EU – I @ Year: 2020 & Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. # DATA #TIME @ INTERNET & @ WORLDOMETER – COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC – WORLD STATISTICS @ Coronavirus: COVID-19 Has Mutated To At Least 30 Different Strains, Study Reveals – By Arthur Villasanta 04/21/20 AT 11:21 PM @ NEWS 22 APRIL 2020 – Hundreds of people volunteer to be infected with coronavirus – Support grows for a controversial ‘human challenge’ vaccine study — but no trial is yet planned. Ewen Callaway @ RESEARCH ARTICLE – Structure-based design of antiviral drug candidates targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease @ First Clinical Trial of a COVID-19 Vaccine Authorised in Germany 08 / 2020 @ Oxford University COVID-19 vaccine to start human testing on 23 April – Imperial College London vaccine project also receives funding @ WORLD WEBSITES RANKING – TOP SITES & www.google.com @ Links about ´´my´´ Dissertation, my Monograph and Animal Models for Human Diseases like Cardiovascular Diseases & OTHER VERY IMPORTANT INFORMATION

Do the downloads!! Share!! The diffusion of very important information and knowledge is essential for the world progress always!! Thanks!!

  • – > Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics´´My´´ Dissertation @ #Innovation #energy #life #health #Countries #Time #Researches #Reference #Graphics #Ages #Age #Mice #People #Person #Mouse #Genetics #PersonalizedMedicine #Diagnosis #Prognosis #Treatment #Disease #UnknownDiseases #Future #VeryEfficientDrugs #VeryEfficientVaccines #VeryEfficientTherapeuticalSubstances #Tests #Laboratories #Investments #Details #HumanLongevity #DNA #Cell #Memory #Physiology #Nanomedicine #Nanotechnology #Biochemistry #NewMedicalDevices #GeneticEngineering #Internet #History #Science #World

Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice

Renato Batista Paceli 1Rodrigo Nunes CalCarlos Henrique Ferreira dos SantosJosé Antonio CordeiroCassiano Merussi NeivaKazuo Kawano NagaminePatrícia Maluf Cury


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1GROUP AFA1 – Aerobic Physical Activity – Atividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 1GROUP AFAN1 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO_AF2GROUP AFA2 – Aerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Aeróbia – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

GRUPO AFAN 2GROUP AFAN 2 – Anaerobic Physical ActivityAtividade Física Anaeróbia´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

Slides – mestrado´´My´´ Dissertation – Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo´´My´´ Dissertation Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22683274/

Abstract

Lung cancer is one of the most incident neoplasms in the world, representing the main cause of mortality for cancer. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that physical activity may reduce the risk of lung cancer, other works evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the physical activity in the suppression, remission and reduction of the recurrence of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic physical activity in the development and the progression of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced with a dose of 3mg of urethane/kg, in 67 male Balb – C type mice, divided in three groups: group 1_24 mice treated with urethane and without physical activity; group 2_25 mice with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise; group 3_18 mice with urethane, subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight. All the animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks, and lung lesions were analyzed. The median number of lesions (nodules and hyperplasia) was 3.0 for group 1, 2.0 for group 2 and 1.5-3 (p=0.052). When comparing only the presence or absence of lesion, there was a decrease in the number of lesions in group 3 as compared with group 1 (p=0.03) but not in relation to group 2. There were no metastases or other changes in other organs. The anaerobic physical activity, but not aerobic, diminishes the incidence of experimental lung tumors.

  • I DID VERY INTERESTING, INNOVATIVE, IMPORTANT AND DETAILED GRAPHICS ABOUT VARIATIONS OF ALL MICE WEIGHTS OF DIFFERENT AGES DURING ALL EXPERIMENTAL TIME OF ´´MY´´ DISSERTATION. THEY´RE AVAILABLE IN THIS BLOG AND ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY!! THE DIFFUSION OF RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE IS ALWAYS ESSENTIAL FOR A COUNTRY PROGRESS. NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES NEED TO EMERGE URGENTLY !! BELOW YOU CAN DO DOWNLOAD OF THESE GRAPHICS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATED TO SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION. SO, SHARE THESE GRAPHICS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS TO OTHER PEOPLE KNOW ABOUT IT AND PERHAPS USE THEM AS AN EXCELLENT REFERENCE IN THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. @ PERSON – PEOPLE – ANALYSIS – TIME – DATA – GRAPHICS – RESEARCHES – VISION – READING – SPEAKING – LISTENING – INFORMATION – KNOWLEDGE – INTENTIONS – INNOVATIONS – CHANGES – DATA INTERPRETATIONS – NEW INNOVATIONS – INTERNET – BOOKS – GRAPHICS INTERPRETATIONS – GRAPHICS COMPARISONS – INFLUENCES – TIME – SUBSTANCES – DRUGS – VACCINES – NEW MEDICAL DEVICES – WORLD HISTORY – NEW TECHNOLOGIES – HUMAN ENERGY – WORK – NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES – SCIENCE – GRAPHICS ANALYSIS – AGES – AGE – GENETICS – PHYSIOLOGY – MIND – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY – STATISTICS – BIOSTATISTICS – HUMAN LONGEVITY

Mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics

Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO_AF2 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 1 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 2 – ´´my´´ dissertation

Slides – mestrado – ´´my´´ dissertation

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´my´´ dissertation

Positive Feedbacks by Facebook and Twitter about this Blog, like the very important, innovative and detailed graphics I did about variations of all mice weights (Control and Study Groups) of different ages during all experimental time of ´´my´´ dissertation. Note: I have received positive feedbacks about this Blog by LinkedIn, E-mails and Instagram too. @ Internet invitations I received by direct messages to participate in very important science events worldwide in less than 1 year because I participated of great researches in Brazil and other informations @ Links & The next step in nanotechnology | George Tulevski & Animated Nanomedicine movie @ Nanotechnology Animation & Powering Nanorobots & The World’s Smallest Robots: Rise of the Nanomachines & Building Medical Robots, Bacteria sized: Bradley Nelson at TEDxZurich @ Mind-controlled Machines: Jose del R. Millan at TEDxZurich & The present and future of brain-computer interfaces: Avi Goldberg at TEDxAsheville & Future of human/computer interface: Paul McAvinney at TEDxGreenville 2014 @ Bio-interfaced nanoengineering: human-machine interfaces | Hong Yeo | TEDxVCU @ Very important images, websites, social networks and links – https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/17/feedbacks-on-facebook-related-to-researches-i-participated-in-brazil-for-example-the-graphics-i-did-about-variations-of-all-mice-weights-control-and-study-groups-of-different-ages-during-all-exper/

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

monografia – ´´my´´ monograph

Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação pelo Messenger – Facebook. Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Facebook – Messenger. Ano – Year: 2018

My suggestion of a very important Project…

rodrigonunescal_dissertation

Apostila – Pubmed

LISTA DE NOMES – PEOPLE´S NAMES – E-MAIL LIST – LISTA DE E-MAILS

A Psicossomática Psicanalítica

O Homem como Sujeito da Realidade da Saúde – Redação

ÁCIDO HIALURONICO

As credenciais da ciência (1)

Aula_Resultados – Results

Frases que digitei – Phrases I typed

Nanomedicina – Texto que escrevi. Nanomedicine – Text I typed(1)

Nanomedicine123(2)57

Genes e Epilepsia

MÉTODOS DE DOSAGEM DO ÁCIDO HIALURÔNICO

microbiologia-famerp – Copia

Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Sciene_Journals

Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Messenger (Facebook). Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação, blog e canal do YouTube pelo Facebook (Messenger) Year / Ano: 2018 – positive-feedback-of-people-about-my-dissertation-blog-and-youtube-channel-by-facebook-messenger-ano-year-2018

Researchers identify cells likely targeted by Covid-19 virus – Study finds specific cells in the lungs, nasal passages, and intestines that are more susceptible to infection.

https://www.alexa.com/topsites https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexa_Internet https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexa_Internet @ Alexa Blog @

@ Saliva is more sensitive for SARS-CoV-2 detection in COVID-19 patients than nasopharyngeal swabs

Twitter will remove dubious 5G tweets ‘that could potentially cause harm’ Brian Heater@bheater / 5:35 pm -03 • April 22, 2020 @ Presidente argentino estende isolamento total: ‘economia que cai se levanta; vidas, não’ 30/03/2020 @ CAREER Q&A 16 APRIL 2020 – On the front lines of the coronavirus-vaccine battle Canadian virologist Alyson Kelvin raced across the country to begin a collaboration to develop vaccines against COVID-19.

