROJECT – PESQUISA -RESEARCH

My suggestion of a very important Project…

Apostila – Pubmed

A Psicossomática Psicanalítica – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

ÁCIDO HIALURÔNICO – HIALURONIC ACID – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – Mestrado final – ´´My´´ dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

O Homem como Sujeito da Realidade da Saúde – Redação – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Aula_Resultados – Results – FAMERP – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

As credenciais da ciência – The credentials of Science – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto BaixarFrases que digitei – Phrases I typed

Frases que digitei – Tecnologia – Informations about blog I did

Keynote-The-Future-of-Space-Exploration(1)

2019-01-hormone-alzheimer(1)

mojap-02-00034

ajpheart.00349.2013

aging – animal models

Nanomedicine an evolving research (Opinion article I typed)

journal-of-nanomedicine–nanotechnology-flyer

Will you embrace AI fast enough

MICROBIOLOGIA – MICROBIOLOGY – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Genes e Epilepsia – Genes and epilepsy – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Dr.A.M.S

Flav_R03

BIOGRAFIA – BIOGRAPH – DR. DOMINGO MARCOLINO BRAILE

p-Value – Valor de p

european-respiratory-society

redefine-statistical-significance

http://www.harvard.edu http://www.linkedin.com http://www.google.com http://www.facebook.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.gmail.com http://www.princeton.edu https://www.ox.ac.uk/

http://www.twitter.com http://www.youtube.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.mit.edu http://www.nobelprize.org http://www.stanford.edu http://www.ucla.edu http://www.caltech.edu http://www.nasa.gov http://www.nobelprize.org http://www.wikipedia.org https://www.cam.ac.uk/ https://www.karolinska.se/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer

´´The discussion of certain facts in science envolving stastistics is fundamental to the scientific community, for example, the analysis and interpretation of very important, innovative and interesting graphics with no statistical difference between them can have a big value to the researches and to the future researches. So, the quality and efficiency of researches can increase so much in a little time, increasing the possiblities of excellent references and new scientific discoveries. The facts veracity and the disclosure of them are essential for the scientific community, of course´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´DESCOBRIR COMO FUNCIONA OS ESTÁGIOS INICIAIS DE UMA DETERMINADA DOENÇA, TAL COMO UMA DOENÇA FATAL, É DE ENORME IMPORTÂNCIA PARA A CIÊNCIA , COM CERTEZA. HÁ VÁRIOS FATORES BIOLÓGICOS INTERLIGADOS NO CORPO HUMANO QUE ATUAM DE FORMA MUITO COMPLEXA. PORTANTO, É DE GRANDE NECESSIDADE A REALIZAÇÃO DE NOVAS PESQUISAS CIENTÍFICAS MUITO MAIS MINUCIOSAS E MODERNAS, COM ALTO GRAU DE PRECISÃO, MESMO QUE NÃO HAJA DIFERENÇA ESTATÍSTICA SIGNIFICATIVA ENTRE DETERMINADOS FATORES´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

– Reading – Leitura – Probability – Probabilidades – E-mails – Blog – Reading – Countries – Time – Person – People – History – Internet – Images – Money – Price – Goals – Lives – Diseases – Blog Intentions – Countries – History – Life – Health – Mind

´´A blog (a truncation of “weblog”)[1] is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries (posts). Posts are typically displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page. ´´

´´Pre-20th century The Ishango bone, a bone tool dating back to prehistoric Africa. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers. The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick. Later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi (clay spheres, cones, etc.) which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers.[4][5] The use of counting rods is one example. The Chinese suanpan (算盘). The number represented on this abacus is 6,302,715,408. The abacus was initially used for arithmetic tasks. The Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money. The Antikythera mechanism, dating back to ancient Greece circa 150–100 BC, is an early analog computing device. The Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog “computer”, according to Derek J. de Solla Price.[6] It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to c. 100 BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use.´´

* Link about my monograph: Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/my-monography-chagas-disease-research-in-laboratory-2/

-Link about animal model diseases like cardiovascular diseases: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/29/33426/

– Links related with my dissertation: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/28/links-of-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-and-monograph-induction-of-benzonidazole-resistance-in-human-isolates-of-trypanoso/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/29/about-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-pathol-res-pract-2012-jul-152087377-81-doi-10-1016-j-prp-2012-04-006-epub-20/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/i-did-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-graphics-about-variations-of-all-mice-weigths-during-all-exerimental-time-my-dissertation-they-can-be-an-excelent-reference-for-future-researches-like-2/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/08/it-is-fundamental-professors-students-researchers-and-other-people-worldwide-know-about-my-dissertation-because-the-research-was-very-innovative-and-important-in-the-world-these-data-like-graphics/

* Link about my monograph: Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/my-monography-chagas-disease-research-in-laboratory-2/

-Link about animal model diseases like cardiovascular diseases: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/29/33426/

– Links related with my dissertation: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/28/links-of-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-and-monograph-induction-of-benzonidazole-resistance-in-human-isolates-of-trypanoso/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/29/about-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-pathol-res-pract-2012-jul-152087377-81-doi-10-1016-j-prp-2012-04-006-epub-20/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/i-did-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-graphics-about-variations-of-all-mice-weigths-during-all-exerimental-time-my-dissertation-they-can-be-an-excelent-reference-for-future-researches-like-2/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/08/it-is-fundamental-professors-students-researchers-and-other-people-worldwide-know-about-my-dissertation-because-the-research-was-very-innovative-and-important-in-the-world-these-data-like-graphics/

