TIME & TEAM ¨# WORLD @ INTERNET – HISTORY – SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY & T E M P O (S) *@ #Time(s) _- EQUIPE(S) – T E A M S – 100 SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES – 100 DESCOBERTAS CIENTÍFICAS – 100 – DESCOBERTA(S) CIENTÍFICA(S) &@ HUMAN LONGEVITY – NO GENE – 100 – GENE @ NOS GENES – 100 GENES – NO(S) GENE(S) – DNA – RNA – GENETIC MUTATIONS – MUTAÇÃO(ÕES) GENÉTICA(S) &-@# LONGEVIDADE HUMANA – #TIMES – ENERGY – (S) – E – v @ t – xy z – X – 10 – V -@ 5 – I – 1 – NO @ SPACE – NO TIME & SEM – ESPAÇO(S) – VIDA PESSOAL – VIRTUALITY – VIRTUALIDADE – 1 0 0 – VIDA VIRTUAL – VIRTUAL LIFE – INFLUENCES & INFLUÊNCIA(S) – CEM – REALITY – VIDA REAL @ VIRTUAL – HUMAN EXPERIENCES – 100 @# & – ENERGIA(S) & NO SPACE – IN THE SPACE @ NO(S) ESPAÇO(S) – HUMAN LIFE ENERGIES & HUMAN INTENTIONS – PERSONAL LIFE – REALITY @ REAL LIFE – FEELINGS – HUMAN SENSES – SENTIDO(S) HUMANO(S) – SENTIMENTO(S) – THINKING – PENSAMENTO(S) @ HUMAN THOUGHTS & WORLD PROGRESS ALWAYS – WORLD PROTECTION FOREVER – INTENÇÃO(ÕES) – T E A M S – “DNA is like a computer program but far, far more advanced than any software ever created.” Bill Gates, The Road Ahead tags: biology, dna, id, information, intelligent-design, science https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/336336-dna-is-like-a-computer-program-but-far-far-more @ REAL AND VIRTUAL FACTS — FATO(S) VIRTUAL(AIS) E REAL(AIS) — DIFFERENT REALITIES — CONCEPÇÃO(ÕES) — CONCEPTIONS — DIFERENTE(S) REALIDADE(S) — VIRTUAL LIFE — PEOPLE – REAL LIFE — P E R S O N — WRITTEN MESSAGES — MENSAGEM(NS) ESCRITA(S) — PEOPLE´S CONVERSATIONS — – FALA(S) — CAPACITY — HABILIDADE(S) PESSOAL(IS) — PERSONAL HABILITIES — TYPED MESSAGE — – WRITTEN MESSAGE — CONVERSA(S) DA(S) PESSOA(S) – — S P E A K – — W R I T E – — T Y P I N G — DIGITAR – – TOTALLY DIFFERENT SITUATIONS — – MENSAGEM(NS) DIGITADA(S) – – TYPED MESSAGES — SITUAÇÃO(ÕES) TOTALMENTE DIFERENTE(S) — – MUITA(S) ESCRITA(S) – — DIGITAÇÃO — COMMUNICATION — ESCREVER — – Communications – ESCRITA(S) — Comunicação(ões) — – SENSE — SENSES — HISTORY – História(s) – WORK – – TRABALHO(S) — PLACE — PLACES — Lugar(es) – D I N H E I R O — PRICE – PRICES — SENTIDO(S) — Money — Data(s) – Dados — ANÁLISE(S) DETALHADA(S) — – DETAILED ANALYSIS – – D A T A – — PERSON — T Y P E – — ENERGIA(S) — ENERGIES — PESSOA(S) — TYPING — TEXTO(S) — TEXTS — DIFERENTE(S) AMBIENTE(S) HUMANO(S) – – DI G I T A R – — Diferente(s) Percepção(ões) – — Ambiente(s) Diferente(s) — – DIFFERENT HUMAN ENVIRONMENTS — INFLUENCE — INFLUÊNCIA(S) — Different Perceptions — REALITY — – REALIDADE(S) – — PERSONAL COINCIDENCES — VIRTUAL COINCIDENCES — INFLUENCES — Mental Health — – Saúde Mental – — DIFFERENT AMBIENT — – DIGITAR — – REDIGIR — DIGITA — LIVRO(S) DIGITAL(AIS) — CONVERSAR — – DIGITAL BOOKS — DIFERENÇAS — DIFFERENCES — CONVERSA — EXPLICAÇÃO — EXPLICATIONS — TERMO(S) — TERMS — SIGNIFICADO(S) — MEANS — CONTEXTO(S) — CONTEXTS — FALA(S) — SPEAK — FALA — FALAR — MENSAGENS — ESCUTA(S) — VER — SEE — READ — LER — ESCUTAR — CONVERSAS — CONVERSA(S) — TALK — MESSAGE — MENSAGEM — Messages – — Mensagem(ns) – — Foto(s) – – Vídeo(s) – — Photos – — Videos — Images — Imagens – Inventions – — Invenções — Assunto(s) – Subjects — Imaginations – IMAGINAÇÃO(ÕES) – — IMAGINATION — P E R S O N — P E O P L E — – PESSOA(S) — PESSOAL — – OPINIÃO(ÕES) — – P E S S O A — Pensamento(s) – — Thinking — – Pensamento — Thoughts – – OPINION – – OPINIÃO — – V I R T U A L – — R E A L — V I D A P E S S O A L – — P E R S O N A L L I F E — – OPINIONS – — BEAUTY — – BELEZA(S) – – FEELINGS – — SENTIMENTO(S) – — V I D A (S) P E S S O A L (IS) – — RESPECT — RESPEITO — VIDA PESSOAL —COINCIDÊNCIA(S) VIRTUAL(AIS) — C O I N C I D E N C E – — COINCIDÊNCIA(S) REAL(AIS) — VIDA VIRTUAL — PERSONAL LIFE — -Technologies – — Grande(s) Tecnologia(s)- — Importance – Importância — Social Networkings — Site(s) — Websites — Link(s) — Objetivo(s) – Intentions — Intenção(ões) — Melhoria(s) – Improvement — – Desafio(s) — Challenge @ #leitura #emails #reading #probability #probabilidade #energia #autoridade #autority #energy @ I n t e r n e t S o c i e t y &_ # *@ ´´It doesn’t matter how beautiful your theory is, it doesn’t matter how smart you are. If it doesn’t agree with experiment, it’s wrong.