# @T I M E # ECONOMY # BEAUTY # VIEWPOINT # NATURE # COURAGE # LOGIC # FACTS # ARCHIVED DATA @ E-MAILS # PROBABILITY # READING # MESSAGES # INFORMATION # FACILITY # INVESTIGATIONS # HISTORY # DATA # RESPECT # EMAIL # PIONNER # SENSES # ENERGIES # MORE RESPECT # IMPROVEMENT # RANKING # INTERNET # WEBSITE # OPINIONS # STATISTICS # LINKS # WEBSITES # SOCIAL NETWORKINGS #LINKS # BLOGS # INTERPRETATIONS # DIFFERENT MOMENTS # DIFFERENT AMBIENT # PHOTOS # INTERROGATIONS # VIDEOS # PERSON # PEOPLE # NAMES # FEELINGS # AFFIRMATIONS # QUESTIONS #REAL WORLD # VIRTUAL WORLD # DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS # SPEAK # READ # TYPE # LISTEN # SEE #WATCH # WRITE # DIFFERENT ACTIONS # BETTER WORLD # IMAGINATIONS # THINKING # THOUGHTS # MENTAL HEALTH # LONGEVITY # AGE # AGES # @ IDENTIFICATIONS @

´´Imagination is the ability to produce and simulate novel objects, peoples and ideas in the mind without any immediate input of the senses. It is also described as the forming of experiences in the mind, which can be re-creations of past experiences such as vivid memories with imagined changes, or they can be completely invented and possibly fantastic scenes. [1] Imagination helps make knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to integrating experience and the learning process.[2][3][4][5] A basic training for imagination is listening to storytelling (narrative),[2][6] in which the exactness of the chosen words is the fundamental factor to “evoke worlds”.[7] Imagination is a cognitive process used in mental functioning and sometimes used in conjunction with psychological imagery. It is considered as such because it involves thinking about possibilities.[8]´´ &@#Time #Person #People #Affirmation #Experiences #Mind #Virtuality #Economy #Health #Disease #Age #Question #Facts #Acts #Reality #Idea #Feelings #Longevity #History #Countries

EU – I @ Year: 2020 & Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. # @T I M E # ECONOMY # BEAUTY # VIEWPOINT # NATURE # COURAGE # LOGIC # FACTS # ARCHIVED DATA @ E-MAILS # PROBABILITY # READING # MESSAGES # INFORMATION # FACILITY # INVESTIGATIONS # HISTORY # DATA # RESPECT # EMAIL # PIONNER # SENSES # ENERGIES # MORE RESPECT # IMPROVEMENT # RANKING # INTERNET # WEBSITE # OPINIONS # STATISTICS # LINKS # WEBSITES # SOCIAL NETWORKINGS #LINKS # BLOGS # INTERPRETATIONS # DIFFERENT MOMENTS # DIFFERENT AMBIENT # PHOTOS # INTERROGATIONS # VIDEOS # PERSON # PEOPLE # NAMES # FEELINGS # AFFIRMATIONS # QUESTIONS #REAL WORLD # VIRTUAL WORLD # DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS # SPEAK # READ # TYPE # LISTEN # SEE #WATCH # WRITE # DIFFERENT ACTIONS # BETTER WORLD # IMAGINATIONS # THINKING # THOUGHTS # MENTAL HEALTH # LONGEVITY # AGE # AGES @ IDENTIFICATIONS @🇧🇷🗯🌏⏰🗣👂👤👥💡@👀💯❓🔎👓🧠👁😎🌇🏙📉💻📲📡✈️🎙☎️📸🎥📺📟📀💾📽📠💳💶⏳💉🧬💊📈📤📊📆📘📰❗️🆗🎶♾®️💲🕠🏴🏳️🇩🇪🇦🇷🇧🇪🇰🇷🇩🇰🇨🇮🇨🇦🇨🇳🇺🇸🇫🇮🇬🇪🇦🇪🇦🇽🇭🇺🇳🇱🇰🇾🇯🇵🇯🇲🇯🇴🇲🇾🇵🇹🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿🇨🇭🇻🇳🇹🇷🇸🇪🇹🇯🇮🇱🇪🇸🇵🇭🇿🇦🚩📚🔭🌌🚀⚓️🛳🌔 @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imagination @

* Link about my monograph: Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/my-monography-chagas-disease-research-in-laboratory-2/

-Link about animal model diseases like cardiovascular diseases: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/29/33426/