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7456754aaaa654aaaa6756aaaa6aaa75aaaaa66zzzz21aaaa6aaa4zzzz4aa3aa2a1zzz1aaaaa1Aface745684568TOPFACE8856TOPMESSAGE757453A2A11Aface345752A21Aface22211A9A8A7A6A5A4A2wwwwwwwwwwTOPMESSAGE75474587456TOPFACE75757face888756745764ZZZZZ444444444441eeeee2aaaaa3aaaaa3ZZZZZZZZZZZZ4ZZZZ44aaaaa1ffffff1A745ZZZZ89ZZZZ75ZZZZ8ZZZZ21aaaaa7456475474WWWW543534634WWWW4343ZZZZ6463ZZZZ7745745654WWWW745754634634WWWW745754WWWW6356345647WWW88WWWWW887WWWW2WWWW3WWW

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog

How Is It Possible That The Universe Extends To 93 Billion Light-Years If It Is Only 13.8 Billion Years Old?

https://news.yahoo.com/fda-not-hydroxychloroquine-covid-19-135958144.html?ncid=facebook_yahoonewsf_akfmevaatca

cam.ac.uk

https://www.pbs.org/independentlens/films/jim-allison-breakthrough/?utm_source=toolkit&utm_medium=il2100%252Bsocial%252Boutreach&utm_campaign=jimallison&fbclid=IwAR2PkZ2EuVuKXD2-_Y9N5gWP9Gip0u7H4FiNiVEYtWWtsKFu2sy4lugKQrI

Jim Allison: Breakthrough – Trailer

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The Harvard Gazette

Global race to a COVID-19 vaccine

Relearning ways to grieve

HEALTH & MEDICINE

Global race to a COVID-19 vaccine

Ofer Levy an David Dowling.
 

Ofer Levy (right) and David Dowling are working toward developing age-specific vaccines.

Photo courtesy of Boston Children’s Hospital

Team at Harvard plans to launch clinical trial in fall

In Dan Barouch’s lab, many researchers have not taken a day off since early January, and virtually all are working nearly seven days week to develop a vaccine that could help end the coronavirus pandemic.

“Everybody wants to contribute to this global crisis as best they can,” said Barouch, director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

The team hopes their work will be worth it. There is cause for optimism.

The lab developed a vaccine in collaboration with Janssen Pharmaceutical Cos., the drug-making arm of Johnson & Johnson. It plans to launch clinical trials in the fall as part of a joint $1 billion collaboration agreement announced by the U.S. government and Johnson & Johnson on March 30.

And the push by Barouch’s group is far from the only one out there. There are currently more than 40 in development around the world, according to the Milken Institute, an independent economic think tank in California. The approaches are varied, but all involve training the body’s immune system to recognize and remember the virus and produce antibodies to fight the disease.

Most of the work at Harvard is in its early stages and includes a number of different vaccine methods. Barouch’s lab at Beth Israel is the first to move toward clinical trials so far.

Like everyone working on this, “We want to move as fast as we possibly can, because we think the world needs a vaccine,” said Barouch. He co-leads the vaccines working group at Harvard’s Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness and is also a steering committee member of the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard.

Barouch's lab group photo.

Dan Barouch (center) with his lab team members.

Photo courtesy of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Media

A project at the Cambridge biotech Moderna uses the virus’ genetic code to trigger an immune response. It began clinical trials in Seattle on March 16 and was produced in just 63 days. Andrea Carfi, Moderna’s head of research, co-leads the vaccines working group at the consortium with Barouch.

Barouch’s lab began working on two vaccines right after scientists from China published the gene sequence of the coronavirus. It’s been a frenzy since.

That first weekend, the team quickly identified the protein spike as the target region for a vaccine — the coronavirus gets its name from the crown-like spikes on its surface. By Monday, Jan. 13, they had designs for vaccine constructs and created synthetic viral genes. At the end of the month, the lab started a collaboration with Janssen using one of the company’s approaches. Basically it involves transporting an adenovirus that causes a common cold, coated with coronavirus antigens, into cells to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. By Feb. 6, the group started testing the vaccines in animals.

Barouch’s lab was able to work so quickly on this method because it has spent the past 15 years working on HIV and, more recently, Zika vaccines using the same approach. The hospital has collaborated with Janssen on vaccines in the past.

In mid-February the lab began collaborating with the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention on their other vaccine strategy. That one is DNA-based. Like RNA vaccines, it uses the genetic material of the virus to produce an inoculant that mimics it, helps the body identify it, and create antibodies to fight and neutralize it.

At the Precision Vaccines Program (PVP) at Boston Children’s Hospital, Director Ofer Levy, professor of pediatrics at HMS, and other researchers — including David Dowling, an HMS pediatrics instructor — are working toward developing age-specific vaccines.

“Most vaccine development disregards species specificity or aid specificity during the preclinical phase,” Levy said. “We’re turning the process on its head. We’re saying who most suffers from coronavirus? It’s the elderly. We take elderly white blood cells, blood donations, test them outside the body, stimulate them with different small molecules called adjuvants [which are added to a vaccine to boost the recipient’s immune response], and then find out which would work best in an elderly individual.”

Ofer Levy (right) and David Dowling are one of the many teams working toward vaccine options.

Photo courtesy of Boston Children’s Hospital

The group hopes to build a vaccine targeting infants, as well. “Infants can get infected and can have bad outcomes, but also they can spread the infection to others,” Levy said.

Their work is supported by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease.

In the labs of Mahmoud Nasr and Gerhard Wagner, the Elkan Blout Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at HMS, researchers have just started work on what’s called a subunit vaccine. In these vaccines, scientists only use the essential antigens from a virus, said Nasr, a principal investigator in the renal division and division of engineering in medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

Wagner and Nasr hope to create a vaccine where several copies of the coronavirus spike proteins are placed in large phospholipid nanodiscs that can elicit a strong antibody response by mimicking the large number of spikes of the virus and their position in a membrane. It has been shown that presenting numerous antigens on a membrane environment produces a stronger response than using non-membrane-bound proteins. This method will likely require adjuvants and multiple doses to elicit a strong enough immune response that provides long-term immunity.

At Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, researchers hope to create bioactive material that cues a stronger immune response against the coronavirus. They hope the vaccine both kills the virus in infected individuals and helps uninfected individuals develop longer-lasting immunity without the need for additional boosts. Led by David Mooney, a Wyss core faculty member and the Robert P. Pinkas Family Professor of Bioengineering at Harvard John E. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the team previously created cancer vaccines that prompted the immune system to attack and destroy cancer cells. Other efforts at the Wyss focus on diagnostics and therapeutics.

In a related effort, researchers at HMS’s Blavatnik Institute and at the Brigham hope to use an antibody-detection tool called VirScan — which they adapted to recognize antibodies for the novel coronavirus in people’s blood — to help scientists working on vaccines identify which viral antibodies the immune system best responds to and which don’t affect the virus.

“[VirScan] can help you follow a vaccine to see how well it’s making antibodies and what kinds of antibodies,” said Stephen Elledge, the Gregor Mendel Professor of Genetics and of Medicine at HMS and Brigham and Women’s, who developed the tool in 2015 with two Ph.D. candidates in his lab. “A lot of the antibodies you make are just useless. They don’t do anything to the virus or hurt the virus and they don’t help it. They’re just neutral. They’re there. Sometimes they even make it easier for the virus to get into certain cell types … The idea would be that you would try to remove them from the vaccine, because they’re competing with the neutralizing antibodies in the vaccine just as much as they would be with the actual virus.”

While he hopes this effort takes off, Elledge’s primary focus is on using VirScan as a post-infection tool to study the outbreak’s true extent, lethality, and epidemiology, and learn how the virus affects the immune system.

For Barouch, having multiple coronavirus vaccine-related efforts are crucial, since no one group has all the expertise and each vaccine will have pros and cons.

“We don’t yet know which vaccine is ultimately going to be the safest, the most effective, and the most deployable,” Barouch said. “Ultimately, if we have two or more vaccines that become available for COVID-19, that would be a good thing because each vaccine is different. For example, some vaccines might be very effective in the elderly; some might not. Some might be easier to produce at mass scale; some might not. Some might be single-dose regimens, some might be multiple-dose regimens. Each vaccine is going to have its own particular characteristics.”

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Harvard scientists take various approaches in the race for a treatment for the deadly coronavirus

Staff receiving training.

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How the institute converted a clinical processing lab into a large-scale COVID-19 testing facility in a matter of days

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Jim Allison: Breakthrough – Trailer

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The story of one warmhearted, stubborn man’s visionary quest to find a cure for cancer, Jim Allison: Breakthrough from filmmaker Bill Haney is an homage to an unconventional superhero — a pioneering, harmonica-playing scientist who triumphed over a doubtful medical establishment to save innumerable lives around the world. In 2018, Jim Allison won the Nobel Prize for discovering the immune system’s role in defeating cancer, but his lengthy journey to get there was filled with barriers and criticism.

 

 
Jim Allison: Breakthrough

 

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JIM ALLISON: BREAKTHROUGH


About the Film

The story of one warmhearted, stubborn man’s visionary quest to find a cure for cancer, Jim Allison: Breakthrough is an homage to an unconventional superhero — a pioneering, harmonica-playing scientist who triumphed over a doubtful medical establishment to save innumerable lives around the world. In 2018, Jim Allison won the Nobel Prize for discovering the immune system’s role in defeating cancer, but his long journey to get there was filled with barriers and criticism.  MORE 

 
Who are the medical or scientific heroes who’ve had an impact on your own life? Had you heard of Jim Allison before seeing this film?

AWARDS

  • BERGEN INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL

    Golden Owl Award

  • AMERICAN FILM FESTIVAL

    Audience Award (Nominee)

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Who are the medical or scientific heroes who’ve had an impact on your own life? Had you heard of Jim Allison before seeing this film?
 

 
 
Home  Science & Technology  How Is It Possible That The Universe Extends To 93 Billion Light-Years…

HOW IS IT POSSIBLE THAT THE UNIVERSE EXTENDS TO 93 BILLION LIGHT-YEARS IF IT IS ONLY 13.8 BILLION YEARS OLD?

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According to one existing theory, the Big Bang happened 13.8 billion years ago, and the most distant objects of space cannot be older than 13.8 billion years. It may seem that beyond this distance, we cannot observe anything, but the size of the observed universe is much larger and amounts to 93 billion light-years, that is, space is much larger than its age. How did it happen?

 

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If the Universe was filled only with radiation at all times, the objects whose light had finally reached us after traveling for 13.8 billion years would now be 27.6 billion light-years away from us. That means the radiation diameter of the universe is 27.6 billion years, which brings us closer to the value of 93 billion light-years of the “observable” Universe, which is often mentioned.

Each yellow and red of the regions in the relict radiation image presented below, to date, that is, over 13.8 billion years have become a supercluster of galaxies.

 
age of the universe

 

Observable universe

However, due to the continued expansion of the Universe, these superclusters are probably already at a distance of 46.5 billion light-years from us.

The light from these clusters started its journey to us only now, and of course, it will take time to come from the surface of a sphere with a diameter of 93 billion years to our planet, which is in its center.

But the problem is that because of the dark energy, the Universe expands with acceleration, which lasted at least 3 billion years.

age of the universe

 

Age of the universe

As a result of this acceleration, superclusters located at a distance of 46.5 billion light-years from us will move away another 32.7 billion years, starting from the assumed moment of their observation on our planet.