´´ Richard P. Feynman &@ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WordPress #@ https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/richard_p_feynman_160383 &@ MicroRNA in Obese Mothers, Grandmothers Passes Increased Liver Cancer Risk to Multiple Generations of Offspring – June 26, 2020 ´´Researchers in China have identified a microRNA in obese mouse mothers that is passed on to their pups, increasing susceptibility to liver cancer and elevating the odds of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing in offspring, down multiple generations. The study found that the maternal microRNA, miR-27a-3p, acted to increase the risk of liver cancer in offspring by regulating two genes, Acsl1 and Aldh2. The investigators say their findings could point to a future therapeutic target. The researchers reported their findings in the Journal of Hepatology, in a paper titled, “Multigenerational maternal obesity increases the incidence of HCC in offspring via miR-27a-3p.” ´´About a third of people are overweight or obese, and studies indicate that obesity confers a higher risk of developing metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Up to 50% of recently diagnosed HCC in the United States is the result of hepatic metabolic disorders such as NAFLD. The levels of Acsl1 or Aldh2 in tumors were significantly lower compared to those in non-tumor tissues, and their levels in fatty liver samples were also significantly lower compared to those in non-fatty liver,” they wrote. They noted that there are still unknowns, however, including the mechanism of inheritance of mir-27a-3p. This study opens a new avenue for cancer research at the crossroads of metabolism and epigenetics. A second question that will need addressing is whether the findings in mice can be extrapolated directly to humans.´´ @ VERY IMPORTANT INFORMATION LIKE TEXTS, IMAGES, LINKS AND WEBSITES FROM THE WORLD
MicroRNA in Obese Mothers, Grandmothers Passes Increased Liver Cancer Risk to Multiple Generations of Offspring
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National Center for Biotechnology Information – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) – https://www.nejm.org/
https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry?fbclid=IwAR2ztmCR6FakqS0e3GMHugjfDYQJ8nEgF_tLVxP5XcPoXFq-hRJY9Kd63kk ´´This event takes place over 2 days and will comprise plenary lectures, parallel sessions, poster sessions and our ever-popular ‘Workshop’ events, with something to suit all immunological and vaccines research.´´
I am graduated in Biomedicine at Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro (Uberaba – 2003-2007), I have a Master Degree in lung cancer research in mice at Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto (2008-2012) and nowadays I work as inspector of students since 2012 in Sao Jose do Rio Preto. Maybe I can try to do a doctorate and PhD to work as professor, scientist and/or researcher in Brazil or abroad. As you know, the human interdependence is essential for a country progress in many aspects. In my dissertation I did very interesting, important, innovative and detailed graphics about variations of all mice weights (Control Group, Study Group 1 and Study Group 2) of different ages during all experimental time and I did comparisons between them to a better and detailed analysis. It was a very innovative and important research as well my monograph (Chagas disease research -> Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi). There were not statistical difference significantly among them, but the discussion of this fact is very important to the Scientific Community, conforming an article published in Nature (It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance – Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better. 20 MARCH 2019). There are posts in my blog about this very important subject for Science. Discovering how the initial stages of certain diseases work, such as fatal diseases, is of huge importance for Science, of course. There are several biological factors connected in the human body that acting in a very complex form. Therefore, it is of great necessity to carry out new scientific researches much more detailed and modern, with high degree of precision, even if there is no significant statistical difference between certain factors. New Scientific Discoveries are essential for the world progress always. As you know, we need to have more efficient vaccines and drugs, so it is very important to do more detailed and efficient researches in mice and humans, of course. There are very important stages of development of vaccines and drugs, for sure. So, I would like so much you share this blog I did. I do not earn money from the blog. I never earned any money from blogs I did, nor my social networks nor my e-mails accounts. I never earned any money using Internet. (02/19/2021)