– Links related with my dissertation: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/28/links-of-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-and-monograph-induction-of-benzonidazole-resistance-in-human-isolates-of-trypanoso/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/29/about-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-pathol-res-pract-2012-jul-152087377-81-doi-10-1016-j-prp-2012-04-006-epub-20/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/i-did-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-graphics-about-variations-of-all-mice-weigths-during-all-exerimental-time-my-dissertation-they-can-be-an-excelent-reference-for-future-researches-like-2/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/08/it-is-fundamental-professors-students-researchers-and-other-people-worldwide-know-about-my-dissertation-because-the-research-was-very-innovative-and-important-in-the-world-these-data-like-graphics/

https://techcrunch.com/2020/04/22/twitter-will-remove-dubious-5g-tweets-that-could-potentially-cause-harm/?fbclid=IwAR0j57FfhIWOLN0cPwHGEZX71zJ8oE8C6oObuRi-8L0VvejLscf8REOkjUw

https://www.alexa.com/topsites

https://blog.alexa.com/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexa_Internet

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexa_Internet

https://www.alexa.com/about

https://www.alexa.com/plans

https://www.pmlive.com/pharma_news/oxford_university_covid-19_vaccine_to_start_human_testing_tomorrow_1338762#.XqH3gpjMA7Q.linkedin

https://www.pei.de/EN/newsroom/press-releases/year/2020/08-first-clinical-trial-sars-cov-2-germany.html?fbclid=IwAR1w3GfTcM_Y8dT7Vk71YtUJQK1UY1BWgnUJ4FItWyIau0vShjF9e_m9USc

http://news.mit.edu/2020/researchers-cells-targeted-covid-19-0422?fbclid=IwAR0LUBE8y1YESshWIBbJpFFfrAketxigDuRv4lIYy0_z7tbuOZjCfK0PxkQ

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.16.20067835v1?fbclid=IwAR1Bi5QW8jUqNjz0ZzfN5Lj57HkfvnOmLDd03nAPMKvlXGQbvdOXuup0RaY

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01179-x?fbclid=IwAR0cATK15YbEfep7dgrAX3ZJQgJqqsLiEGlKd5xtbiTCtTzeyKBZNjID20A

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-04/fm-nbs041620.php?fbclid=IwAR2LKFQVCtV7FlP8ubSZ3FCtexy57cB8914mQ4zukWE4l_BH1sQ0_AOQyx0

https://www.ibtimes.com/coronavirus-covid-19-has-mutated-least-30-different-strains-study-reveals-2962820?fbclid=IwAR08wQi6TpGH6ShgMfJ26V5wKaW6SA4z-0IFikTotL7FhTjw1UolzwwlBZ8

https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/?fbclid=IwAR1T7iiyh_zPcmZC1al8uVxAYLNJ7kdYwyoezMjQgOskV8_wZtG29s7K510

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01116-y?fbclid=IwAR22wBO6buG7Bey5ayAdC64fCEzOp8c0ZBt6aoKqsC0QzfpYvueGb3X3ICw

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imagination

Imagination

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Olin Levi WarnerImagination (1896). Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.

Imagination is the ability to produce and simulate novel objects, peoples and ideas in the mind without any immediate input of the senses. It is also described as the forming of experiences in the mind, which can be re-creations of past experiences such as vivid memories with imagined changes, or they can be completely invented and possibly fantastic scenes.[1] Imagination helps make knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to integrating experience and the learning process.[2][3][4][5] A basic training for imagination is listening to storytelling (narrative),[2][6] in which the exactness of the chosen words is the fundamental factor to “evoke worlds”.[7]

Imagination is a cognitive process used in mental functioning and sometimes used in conjunction with psychological imagery. It is considered as such because it involves thinking about possibilities.[8] The cognate term of mental imagery may be used in psychology for denoting the process of reviving in the mind recollections of objects formerly given in sense perception. Since this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary language, some psychologists have preferred to describe this process as “imaging” or “imagery” or to speak of it as “reproductive” as opposed to “productive” or “constructive” imagination. Constructive imagination is further divided into active imagination driven by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and spontaneous PFC-independent imagination such as REM-sleep dreamingdaydreaminghallucinations, and spontaneous insight. The active types of imagination include integration of modifiers, and mental rotation. Imagined images, both novel and recalled, are seen with the “mind’s eye“.