 

Thus, a diameter of 93 billion years is the largest, theoretical estimate of the current stretch of all matter that we can see, even taking into account that the age of visible light is 13.8 billion years.

 

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N.Y. Gov. Andrew Cuomo gives update as U.S. death toll from the coronavirus hits 50,000

FDA warns against using hydroxychloroquine for coronavirus

Erika Edwards

NBC News
 
 

The Food and Drug Administration on Friday cautioned against prescribing hydroxychloroquine to COVID-19 patients outside of hospital settings or clinical trials. The drug, an antimalarial, was repeatedly touted by President Donald Trump as a possible treatment for the coronavirus.

“The FDA is aware of reports of serious heart rhythm problems in patients with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, often in combination with azithromycin,” the FDA wrote on its website.

Full coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

“We are also aware of increased use of these medicines through outpatient prescriptions. Therefore, we would like to remind health care professionals and patients of the known risks associated with both hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine,” the FDA said.

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The agency said hydroxychloroquine can still be used in hospital settings or in clinical trials, but it was not immediately clear whether some planned trials would be stopped.

Cardiologists have been sounding the alarm about hydroxychloroquine’s heart risks for weeks, saying the drug could be deadly in a small number of patients who are susceptible to heart conditions.

 

Hydroxychloroquine, and a related compound called chloroquine, is a medication that’s been around for decades. It’s used to treat malaria, as well as certain autoimmune diseases, including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Enthusiasm for its potential as a treatment for the coronavirus began to build in March, when a French study suggested hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (the antibiotic known as a Z-Pak) might benefit COVID-19 patients. The journal that published the French study, however, later said that the article did not meet its expected standard.

A week later, the FDA issued an emergency use authorization for hydroxychloroquine, allowing health care providers to use the medicine for COVID-19 in hospitalized patients with severe disease, even though the drug had not been approved as a specific treatment for the illness, and was known to increase the risk for irregular heartbeat.

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Blog

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

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blog (a truncation of “weblog“)[1] is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries (posts). Posts are typically displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of a single individual,[citation needed] occasionally of a small group, and often covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, “multi-author blogs” (MABs) emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, universities, think tanksadvocacy groups, and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other “microblogging” systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.

The emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming. Previously, a knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, and early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites.[2] In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but also often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers.[3] However, there are high-readership blogs which do not allow comments.

Many blogs provide commentary on a particular subject or topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, and others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, and interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs. However, blog owners or authors often moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (art blogs), photographs (photoblogs), videos (video blogs or “vlogs”), music (MP3 blogs), and audio (podcasts). In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources. These blogs are referred to as edublogsMicroblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts.

‘Blog’ and ‘blogging’ are now loosely used for content creation and sharing on social media, especially when the content is long-form and one creates and shares content on regular basis. So, one could be maintaining a blog on Facebook or blogging on Instagram.

On February 16, 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On February 20, 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr[4] and 75.8 million WordPress[5] blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics.[6][7] Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014.[8]

History

 

Early example of a “diary” style blog consisting of text and images transmitted wirelessly in real time from a wearable computer with head-up display, February 22, 1995

The term “weblog” was coined by Jorn Barger[9] on December 17, 1997. The short form, “blog”, was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999.[10][11][12] Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used “blog” as both a noun and verb (“to blog”, meaning “to edit one’s weblog or to post to one’s weblog”) and devised the term “blogger” in connection with Pyra Labs’ Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.[13]

Origins

Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnieByte Information Exchange (BIX) and the early CompuServee-mail lists,[14] and Bulletin Board Systems (BBS). In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with “threads”. Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual “corkboard“. From June 14, 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their “What’s New”[15] list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly. The page was accessible by a special “What’s New” button in the Mosaic web browser.

The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc., which featured a blog in a section called “Online Diary”. The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors.[16]

The modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers called themselves diarists, journalists, or journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is generally recognized as one of the earlier bloggers,[17] as is Jerry Pournelle.[18] Dave Winer‘s Scripting News is also credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs.[19][20] The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News[21] on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites, mostly in Australia.

Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person’s personal life combining text, digital video, and digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997, actually referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage.

Technology

Early blogs were simply manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the “Online Diary” on the Ty, Inc. Web site was produced and updated manually before any blogging programs were available. Posts were made to appear in reverse chronological order by manually updating text based HTML code using FTP software in real time several times a day. To users, this offered the appearance of a live diary that contained multiple new entries per day. At the beginning of each new day, new diary entries were manually coded into a new HTML file, and the start of each month, diary entries were archived into its own folder which contained a separate HTML page for every day of the month. Then menus that contained links to the most recent diary entry were updated manually throughout the site. This text-based method of organizing thousands of files served as a springboard to define future blogging styles that were captured by blogging software developed years later.[16]

The evolution of electronic and software tools to facilitate the production and maintenance of Web articles posted in reverse chronological order made the publishing process feasible to a much larger and less technically-inclined population. Ultimately, this resulted in the distinct class of online publishing that produces blogs we recognize today. For instance, the use of some sort of browser-based software is now a typical aspect of “blogging”. Blogs can be hosted by dedicated blog hosting services, on regular web hosting services, or run using blog software.

Rise in popularity

After a slow start, blogging rapidly gained in popularity. Blog usage spread during 1999 and the years following, being further popularized by the near-simultaneous arrival of the first hosted blog tools:

  • Bruce Ableson launched Open Diary in October 1998, which soon grew to thousands of online diaries. Open Diary innovated the reader comment, becoming the first blog community where readers could add comments to other writers’ blog entries.
  • Brad Fitzpatrick started LiveJournal in March 1999.
  • Andrew Smales created Pitas.com in July 1999 as an easier alternative to maintaining a “news page” on a Web site, followed by DiaryLand in September 1999, focusing more on a personal diary community.[22]
  • Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan (Pyra Labs) launched Blogger.com in August 1999 (purchased by Google in February 2003)

Political impact

 

On December 6, 2002, Josh Marshall’s talkingpointsmemo.com blog called attention to U.S. Senator Lott’s comments regarding Senator Thurmond. Senator Lott was eventually to resign his Senate leadership position over the matter.