Compreender como funciona os estágios iniciais de uma determinada doença, tal como uma doença fatal, é de enorme importância para a Ciência, com toda certeza. Há vários fatores biológicos interligados no corpo humano que atuam de forma muito complexa. Portanto, é de grande necessidade a realização de pesquisas científicas muito mais minuciosas envolvendo alta tecnologia, com alto grau de precisão, mesmo que NÃO haja diferença estatística significativa entre determinados fatores analisados em gráficos, por exemplo. (02/19/2021)
This blog content is very good with very high quality! There are a very big amount of excellent information in this blog like human health, scientific researches in humans and animal models for human diseases like cardiovascular diseases, for example. The diffusion of knowledge is essential for a country progress always!! Article of my dissertation: The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. The graphics I did about the variations of all mice weights of different ages during all experimental time aren´t in the scientific article related to my dissertation nor in my dissertation as well as details about time of exercise and rest of the animals. These data can be an excellent reference for many types of researches like genetic engineering. The age of the mouse and the human being with the genetics influence in certain ways in pathophysiology in the humans and mice. So, mice researches are very important for the society as well as researches with humans, for sure. (02/19/2021)
I was invited by Internet through direct messages to participate in 72 very important science events in 31 cities in less than 2 years (Auckland, Melbourne, Toronto, Edinburgh, Madrid, Suzhou, Stanbul, Miami, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Abu Dhabi, San Diego, Bangkok, Dublin, Sao Paulo, Dubai, Boston, Berlin, Stockholm, Prague, Valencia, Osaka, Amsterdam, Helsinki, Paris, Tokyo, Vienna, Rome, Zurich, London and Frankfurt) because I participated of very important researches. Images about it are in this blog, of course. Many people worldwide visited it and liked my blog, such as renowned professors, scientists and researchers!! So, this blog sharing is very important to the world society!! More people worldwide need to know about it!! (02/19/2021)
Many laboratories have been researching mice for a long time, even resulting in excellent prizes for researchers such as the Nobel Prize. For example, the Jackson Laboratory. The world needs to have more very good and efficient ideas and scientific discoveries for human live longer faster more and more.
Many people think they have made mistakes but in fact they have not made mistakes. Many people think they did the right thing but they did not. The important thing is to reflect on this in order to better know the origin of your thoughts and your thoughts, acting accordingly in the best way for the good of you and other people.
Muitos acham que erraram mas na verdade não erraram. Muitos acham que acertaram mas não acertaram. O importante é refletir sobre isso para conhecer melhor a origem de seus pensamentos e seus pensamentos em si, agindo consequentemente da melhor forma para o bem de si e da(s) outra(s) pessoa(s).
Below there are more relevant information for the Science.
Conference Enquiries : firstname.lastname@example.org
Toll Free : +32 (800) 753-58
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Avenue Roger Vandendriessche 18,
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My YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9gsWVbGYWO04iYO2TMrP8Q
My Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/scientificblog
My Curriculum Lattes: http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.do?id=K4240145A2
My LinkedIn Account: https://www.linkedin.com/in/rodrigo-nunes-cal-81433b168/
My Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/CalZole
My Emails Acoounts: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
My YouTube Channel -> https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9gsWVbGYWO04iYO2TMrP8Q
Link about my monograph: Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi:
-Links about animal model for human diseases like cardiovascular diseases: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/29/33426/
– Links related with ´´my´´ dissertation: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/28/links-of-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-and-monograph-induction-of-benzonidazole-resistance-in-human-isolates-of-trypanoso/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWWDMV2W7QM Gratitude: I was invited direclty throught direct messages to participate in 55 very important science events in 25 cities of different countries in less than 1 year. Informations about it are in ´´my´´ blog.