Imagination, however, is not considered to be exclusively a cognitive activity because it is also linked to the body and place, particularly that it also involves setting up relationships with materials and people, precluding the sense that imagination is locked away in the head.[9]

Imagination can also be expressed through stories such as fairy tales or fantasies. Children often use such narratives and pretend play in order to exercise their imaginations. When children develop fantasy they play at two levels: first, they use role playing to act out what they have developed with their imagination, and at the second level they play again with their make-believe situation by acting as if what they have developed is an actual reality.[10]

The mind’s eye[edit]

The notion of a “mind’s eye” goes back at least to Cicero‘s reference to mentis oculi during his discussion of the orator’s appropriate use of simile.[11]

In this discussion, Cicero observed that allusions to “the Syrtis of his patrimony” and “the Charybdis of his possessions” involved similes that were “too far-fetched”; and he advised the orator to, instead, just speak of “the rock” and “the gulf” (respectively) — on the grounds that “the eyes of the mind are more easily directed to those objects which we have seen, than to those which we have only heard”.[12]

The concept of “the mind’s eye” first appeared in English in Chaucer’s (c.1387) Man of Law’s Tale in his Canterbury Tales, where he tells us that one of the three men dwelling in a castle was blind, and could only see with “the eyes of his mind”; namely, those eyes “with which all men see after they have become blind”.[13]

The condition of not being able to internally visualize (the lack of a ”mind’s eye”) is called Aphantasia.

Description[edit]

The common use of the term is for the process of forming new images in the mind that have not been previously experienced with the help of what has been seen, heard, or felt before, or at least only partially or in different combinations. This could also be involved with thinking out possible or impossible outcomes of something or someone in life’s abundant situations and experiences. Some typical examples follow:

Imagination, not being limited to the acquisition of exact knowledge by the requirements of practical necessity is largely free from objective restraints. The ability to imagine one’s self in another person’s place is very important to social relations and understanding. Albert Einstein said, “Imagination … is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.”[14]

The same limitations beset imagination in the field of scientific hypothesis. Progress in scientific research is due largely to provisional explanations which are developed by imagination, but such hypotheses must be framed in relation to previously ascertained facts and in accordance with the principles of the particular science.

Imagination is an experimental partition of the mind used to develop theories and ideas based on functions. Taking objects from real perceptions, the imagination uses complex IF-functions[citation needed] to develop new or revised ideas. This part of the mind is vital to developing better and easier ways to accomplish old and new tasks. In sociology, Imagination is used to part ways with reality and have an understanding of social interactions derived from a perspective outside of society itself. This leads to the development of theories through questions that wouldn’t usually be asked. These experimental ideas can be safely conducted inside a virtual world and then, if the idea is probable and the function is true, the idea can be actualized in reality. Imagination is the key to new development of the mind and can be shared with others, progressing collectively.

Regarding the volunteer effort, imagination can be classified as:

  • involuntary (the dream from the sleep, the daydream)
  • voluntary (the reproductive imagination, the creative imagination, the dream of perspective)

Psychology[edit]

Psychologists have studied imaginative thought, not only in its exotic form of creativity and artistic expression but also in its mundane form of everyday imagination.[15] Ruth M.J. Byrne has proposed that everyday imaginative thoughts about counterfactual alternatives to reality may be based on the same cognitive processes on which rational thoughts are also based.[16] Children can engage in the creation of imaginative alternatives to reality from their very early years.[17] Cultural psychology is currently elaborating a view of imagination as a higher mental function involved in a number of everyday activities both at the individual and collective level[18] that enables people to manipulate complex meanings of both linguistic and iconic forms in the process of experiencing.

The phenomenology of imagination is discussed In The Imaginary: A Phenomenological Psychology of the Imagination (FrenchL’Imaginaire: Psychologie phénoménologique de l’imagination), also published under the title The Psychology of the Imagination, is a 1940 book by Jean-Paul Sartre, in which he propounds his concept of the imagination and discusses what the existence of imagination shows about the nature of human consciousness.[19]

The imagination is also active in our perception of photographic images in order to make them appear real.[20]

Memory[edit]