An early milestone in the rise in importance of blogs came in 2002, when many bloggers focused on comments by U.S. Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott.[23] Senator Lott, at a party honoring U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond, praised Senator Thurmond by suggesting that the United States would have been better off had Thurmond been elected president. Lott’s critics saw these comments as a tacit approval of racial segregation, a policy advocated by Thurmond’s 1948 presidential campaign. This view was reinforced by documents and recorded interviews dug up by bloggers. (See Josh Marshall‘s Talking Points Memo.) Though Lott’s comments were made at a public event attended by the media, no major media organizations reported on his controversial comments until after blogs broke the story. Blogging helped to create a political crisis that forced Lott to step down as majority leader.

Similarly, blogs were among the driving forces behind the “Rathergate” scandal. To wit: (television journalist) Dan Rather presented documents (on the CBS show 60 Minutes) that conflicted with accepted accounts of President Bush’s military service record. Bloggers declared the documents to be forgeries and presented evidence and arguments in support of that view. Consequently, CBS apologized for what it said were inadequate reporting techniques (see Little Green Footballs). Many bloggers view this scandal as the advent of blogs’ acceptance by the mass media, both as a news source and opinion and as means of applying political pressure.[original research?] The impact of these stories gave greater credibility to blogs as a medium of news dissemination. Though often seen as partisan gossips,[citation needed] bloggers sometimes lead the way in bringing key information to public light, with mainstream media having to follow their lead. More often, however, news blogs tend to react to material already published by the mainstream media. Meanwhile, an increasing number of experts blogged, making blogs a source of in-depth analysis.[original research?]

In Russia, some political bloggers have started to challenge the dominance of official, overwhelmingly pro-government media. Bloggers such as Rustem Adagamov and Alexei Navalny have many followers and the latter’s nickname for the ruling United Russia party as the “party of crooks and thieves” has been adopted by anti-regime protesters.[24] This led to the Wall Street Journal calling Navalny “the man Vladimir Putin fears most” in March 2012.[25]

Mainstream popularity

By 2004, the role of blogs became increasingly mainstream, as political consultants, news services, and candidates began using them as tools for outreach and opinion forming. Blogging was established by politicians and political candidates to express opinions on war and other issues and cemented blogs’ role as a news source. (See Howard Dean and Wesley Clark.) Even politicians not actively campaigning, such as the UK’s Labour Party’s MP Tom Watson, began to blog to bond with constituents. In January 2005, Fortune magazine listed eight bloggers whom business people “could not ignore”: Peter RojasXeni JardinBen TrottMena TrottJonathan Schwartz, Jason Goldman, Robert Scoble, and Jason Calacanis.[26]

Israel was among the first national governments to set up an official blog.[27] Under David Saranga, the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs became active in adopting Web 2.0 initiatives, including an official video blog[27] and a political blog.[28] The Foreign Ministry also held a microblogging press conference via Twitter about its war with Hamas, with Saranga answering questions from the public in common text-messaging abbreviations during a live worldwide press conference.[29] The questions and answers were later posted on IsraelPolitik, the country’s official political blog.[30]

The impact of blogging upon the mainstream media has also been acknowledged by governments. In 2009, the presence of the American journalism industry had declined to the point that several newspaper corporations were filing for bankruptcy, resulting in less direct competition between newspapers within the same circulation area. Discussion emerged as to whether the newspaper industry would benefit from a stimulus package by the federal government. U.S. President Barack Obama acknowledged the emerging influence of blogging upon society by saying “if the direction of the news is all blogosphere, all opinions, with no serious fact-checking, no serious attempts to put stories in context, then what you will end up getting is people shouting at each other across the void but not a lot of mutual understanding”.[31] Between 2009 and 2012, an Orwell Prize for blogging was awarded.

Types

 

A screenshot from the BlogActive website.

There are many different types of blogs, differing not only in the type of content, but also in the way that content is delivered or written.