Science events and researches are essential for the world progress in all aspects. The world is interdependent, of course. Unfortunately there´re fatal diseases without very efficient drugs and total prevention methods like vaccination. The scientific work can be very hard but can be of relevant value to the people. Therefore, new very important scientific discoveries are fundamental for human life urgently in the world, of course.
It´s very important professors, scientists, students, researchers and other people worldwide know about ´´my´´ dissertation made at Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto because it was a very innovative and important research as well as ´´my´´ monograph. They are related to very relevant subjects.
The data like very detailed, interesting and important graphics I made about variations of weights in all mice of different ages (Control Group -> treated with urethane and without physical activity and Study Groups – Aerobic Group -> treated with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise – Anaerobic Group –> treated with urethane and subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight) during all experimental time [My dissertation -> Lung cancer research in mice – Article: The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81] are very important for the world scientific community.
These graphics I did related to my dissertation aren´t in the article nor in ´´my´´ dissertation as well as details about time of exercise and rest of the animals. They can be an excellent reference for many types of researches in mice and humans, like in the field of genetic engineering. The discussion of certain facts in science envolving stastistics is fundamental to the scientific community, for example, the analysis and interpretation of very important, innovative and interesting graphics with no statistical difference between them can have a big value to the researches and to the future researches. So, the quality and efficiency of researches can increase so much in a little time, increasing the possiblities of excellent references and new scientific discoveries. The facts veracity and the disclosure of them are essential for the scientific community, of course. Links about this subject:
The age of the human, of the animal like mouse and the genetics influence in certain ways in the pathophysiology and in other aspects in the humans and mice. This subject is not easy to understand, of course. So, mice researches are essential for the world society as well as human researches. More information about it are in these links:
Very important observations:
- Cancer is very related to the weight loss of the patient. Weight loss of the patient is very associated with cancer – The syndrome of Anorexia-Cachexia (SAC) is a frequent complication in patients with advanced malignant neoplasia.
- Age, weight and genetics of the person are very important factors that influence cancer in a determined ways.
- The genetics of the mouse is very similar to that of the human.
- Maintaining proper body weight is one of the main ways to prevent cancer of a person.
- Animal testing has a very high importance to world society.
- The mouse is the main animal model used as the basis for research on diseases that affect humans.
- Weight lifting (bodybuilder) is a very good example of anaerobic physical activity in humans.
In ´´my´´ dissertation the progression of lung cancer was lower in the group of mice that practiced anaerobic physical activity. It would be very important, innovative and interesting to do researches in mice and humans testing a substance or substances and analyzing biochemical, pathological, pharmacological and physiological factors like weights in all experimental time and the influence of age and genetics within the group itself and in the other groups in the inhibition and/or progression of a determined disease like cancer. In this context, it´s very important to seek new methodologies for the treatment, prevention and early detection of cancer and/or other diseases, such as vaccines and other very modern and efficient technologies. It is clear that the correct and accurate study of cancer (as an example, the conduct of scientific researches) and certain diseases, is very complicated to be performed because they´re very complex diseases that are difficult to understand.
Note about ´´my´´ dissertartion: during anaerobic exercise it was necessary to briefly hold the tail of the mice for better physical performance and better adaptation to the submitted environment. In this same type of exercise, there were times when the mice could not exercise and sank, causing manual manipulation again. The physical wear of the animals was very intense.
It´s very important to consider the significance of variants of weight, age and genetics em relation to cancer. It is not easy understand it, of course. Therefore, more researches about it are very necessary in the world.
I hope that researchers, teachers, students, scientists and other people linked to scientific researches worldwide use the graphics I made about the variations of all mice weights during all experimental time of ´´my´´ dissertation as an example, model or reference for conducting future scientific researches as well as other data from ´´my´´ monograph and dissertation, leading to a very beneficial innovation in the researches methodologies bringing very relevant results to the world society, significantly increasing the human life time more and more.
|Rodrigo Nunes Cal’s research worksRodrigo Nunes Cal’s 1 research works with 12 citations and 137 reads, including: The influence of physical activ…|
I hope collaborate significantly with these information in the world scientific progress always!
The world needs to improve so much in the best ways.
Do the downloads !! Share to your friends !! Thanks in advance!!