Memory and mental imagery, often seen as a part of the process of imagination, have been shown to be affected by one another.[21] “Images made by functional magnetic resonance imaging technology show that remembering and imagining sends blood to identify parts of the brain.”[21] Various psychological factors can influence the mental processing of and can to heighten the chance of the brain to retain information as either long-term memories or short-term memories. John Sweller indicated that experiences stored as long-term memories are easier to recall, as they are ingrained deeper in the mind. Each of these forms require information to be taught in a specific manner so as to use various regions of the brain when being processed.[22] This information can potentially help develop programs for young students to cultivate or further enhance their creative abilities from a young age. The neocortex and thalamus are responsible for controlling the brain’s imagination, along with many of the brain’s other functions such as consciousness and abstract thought.[23] Since imagination involves many different brain functions, such as emotions, memory, thoughts, etc., portions of the brain where multiple functions occur—such as the thalamus and neocortex—are the main regions where imaginative processing has been documented.[24] The understanding of how memory and imagination are linked in the brain, paves the way to better understand one’s ability to link significant past experiences with their imagination. Aphantasia is a disease that makes you not imagine.

Perception[edit]

Piaget posited that perceptions depend on the world view of a person. The world view is the result of arranging perceptions into existing imagery by imagination. Piaget cites the example of a child saying that the moon is following her when she walks around the village at night. Like this, perceptions are integrated into the world view to make sense. Imagination is needed to make sense of perceptions.[25]

Versus belief[edit]

Imagination is different from belief because the subject understands that what is personally invented by the mind does not necessarily affect the course of action taken in the apparently shared world, while beliefs are part of what one holds as truths about both the shared and personal worlds. The play of imagination, apart from the obvious limitations (e.g. of avoiding explicit self-contradiction), is conditioned only by the general trend of the mind at a given moment. Belief, on the other hand, is immediately related to practical activity: it is perfectly possible to imagine oneself a millionaire, but unless one believes it one does not, therefore, act as such. Belief endeavors to conform to the subject’s experienced conditions or faith in the possibility of those conditions; whereas imagination as such is specifically free.

The dividing line between imagination and belief varies widely in different stages of technological development. Thus in more extreme cases, someone from a primitive culture who ill frames an ideal reconstruction of the causes of his illness, and attributes it to the hostile magic of an enemy based on faith and tradition rather than science. In ignorance of the science of pathology the subject is satisfied with this explanation, and actually believes in it, sometimes to the point of death, due to what is known as the nocebo effect. It follows that the learned distinction between imagination and belief depends in practice on religion, tradition, and culture.[according to whom?]

Brain activation[edit]

A study using fMRI while subjects were asked to imagine precise visual figures, to mentally disassemble them, or mentally blend them, showed activity in the occipital, frontoparietal, posterior parietalprecuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions of the subject’s brains.[26]

Evolution of imagination[edit]

Phylogenesis and ontogenesis of various components of imagination

Phylogenetic acquisition of imagination was a gradual process. The simplest form of imagination, REM-sleep dreaming, evolved in mammals with acquisition of REM sleep 140 million years ago.[27] Spontaneous insight improved in primates with acquisition of the lateral prefrontal cortex 70 million years ago. After hominins split from the chimpanzee line 6 million years ago they further improved their imagination. Prefrontal analysis was acquired 3.3 million years ago when hominins started to manufacture Mode One stone tools.[28] Progress in stone tools culture to Mode Two stone tools by 2 million years ago signify remarkable improvement of prefrontal analysis. The most advanced mechanism of imagination, prefrontal synthesis, was likely acquired by humans around 70,000 years ago and resulted in behavioral modernity.[29] This leap toward modern imagination has been characterized by paleoanthropologists as the “Cognitive revolution”,[30] “Upper Paleolithic Revolution”,[31] and the “Great Leap Forward”.[32]

As a reality[edit]

The world as experienced is an interpretation of data arriving from the senses; as such, it is perceived as real by contrast to most thoughts and imaginings. Users of hallucinogenic drugs are said to have a heightened imagination, or perhaps, a kind of heightened imaginative output. This difference is only one of degree and can be altered by several historic causes, namely changes to brain chemistry, hypnosis or other altered states of consciousnessmeditation, many hallucinogenic drugs, and electricity applied directly to specific parts of the brain. The difference between imagined and perceived reality can be proven by psychosis. Many mental illnesses can be attributed to this inability to distinguish between the sensed and the internally created worlds. Some cultures and traditions even view the apparently shared world as an illusion of the mind as with the Buddhist Maya, or go to the opposite extreme and accept the imagined and dreamed realms as of equal validity to the apparently shared world as the Australian Aborigines do with their concept of dreamtime.