Personal blogs
The personal blog is an ongoing online diary or commentary written by an individual, rather than a corporation or organization. While the vast majority of personal blogs attract very few readers, other than the blogger’s immediate family and friends, a small number of personal blogs have become popular, to the point that they have attracted lucrative advertising sponsorship. A tiny number of personal bloggers have become famous, both in the online community and in the real world.
Collaborative blogs or group blogs
A type of weblog in which posts are written and published by more than one author. The majority of high-profile collaborative blogs are based around a single uniting theme, such as politics, technology or advocacy. In recent years, the blogosphere has seen the emergence and growing popularity of more collaborative efforts, often set up by already established bloggers wishing to pool time and resources, both to reduce the pressure of maintaining a popular website and to attract a larger readership.
Microblogging
Microblogging is the practice of posting small pieces of digital content—which could be text, pictures, links, short videos, or other media—on the Internet. Microblogging offers a portable communication mode that feels organic and spontaneous to many users. It has captured the public imagination, in part because the short posts are easy to read on the go or when waiting. Friends use it to keep in touch, business associates use it to coordinate meetings or share useful resources, and celebrities and politicians (or their publicists) microblog about concert dates, lectures, book releases, or tour schedules. A wide and growing range of add-on tools enables sophisticated updates and interaction with other applications. The resulting profusion of functionality is helping to define new possibilities for this type of communication.[32] Examples of these include Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr and, by far the largest, WeiBo.
Corporate and organizational blogs
A blog can be private, as in most cases, or it can be for business or not-for-profit organization or government purposes. Blogs used internally, and only available to employees via an Intranet are called corporate blogs. Companies use internal corporate blogs enhance the communication, culture and employee engagement in a corporation. Internal corporate blogs can be used to communicate news about company policies or procedures, build employee esprit de corps and improve morale. Companies and other organizations also use external, publicly accessible blogs for marketing, branding, or public relations purposes. Some organizations have a blog authored by their executive; in practice, many of these executive blog posts are penned by a ghostwriter, who makes posts in the style of the credited author. Similar blogs for clubs and societies are called club blogs, group blogs, or by similar names; typical use is to inform members and other interested parties of club and member activities.
Aggregated blogs
Individuals or organization may aggregate selected feeds on specific topic, product or service and provide combined view for its readers. This allows readers to concentrate on reading instead of searching for quality on-topic content and managing subscriptions. Many such aggregation called planets from name of Planet (software) that perform such aggregation, hosting sites usually have planet. subdomain in domain name (like http://planet.gnome.org/).
By genre
Some blogs focus on a particular subject, such as political blogs, journalism blogs, health blogstravel blogs (also known as travelogs), gardening blogs, house blogs, Book Blogs,[33][34] fashion blogs, beauty blogs, lifestyle blogs, party blogs, wedding blogs, photography blogs, project blogs, psychology blogs, sociology blogs, education blogsniche blogsclassical music blogs, quizzing blogs, legal blogs (often referred to as a blawgs), or dreamlogsHow-to/Tutorial blogs are becoming increasing popular.[35] Two common types of genre blogs are art blogs and music blogs. A blog featuring discussions especially about home and family is not uncommonly called a mom blog and one made popular is by Erica Diamond who created Womenonthefence.com which is syndicated to over two million readers monthly.[36][37][38][39][40][41] While not a legitimate type of blog, one used for the sole purpose of spamming is known as a splog.
By media type
A blog comprising videos is called a vlog, one comprising links is called a linklog, a site containing a portfolio of sketches is called a sketchblog or one comprising photos is called a photoblog. Blogs with shorter posts and mixed media types are called tumblelogs. Blogs that are written on typewriters and then scanned are called typecast or typecast blogs. A rare type of blog hosted on the Gopher Protocol is known as a phlog.
By device
A blog can also be defined by which type of device is used to compose it. A blog written by a mobile device like a mobile phone or PDA could be called a moblog.[42] One early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person’s personal life combining text, video, and pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance. Such journals have been used as evidence in legal matters.[citation needed]
Reverse blog
A reverse blog is composed by its users rather than a single blogger. This system has the characteristics of a blog, and the writing of several authors. These can be written by several contributing authors on a topic, or opened up for anyone to write. There is typically some limit to the number of entries to keep it from operating like a web forum.[citation needed]

Community and cataloging

 

An artist’s depiction of the interconnections between blogs and blog authors in the “blogosphere” in 2007.

Blogosphere
The collective community of all blogs and blog authors, particularly notable and widely read blogs, is known as the blogosphere. Since all blogs are on the internet by definition, they may be seen as interconnected and socially networked, through blogrolls, comments, linkbacks (refbacks, trackbacks or pingbacks), and backlinks. Discussions “in the blogosphere” are occasionally used by the media as a gauge of public opinion on various issues. Because new, untapped communities of bloggers and their readers can emerge in the space of a few years, Internet marketers pay close attention to “trends in the blogosphere”.[43]
Blog search engines
Several blog search engines have been used to search blog contents, such as BloglinesBlogScope, and Technorati. Technorati was one of the more popular blog search engines, but the website stopped indexing blogs and assigning authority scores in May 2014. The research community is working on going beyond simple keyword search, by inventing new ways to navigate through huge amounts of information present in the blogosphere, as demonstrated by projects like BlogScope, which was shut down in 2012.[citation needed]
Blogging communities and directories
Several online communities exist that connect people to blogs and bloggers to other bloggers. Some of these communities include Indiblogger, Blogadda, Blog Chatter, BlogCatalog and MyBlogLog.[44] Interest-specific blogging platforms are also available. For instance, Blogster has a sizable community of political bloggers among its members. Global Voices aggregates international bloggers, “with emphasis on voices that are not ordinarily heard in international mainstream media.”[45]
Blogging and advertising
It is common for blogs to feature banner advertisements or promotional content, either to financially benefit the blogger, support website hosting costs, or to promote the blogger’s favorite causes or products. The popularity of blogs has also given rise to “fake blogs” in which a company will create a fictional blog as a marketing tool to promote a product.[46]

As the popularity of blogging continues to rise, the commercialisation of blogging is rapidly increasing. Many corporations and companies collaborate with bloggers to increase advertising and engage online communities towards their products. In the book Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers, Henry Jenkins stated that “Bloggers take knowledge in their own hands, enabling successful navigation within and between these emerging knowledge cultures. One can see such behaviour as co-optation into commodity culture insofar as it sometimes collaborates with corporate interests, but one can also see it as increasing the diversity of media culture, providing opportunities for greater inclusiveness, and making more responsive to consumers.”[47]

Popularity

As of 2008, blogging had become such a mania that a new blog was created every second of every minute of every hour of every day.[48] Researchers have actively analyzed the dynamics of how blogs become popular. There are essentially two measures of this: popularity through citations, as well as popularity through affiliation (i.e., blogroll). The basic conclusion from studies of the structure of blogs is that while it takes time for a blog to become popular through blogrolls, permalinks can boost popularity more quickly, and are perhaps more indicative of popularity and authority than blogrolls, since they denote that people are actually reading the blog’s content and deem it valuable or noteworthy in specific cases.[49]

The blogdex project was launched by researchers in the MIT Media Lab to crawl the Web and gather data from thousands of blogs to investigate their social properties. Information was gathered by the tool for over four years, during which it autonomously tracked the most contagious information spreading in the blog community, ranking it by recency and popularity. It can, therefore,[original research?] be considered the first instantiation of a memetracker. The project was replaced by tailrank.com which in turn has been replaced by spinn3r.com.