- I DID VERY INTERESTING, INNOVATIVE, IMPORTANT AND DETAILED GRAPHICS ABOUT VARIATIONS OF ALL MICE WEIGHTS OF DIFFERENT AGES DURING ALL EXPERIMENTAL TIME OF ´´MY´´ DISSERTATION. THEY´RE AVAILABLE IN THIS BLOG AND ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY!! THE DIFFUSION OF RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE IS ALWAYS ESSENTIAL FOR A COUNTRY PROGRESS. NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES NEED TO EMERGE URGENTLY !! BELOW YOU CAN DO DOWNLOAD OF THESE GRAPHICS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATED TO SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION. SO, SHARE THESE GRAPHICS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS TO OTHER PEOPLE KNOW ABOUT IT AND PERHAPS USE THEM AS AN EXCELLENT REFERENCE IN THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. @ PERSON – PEOPLE – ANALYSIS – TIME – DATA – GRAPHICS – RESEARCHES – VISION – READING – SPEAKING – LISTENING – INFORMATION – KNOWLEDGE – INTENTIONS – INNOVATIONS – CHANGES – DATA INTERPRETATIONS – NEW INNOVATIONS – INTERNET – BOOKS – GRAPHICS INTERPRETATIONS – GRAPHICS COMPARISONS – INFLUENCES – TIME – SUBSTANCES – DRUGS – VACCINES – NEW MEDICAL DEVICES – WORLD HISTORY – NEW TECHNOLOGIES – HUMAN ENERGY – WORK – NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES – SCIENCE – GRAPHICS ANALYSIS – AGES – AGE – GENETICS – PHYSIOLOGY – MIND – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY – STATISTICS – BIOSTATISTICS – HUMAN LONGEVITY
GRUPO_AF1 – ´´my´´ dissertation
GRUPO_AF2 – ´´my´´ dissertation
GRUPO AFAN 1 – ´´my´´ dissertation
GRUPO AFAN 2 – ´´my´´ dissertation
Slides – mestrado – ´´my´´ dissertation
Positive Feedbacks by Facebook and Twitter about this Blog, like the very important, innovative and detailed graphics I did about variations of all mice weights (Control and Study Groups) of different ages during all experimental time of ´´my´´ dissertation. Note: I have received positive feedbacks about this Blog by LinkedIn, E-mails and Instagram too. @ Internet invitations I received by direct messages to participate in very important science events worldwide in less than 1 year because I participated of great researches in Brazil and other informations @ Links & The next step in nanotechnology | George Tulevski & Animated Nanomedicine movie @ Nanotechnology Animation & Powering Nanorobots & The World’s Smallest Robots: Rise of the Nanomachines & Building Medical Robots, Bacteria sized: Bradley Nelson at TEDxZurich @ Mind-controlled Machines: Jose del R. Millan at TEDxZurich & The present and future of brain-computer interfaces: Avi Goldberg at TEDxAsheville & Future of human/computer interface: Paul McAvinney at TEDxGreenville 2014 @ Bio-interfaced nanoengineering: human-machine interfaces | Hong Yeo | TEDxVCU @ Very important images, websites, social networks and links – https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/17/feedbacks-on-facebook-related-to-researches-i-participated-in-brazil-for-example-the-graphics-i-did-about-variations-of-all-mice-weights-control-and-study-groups-of-different-ages-during-all-exper/
Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Messenger (Facebook). Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação, blog e canal do YouTube pelo Facebook (Messenger) Year / Ano: 2018 – positive-feedback-of-people-about-my-dissertation-blog-and-youtube-channel-by-facebook-messenger-ano-year-2018
|Initial release||May 27, 2003|
|Operating system||Unix-like, Windows, Linux|
|Type||Blog software, content management system, content management framework|
WordPress (WP, WordPress.org) is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) written in PHP and paired with a MySQL or MariaDB database. Features include a plugin architecture and a template system, referred to within WordPress as Themes. WordPress was originally created as a blog-publishing system but has evolved to support other types of web content including more traditional mailing lists and forums, media galleries, membership sites, learning management systems (LMS) and online stores. WordPress is used by more than 60 million websites, including 33.6% of the top 10 million websites as of April 2019, WordPress is one of the most popular content management system solutions in use. WordPress has also been used for other application domains such as pervasive display systems (PDS).
WordPress was released on May 27, 2003, by its founders, American developer Matt Mullenweg and English developer Mike Little, as a fork of b2/cafelog. The software is released under the GPLv2 (or later) license.
To function, WordPress has to be installed on a web server, either part of an Internet hosting service like WordPress.com or a computer running the software package WordPress.org in order to serve as a network host in its own right. A local computer may be used for single-user testing and learning purposes.
“WordPress is a factory that makes webpages” is a core analogy designed to clarify the functions of WordPress: it stores content and enables a user to create and publish webpages, requiring nothing beyond a domain and a hosting service.