Imagination, because of having freedom from external limitations, can often become a source of real pleasure and unnecessary suffering. Consistent with this idea, imagining pleasurable and fearful events is found to engage emotional circuits involved in emotional perception and experience.[33] A person of vivid imagination often suffers acutely from the imagined perils besetting friends, relatives, or even strangers such as celebrities. Also crippling fear can result from taking an imagined painful future too seriously.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Szczelkun, Stefan (2018-03-03). SENSE THINK ACT: a collection of exercises to experience total human ability. Stefan Szczelkun. ISBN 9781870736107.
  2. Jump up to:a b Norman 2000 pp. 1-2
  3. ^ Brian Sutton-Smith 1988, p. 22
  4. ^ Archibald MacLeish 1970, p. 887
  5. ^ Kieran Egan 1992, pp. 50
  6. ^ Northrop Frye 1963, p. 49
  7. ^ As noted by Giovanni Pascoli
  8. ^ Byrne, Ruth (2007). The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0262025843.
  9. ^ Janowski, Dr Monica; Ingold, Professor Tim (2012-09-01). Imagining Landscapes: Past, Present and Future. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9781409461449.
  10. ^ Laurence Goldman (1998). Child’s play: myth, mimesis and make-believe. Oxford New York: Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85973-918-1Basically what this means is that the children use their make-believe situation and act as if what they are acting out is from a reality that already exists even though they have made it up.imagination comes after story created.
  11. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, Liber III: XLI: 163.
  12. ^ J.S. (trans. and ed.), Cicero on Oratory and Orators, Harper & Brothers, (New York), 1875: Book III, C.XLI, p.239.
  13. ^ The Man of Laws Tale, lines 550-553.
  14. ^ Viereck, George Sylvester (October 26, 1929). “What life means to Einstein: an interview”. The Saturday Evening Post.
  15. ^ Ward, T.B., Smith, S.M, & Vaid, J. (1997). Creative thought. Washington DC: APA
  16. ^ Byrne, R.M.J. (2005). The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  17. ^ Harris, P. (2000). The work of the imagination. London: Blackwell.
  18. ^ Tateo, L. (2015). Giambattista Vico and the psychological imagination. Culture and Psychology, vol. 21(2):145-161.
  19. ^ Sartre, Jean-Paul (1995). The psychology of imagination. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415119542OCLC 34102867.
  20. ^ Wilson, John G. (2016-12-01). “Sartre and the Imagination: Top Shelf Magazines”. Sexuality & Culture20 (4): 775–784. doi:10.1007/s12119-016-9358-xISSN 1095-5143.
  21. Jump up to:a b Long, Priscilla (2011). My Brain On My Mind. p. 27. ISBN 978-1612301365.
  22. ^ Leahy, Wayne; John Sweller (5 June 2007). “The Imagination Effect Increases with an Increased Intrinsic Cognitive Load”. Applied Cognitive Psychology22 (2): 273–283. doi:10.1002/acp.1373.
  23. ^ “Welcome to Brain Health and Puzzles!”. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  24. ^ “Welcome to ScienceForums.Net!”.
  25. ^ Piaget, J. (1967). The child’s conception of the world. (J. & A. Tomlinson, Trans.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. BF721 .P5 1967X
  26. ^ Alexander Schlegel, Peter J. Kohler, Sergey V. Fogelson, Prescott Alexander, Dedeepya Konuthula, and Peter Ulric Tse (Sep 16, 2013) Network structure and dynamics of the mental workspace PNAS early edition
  27. ^ Hobson, J. Allan (1 October 2009). “REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience10 (11): 803–813. doi:10.1038/nrn2716PMID 19794431.
  28. ^ Harmand, Sonia; Lewis, Jason E.; Feibel, Craig S.; Lepre, Christopher J.; Prat, Sandrine; Lenoble, Arnaud; Boës, Xavier; Quinn, Rhonda L.; Brenet, Michel; Arroyo, Adrian; Taylor, Nicholas; Clément, Sophie; Daver, Guillaume; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Leakey, Louise; Mortlock, Richard A.; Wright, James D.; Lokorodi, Sammy; Kirwa, Christopher; Kent, Dennis V.; Roche, Hélène (20 May 2015). “3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya”. Nature521 (7552): 310–315. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..310Hdoi:10.1038/nature14464PMID 25993961.
  29. ^ Vyshedsky, Andrey (2019). “Neuroscience of Imagination and Implications for Human Evolution” (PDF)Curr Neurobiol10 (2): 89–109.
  30. ^ Harari, Yuval N. (2014). Sapiens : a brief history of humankind. London. ISBN 9781846558245OCLC 890244744.
  31. ^ Bar-Yosef, Ofer (October 2002). “The Upper Paleolithic Revolution”. Annual Review of Anthropology31 (1): 363–393. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.31.040402.085416ISSN 0084-6570.
  32. ^ Diamond, Jared M. (2006). The third chimpanzee : the evolution and future of the human animal. New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 0060845503OCLC 63839931.
  33. ^ Costa, VD, Lang, PJ, Sabatinelli, D, Bradley MM, and Versace, F (2010). “Emotional imagery: Assessing pleasure and arousal in the brain’s reward circuitry”Human Brain Mapping31 (9): 1446–1457. doi:10.1002/hbm.20948PMC 3620013PMID 20127869.