Blogs are given rankings by Alexa Internet (web hits of Alexa Toolbar users), and formerly by blog search engine Technorati based on the number of incoming links (Technorati stopped doing this in 2014). In August 2006, Technorati found that the most linked-to blog on the internet was that of Chinese actress Xu Jinglei.[50] Chinese media Xinhua reported that this blog received more than 50 million page views, claiming it to be the most popular blog in the world.[51] Technorati rated Boing Boing to be the most-read group-written blog.[50]

Blurring with the mass media

Many bloggers, particularly those engaged in participatory journalism, are amateur journalists, and thus they differentiate themselves from the professional reporters and editors who work in mainstream media organizations. Other bloggers are media professionals who are publishing online, rather than via a TV station or newspaper, either as an add-on to a traditional media presence (e.g., hosting a radio show or writing a column in a paper newspaper), or as their sole journalistic output. Some institutions and organizations see blogging as a means of “getting around the filter” of media “gatekeepers” and pushing their messages directly to the public. Many mainstream journalists, meanwhile, write their own blogs—well over 300, according to CyberJournalist.net’s J-blog list.[citation needed] The first known use of a blog on a news site was in August 1998, when Jonathan Dube of The Charlotte Observer published one chronicling Hurricane Bonnie.[52]

Some bloggers have moved over to other media. The following bloggers (and others) have appeared on radio and television: Duncan Black (known widely by his pseudonym, Atrios), Glenn Reynolds (Instapundit), Markos Moulitsas Zúniga (Daily Kos), Alex Steffen (Worldchanging), Ana Marie Cox (Wonkette), Nate Silver (FiveThirtyEight.com), and Ezra Klein (Ezra Klein blog in The American Prospect, now in the Washington Post). In counterpoint, Hugh Hewitt exemplifies a mass media personality who has moved in the other direction, adding to his reach in “old media” by being an influential blogger. Similarly, it was Emergency Preparedness and Safety Tips On Air and Online blog articles that captured Surgeon General of the United States Richard Carmona‘s attention and earned his kudos for the associated broadcasts by talk show host Lisa Tolliver and Westchester Emergency Volunteer Reserves-Medical Reserve Corps Director Marianne Partridge.[53][54]

Blogs have also had an influence on minority languages, bringing together scattered speakers and learners; this is particularly so with blogs in Gaelic languages. Minority language publishing (which may lack economic feasibility) can find its audience through inexpensive blogging. There are examples of bloggers who have published books based on their blogs, e.g., Salam PaxEllen SimonettiJessica CutlerScrappleFace. Blog-based books have been given the name blook. A prize for the best blog-based book was initiated in 2005,[55] the Lulu Blooker Prize.[56] However, success has been elusive offline, with many of these books not selling as well as their blogs. The book based on Julie Powell‘s blog “The Julie/Julia Project” was made into the film Julie & Julia, apparently the first to do so.

Consumer-generated advertising

Consumer-generated advertising is a relatively new and controversial development, and it has created a new model of marketing communication from businesses to consumers. Among the various forms of advertising on blog, the most controversial are the sponsored posts.[57] These are blog entries or posts and may be in the form of feedback, reviews, opinion, videos, etc. and usually contain a link back to the desired site using a keyword or several keywords. Blogs have led to some disintermediation and a breakdown of the traditional advertising model, where companies can skip over the advertising agencies (previously the only interface with the customer) and contact the customers directly via social media websites. On the other hand, new companies specialised in blog advertising have been established, to take advantage of this new development as well. However, there are many people who look negatively on this new development. Some believe that any form of commercial activity on blogs will destroy the blogosphere’s credibility.[58]

Legal and social consequences

Blogging can result in a range of legal liabilities and other unforeseen consequences.[59]

Defamation or liability

Several cases have been brought before the national courts against bloggers concerning issues of defamation or liability. U.S. payouts related to blogging totaled $17.4 million by 2009; in some cases these have been covered by umbrella insurance.[60] The courts have returned with mixed verdicts. Internet Service Providers (ISPs), in general, are immune from liability for information that originates with third parties (U.S. Communications Decency Act and the EU Directive 2000/31/EC). In Doe v. Cahill, the Delaware Supreme Court held that stringent standards had to be met to unmask the anonymous bloggers, and also took the unusual step of dismissing the libel case itself (as unfounded under American libel law) rather than referring it back to the trial court for reconsideration.[61] In a bizarre twist, the Cahills were able to obtain the identity of John Doe, who turned out to be the person they suspected: the town’s mayor, Councilman Cahill’s political rival. The Cahills amended their original complaint, and the mayor settled the case rather than going to trial.