WordPress has a web template system using a template processor. Its architecture is a front controller, routing all requests for non-static URIs to a single PHP file which parses the URI and identifies the target page. This allows support for more human-readable permalinks.
WordPress users may install and switch among different themes. Themes allow users to change the look and functionality of a WordPress website without altering the core code or site content. Every WordPress website requires at least one theme to be present and every theme should be designed using WordPress standards with structured PHP, valid HTML (HyperText Markup Language), and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Themes may be directly installed using the WordPress “Appearance” administration tool in the dashboard, or theme folders may be copied directly into the themes directory, for example via FTP. The PHP, HTML and CSS found in themes can be directly modified to alter theme behavior, or a theme can be a “child” theme that inherits settings from another theme and selectively overrides features. WordPress themes are generally classified into two categories: free and premium. Many free themes are listed in the WordPress theme directory (also known as the repository), and premium themes are available for purchase from marketplaces and individual WordPress developers. WordPress users may also create and develop their own custom themes. The free theme Underscores created by the WordPress developers has become a popular basis for new themes.
WordPress’ plugin architecture allows users to extend the features and functionality of a website or blog. As of January 2020, WordPress.org has 55,487 plugins available, each of which offers custom functions and features enabling users to tailor their sites to their specific needs. However, this does not include the premium plugins that are available (approximately 1,500+), which may not be listed in the WordPress.org repository. These customizations range from search engine optimization (SEO), to client portals used to display private information to logged in users, to content management systems, to content displaying features, such as the addition of widgets and navigation bars. Not all available plugins are always abreast with the upgrades and as a result they may not function properly or may not function at all. Most plugins are available through WordPress themselves, either via downloading them and installing the files manually via FTP or through the WordPress dashboard. However, many third parties offer plugins through their own websites, many of which are paid packages.
Web developers who wish to develop plugins need to learn WordPress’ hook system which consists of over 300 hooks divided into two categories: action hooks and filter hooks.
Phone apps for WordPress exist for WebOS, Android, iOS (iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad), Windows Phone, and BlackBerry. These applications, designed by Automattic, have options such as adding new blog posts and pages, commenting, moderating comments, replying to comments in addition to the ability to view the stats.
The WordPress Accessibility Team has worked to improve the accessibility for core WordPress as well as support a clear identification of accessible themes. The WordPress Accessibility Team provides continuing educational support about web accessibility and inclusive design. The WordPress Accessibility Coding Standards state that “All new or updated code released in WordPress must conform with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 at level AA.”
WordPress also features integrated link management; a search engine–friendly, clean permalink structure; the ability to assign multiple categories to posts; and support for tagging of posts. Automatic filters are also included, providing standardized formatting and styling of text in posts (for example, converting regular quotes to smart quotes). WordPress also supports the Trackback and Pingback standards for displaying links to other sites that have themselves linked to a post or an article. WordPress posts can be edited in HTML, using the visual editor, or using one of a number of plugins that allow for a variety of customized editing features.
Multi-user and multi-blogging
Prior to version 3, WordPress supported one blog per installation, although multiple concurrent copies may be run from different directories if configured to use separate database tables. WordPress Multisites (previously referred to as WordPress Multi-User, WordPress MU, or WPMU) was a fork of WordPress created to allow multiple blogs to exist within one installation but is able to be administered by a centralized maintainer. WordPress MU makes it possible for those with websites to host their own blogging communities, as well as control and moderate all the blogs from a single dashboard. WordPress MS adds eight new data tables for each blog.
As of the release of WordPress 3, WordPress MU has merged with WordPress.
b2/cafelog, more commonly known as b2 or cafelog, was the precursor to WordPress. b2/cafelog was estimated to have been installed on approximately 2,000 blogs as of May 2003. It was written in PHP for use with MySQL by Michel Valdrighi, who is now a contributing developer to WordPress. Although WordPress is the official successor, another project, b2evolution, is also in active development.
WordPress first appeared in 2003 as a joint effort between Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little to create a fork of b2. Christine Selleck Tremoulet, a friend of Mullenweg, suggested the name WordPress.
In 2004 the licensing terms for the competing Movable Type package were changed by Six Apart, resulting in many of its most influential users migrating to WordPress. By October 2009 the Open Source CMS MarketShare Report concluded that WordPress enjoyed the greatest brand strength of any open-source content management system.
Awards and recognition
- Winner of InfoWorld‘s “Best of open source software awards: Collaboration”, awarded in 2008.
- Winner of Open Source CMS Awards’s “Overall Best Open Source CMS”, awarded in 2009.
- Winner of digitalsynergy’s “Hall of Fame CMS category in the 2010 Open Source”, awarded in 2010.