Further reading[edit]

Books
Articles
  • Watkins, Mary: “Waking Dreams” [Harper Colophon Books, 1976] and “Invisible Guests – The Development of Imaginal Dialogues” [The Analytic Press, 1986]
  • Moss, Robert: “The Three “Only” Things: Tapping the Power of Dreams, Coincidence, and Imagination” [New World Library, September 10, 2007]
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Imagination“. Encyclopædia Britannica14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 304–305.

Three philosophers for whom imagination is a central concept are Kendall WaltonJohn Sallis and Richard Kearney. See in particular:

  • Kendall WaltonMimesis as Make-Believe: On the Foundations of the Representational Arts. Harvard University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-674-57603-9 (pbk.).
  • John SallisForce of Imagination: The Sense of the Elemental (2000)
  • John SallisSpacings-Of Reason and Imagination. In Texts of Kant, Fichte, Hegel (1987)
  • Richard KearneyThe Wake of Imagination. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press (1988); 1st Paperback Edition- (ISBN 0-8166-1714-7)
  • Richard Kearney, “Poetics of Imagining: Modern to Post-modern.” Fordham University Press (1998)

External links[edit]

 The dictionary definition of imagination at Wiktionary

Coronavirus: COVID-19 Has Mutated To At Least 30 Different Strains, Study Reveals

KEY POINTS

  • The SARS-CoV-2 virus has mutated at least 30 times since it came out of China in December 2019
  • This horrific reality could mean one single vaccine may not immunize people worldwide against this disease
  • Scientists are scrambling to defeat this new challange

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, might have mutated as many as 30 times since its first confirmed case in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. These mutations could mean one vaccine alone can’t immunize people against all the mutations of SARS-CoV-2 spreading worldwide, according to an alarming study authored by a team of 14 Chinese scientists.

The preprint of this non-peer reviewed study, “Patient-derived mutations impact pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2,” was published Sunday in Medrxiv, the medical website distributing unpublished manuscripts about health sciences.

The study reported an “intrapersonal variation and 6 different mutations in the spike glycoprotein (S protein), including 2 different SNVs (single-nucleotide variants) that led to the same missense mutation. Therefore, we provide direct evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 has acquired mutations capable of substantially changing its pathogenicity.”

It recorded at least 30 different genetic variations of SARS-CoV-2. This eye-opening finding means different strains of SARS-CoV-2 now affect different parts of the world, leading to huge challenges in finding an overall cure or a single vaccine effective against all these mutations.

Researchers analyzed strains from 11 randomly chosen coronavirus patients from Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province. At the time of the study, there were 1,264 reported cases in Hangzhou. Researchers then tested how efficiently they could infect and kill cells. More than 30 different mutations of the virus were detected, of which 19 were previously undiscovered.

Researchers found that some of the most aggressive strains of SARS-CoV-2 were able to generate 270 times the viral load as the weakest strains. More disturbingly, the aggressive strains killed the human cells fastest. The study says the “true diversity” of the viral strains is underappreciated and must be understood in order to find a treatment or vaccine.

“Drug and vaccine development, while urgent, need to take the impact of these accumulating mutations, especially the founding mutations, into account to avoid potential pitfall,” said the study.

Britain's culture secretary Oliver Dowden has warned the news industry could lose £50 million during the crisis, particularly as big firms had blocked online ads alongside stories on COVID-19Britain’s culture secretary Oliver Dowden has warned the news industry could lose £50 million during the crisis, particularly as big firms had blocked online ads alongside stories on COVID-19 Photo: AFP / Paul ELLIS

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