In January 2007, two prominent Malaysian political bloggers, Jeff Ooi and Ahirudin Attan, were sued by a pro-government newspaper, The New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Berhad, Kalimullah bin Masheerul Hassan, Hishamuddin bin Aun and Brenden John a/l John Pereira over an alleged defamation. The plaintiff was supported by the Malaysian government.[62] Following the suit, the Malaysian government proposed to “register” all bloggers in Malaysia to better control parties against their interest.[63] This is the first such legal case against bloggers in the country. In the United States, blogger Aaron Wall was sued by Traffic Power for defamation and publication of trade secrets in 2005.[64] According to Wired magazine, Traffic Power had been “banned from Google for allegedly rigging search engine results.”[65] Wall and other “white hat” search engine optimization consultants had exposed Traffic Power in what they claim was an effort to protect the public. The case was dismissed for lack of personal jurisdiction, and Traffic Power failed to appeal within the allowed time.[66]

In 2009, NDTV issued a legal notice to Indian blogger Kunte for a blog post criticizing their coverage of the Mumbai attacks.[67] The blogger unconditionally withdrew his post, which resulted in several Indian bloggers criticizing NDTV for trying to silence critics.[68]

Employment

Employees who blog about elements of their place of employment can begin to affect the reputation of their employer, either in a positive way, if the employee is praising the employer and its workplaces, or in a negative way, if the blogger is making negative comments about the company or its practices.

In general, attempts by employee bloggers to protect themselves by maintaining anonymity have proved ineffective.[69] In 2009, a controversial and landmark decision by The Hon. Mr Justice Eady refused to grant an order to protect the anonymity of Richard Horton. Horton was a police officer in the United Kingdom who blogged about his job under the name “NightJack”.[70]

Delta Air Lines fired flight attendant Ellen Simonetti because she posted photographs of herself in uniform on an airplane and because of comments posted on her blog “Queen of Sky: Diary of a Flight Attendant” which the employer deemed inappropriate.[71][72] This case highlighted the issue of personal blogging and freedom of expression versus employer rights and responsibilities, and so it received wide media attention. Simonetti took legal action against the airline for “wrongful termination, defamation of character and lost future wages”.[73] The suit was postponed while Delta was in bankruptcy proceedings.[74]

In early 2006, Erik Ringmar, a senior lecturer at the London School of Economics, was ordered by the convenor of his department to “take down and destroy” his blog in which he discussed the quality of education at the school.[75]

Mark Jen was terminated in 2005 after 10 days of employment as an assistant product manager at Google for discussing corporate secrets on his personal blog, then called 99zeros and hosted on the Google-owned Blogger service.[76] He blogged about unreleased products and company finances a week before the company’s earnings announcement. He was fired two days after he complied with his employer’s request to remove the sensitive material from his blog.[77]

In India, blogger Gaurav Sabnis resigned from IBM after his posts questioned the claims made by a management school.[78] Jessica Cutler, aka “The Washingtonienne”, blogged about her sex life while employed as a congressional assistant. After the blog was discovered and she was fired,[79] she wrote a novel based on her experiences and blog: The Washingtonienne: A Novel. As of 2006, Cutler is being sued by one of her former lovers in a case that could establish the extent to which bloggers are obligated to protect the privacy of their real life associates.[80]

Catherine Sanderson, a.k.a. Petite Anglaise, lost her job in Paris at a British accountancy firm because of blogging.[81] Although given in the blog in a fairly anonymous manner, some of the descriptions of the firm and some of its people were less than flattering. Sanderson later won a compensation claim case against the British firm, however.[82]

On the other hand, Penelope Trunk wrote an upbeat article in the Boston Globe in 2006, entitled “Blogs ‘essential’ to a good career”.[83] She was one of the first journalists to point out that a large portion of bloggers are professionals and that a well-written blog can help attract employers.

Business owners

Business owners who blog about their business can also run into legal consequences. Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks, was fined during the 2006 NBA playoffs for criticizing NBA officials on the court and in his blog.[84]

Political dangers

Blogging can sometimes have unforeseen consequences in politically sensitive areas. In some countries, Internet police or secret police may monitor blogs and arrest blog authors of commentators. Blogs can be much harder to control than broadcast or print media, because a person can create a blog whose authorship is hard to trace, by using anonymity technology such as Tor. As a result, totalitarian and authoritarian regimes often seek to suppress blogs and/or to punish those who maintain them.

In Singapore, two ethnic Chinese individuals were imprisoned under the country’s anti-sedition law for posting anti-Muslim remarks in their blogs.[85] Egyptian blogger Kareem Amer was charged with insulting the Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak and an Islamic institution through his blog. It is the first time in the history of Egypt that a blogger was prosecuted. After a brief trial session that took place in Alexandria, the blogger was found guilty and sentenced to prison terms of three years for insulting Islam and inciting sedition, and one year for insulting Mubarak.[86] Egyptian blogger Abdel Monem Mahmoud was arrested in April 2007 for anti-government writings in his blog. Monem is a member of the then banned Muslim Brotherhood. After the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the Egyptian blogger Maikel Nabil Sanad was charged with insulting the military for an article he wrote on his personal blog and sentenced to 3 years.[87]

After expressing opinions in his personal blog about the state of the Sudanese armed forces, Jan Pronk, United Nations Special Representative for the Sudan, was given three days notice to leave Sudan. The Sudanese army had demanded his deportation.[88][89] In Myanmar, Nay Phone Latt, a blogger, was sentenced to 20 years in jail for posting a cartoon critical of head of state Than Shwe.[90]

Personal safety

One consequence of blogging is the possibility of online or in-person attacks or threats against the blogger, sometimes without apparent reason. In some cases, bloggers have faced cyberbullyingKathy Sierra, author of the blog “Creating Passionate Users”,[91] was the target of threats and misogynistic insults to the point that she canceled her keynote speech at a technology conference in San Diego, fearing for her safety.[92] While a blogger’s anonymity is often tenuous, Internet trolls who would attack a blogger with threats or insults can be emboldened by the anonymity of the online environment, where some users are known only by a pseudonymous “username” (e.g., “Hacker1984”). Sierra and supporters initiated an online discussion aimed at countering abusive online behavior[93] and developed a Blogger’s Code of Conduct, which set out a rules for behaviour in the online space.

Behavior

The Blogger’s Code of Conduct is a list of seven proposed ideas.

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

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