- Winner of InfoWorld‘s “Bossie award for Best Open Source Software”, awarded in 2011.
- WordPress has a five star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
|Legend:||Old version, not maintained||Older version, still maintained||Current stable version||Latest preview version||Future release|
|Version||Code name||Release date||Notes|
|0.7||none||May 27, 2003||Used the same file structure as its predecessor, b2/cafelog, and continued the numbering from its last release, 0.6. Only 0.71-gold is available for download in the official WordPress Release Archive page.|
|1.0||Davis||January 3, 2004||Added search engine friendly permalinks, multiple categories, dead simple installation and upgrade, comment moderation, XFN support, Atom support.|
|1.2||Mingus||May 22, 2004||Added support of Plugins; which same identification headers are used unchanged in WordPress releases as of 2011.|
|1.5||Strayhorn||February 17, 2005||Added a range of vital features, such as ability to manage static pages and a template/Theme system. It was also equipped with a new default template (code named Kubrick). designed by Michael Heilemann.|
|2.0||Duke||December 31, 2005||Added rich editing, better administration tools, image uploading, faster posting, improved import system, fully overhauled the back end, and various improvements to Plugin developers.|
|2.1||Ella||January 22, 2007||Corrected security issues, redesigned interface, enhanced editing tools (including integrated spell check and auto save), and improved content management options.|
|2.2||Getz||May 16, 2007||Added widget support for templates, updated Atom feed support, and speed optimizations.|
|2.3||Dexter||September 24, 2007||Added native tagging support, new taxonomy system for categories, and easy notification of updates, fully supports Atom 1.0, with the publishing protocol, and some much needed security fixes.|
|2.5||Brecker||March 29, 2008||Major revamp to the dashboard, dashboard widgets, multi-file upload, extended search, improved editor, improved plugin system and more.|
|2.6||Tyner||July 15, 2008||Added new features that made WordPress a more powerful CMS: it can now track changes to every post and page and allow easy posting from anywhere on the web.|
|2.7||Coltrane||December 11, 2008||Administration interface redesigned fully, added automatic upgrades and installing plugins, from within the administration interface.|
|2.8||Baker||June 10, 2009||Added improvements in speed, automatic installing of themes from within administration interface, introduces the CodePress editor for syntax highlighting and a redesigned widget interface.|
|2.9||Carmen||December 19, 2009||Added global undo, built-in image editor, batch plugin updating, and many less visible tweaks.|
|3.0||Thelonious||June 17, 2010||Added a new theme APIs, merge WordPress and WordPress MU, creating the new multi-site functionality, new default theme “Twenty Ten” and a refreshed, lighter admin UI.|
|3.1||Reinhardt||February 23, 2011||Added the Admin Bar, which is displayed on all blog pages when an admin is logged in, and Post Format, best explained as a Tumblr like micro-blogging feature. It provides easy access to many critical functions, such as comments and updates. Includes internal linking abilities, a newly streamlined writing interface, and many other changes.|
|3.2||Gershwin||July 4, 2011||Focused on making WordPress faster and lighter. Released only four months after version 3.1, reflecting the growing speed of development in the WordPress community.|
|3.3||Sonny||December 12, 2011||Focused on making WordPress friendlier for beginners and tablet computer users.|
|3.4||Green||June 13, 2012||Focused on improvements to theme customization, Twitter integration and several minor changes.|
|3.5||Elvin||December 11, 2012||Support for the Retina Display, color picker, new default theme “Twenty Twelve”, improved image workflow.|
|3.6||Oscar||August 1, 2013||New default theme “Twenty Thirteen”, admin enhancements, post formats UI update, menus UI improvements, new revision system, autosave and post locking.|
|3.7||Basie||October 24, 2013||Automatically apply maintenance and security updates in the background, stronger password recommendations, support for automatically installing the right language files and keeping them up to date.|
|3.8||Parker||December 12, 2013||Improved admin interface, responsive design for mobile devices, new typography using Open Sans, admin color schemes, redesigned theme management interface, simplified main dashboard, “Twenty Fourteen” magazine style default theme, second release using “Plugin-first development process”.|
|3.9||Smith||April 16, 2014||Improvements to editor for media, live widget and header previews, new theme browser.|
|4.0||Benny||September 4, 2014||Improved media management, embeds, writing interface, easy language change, theme customizer, plugin discovery and compatibility with PHP 5.5 and MySQL 5.6.|
|4.1||Dinah||December 18, 2014||Twenty Fifteen as the new default theme, distraction-free writing, easy language switch, Vine embeds and plugin recommendations.|
|4.2||Powell||April 23, 2015||New “Press This” features, improved characters support, emoji support, improved customizer, new embeds and updated plugin system.|
|4.3||Billie||August 18, 2015||Focus on mobile experience, better passwords and improved customizer.|
|4.4||Clifford||December 8, 2015||Introduction of “Twenty Sixteen” theme, and improved responsive images and embeds.|
|4.5||Coleman||April 12, 2016||Added inline linking, formatting shortcuts, live responsive previews, and other updates under the hood.|
|4.6||Pepper||August 16, 2016||Added streamlined updates, native fonts, editor improvements with inline link checker and content recovery, and other updates under the hood.|
|4.7||Vaughan||December 6, 2016||Comes with new default theme “Twenty Seventeen”, Video Header Support, PDF preview, custom CSS in live preview, editor Improvements, and other updates under the hood.|
|4.8||Evans||June 8, 2017||The next-generation editor. Additional specific goals include the TinyMCE inline element / link boundaries, new media widgets, WYSIWYG in text widget. End Support for Internet Explorer Versions 8, 9, and 10.|
|4.9||Tipton||November 16, 2017||Improved theme customizer experience, including scheduling, frontend preview links, autosave revisions, theme browsing, improved menu functions, and syntax highlighting. Added new gallery widget and updated text and video widgets. Theme editor gives warnings and rollbacks when saving files that produce fatal errors.|
|5.0||Bebo||December 6, 2018||New block based editor Gutenberg with new default theme “Twenty Nineteen”.|
|5.1||Betty||February 21, 2019||PHP version upgrade notices, and block editor improvements.|
|5.2||Jaco||May 7, 2019||Include Site Health Check, PHP error protection, the all new block directory, and update package signing.|
|5.3||Kirk||November 12, 2019||Polish current user interactions and make user interfaces more user friendly. New default theme “Twenty Twenty”, designed by Anders Norén.|
|5.4||Adderley||March 31, 2020||Social Icons and Buttons blocks added, blocks customization and user interface improved, added features for personal data exports, custom fields for menu items, blocks improvements for developers.|
WordPress 5.0 “Bebo”
It included a new default editor “Gutenberg” – a block-based editor; it allows users to modify their displayed content in a much more user friendly way than prior iterations. Blocks are abstract units of markup that, composed together, form the content or layout of a web page. Past content that was created on WordPress pages is listed under what is referred to as a Classic Block. Prior to Gutenberg, there were several block-based editors available as WordPress plugins, e.g. Elementor, and following the release of Gutenberg it was compared to existing plugins.
Classic Editor plugin
The Classic Editor Plugin was created as result of User preferences and as a way to help website developers to maintain past plugins only compatible with WordPress 4.9.8 giving plugin developers time to get their plugins updated & compatible with the 5.0 release. Having the Classic Editor plugin installed restores the “classic” editing experience that WordPress has had up until the WordPress 5.0 release. The Classic Editor Plugin will be supported at least until 2022.
The Classic Editor plugin is active on over 5,000,000 installations of WordPress.
This section needs to be updated.February 2020)(
Many security issues have been uncovered in the software, particularly in 2007, 2008, and 2015. According to Secunia, WordPress in April 2009 had seven unpatched security advisories (out of 32 total), with a maximum rating of “Less Critical”. Secunia maintains an up-to-date list of WordPress vulnerabilities.
In January 2007, many high-profile search engine optimization (SEO) blogs, as well as many low-profile commercial blogs featuring AdSense, were targeted and attacked with a WordPress exploit. A separate vulnerability on one of the project site’s web servers allowed an attacker to introduce exploitable code in the form of a back door to some downloads of WordPress 2.1.1. The 2.1.2 release addressed this issue; an advisory released at the time advised all users to upgrade immediately.
In May 2007, a study revealed that 98% of WordPress blogs being run were exploitable because they were running outdated and unsupported versions of the software. In part to mitigate this problem, WordPress made updating the software a much easier, “one click” automated process in version 2.7 (released in December 2008). However, the filesystem security settings required to enable the update process can be an additional risk.
In a June 2007 interview, Stefan Esser, the founder of the PHP Security Response Team, spoke critically of WordPress’ security track record, citing problems with the application’s architecture that made it unnecessarily difficult to write code that is secure from SQL injection vulnerabilities, as well as some other problems.
In June 2013, it was found that some of the 50 most downloaded WordPress plugins were vulnerable to common Web attacks such as SQL injection and XSS. A separate inspection of the top-10 e-commerce plugins showed that seven of them were vulnerable.
In an effort to promote better security, and to streamline the update experience overall, automatic background updates were introduced in WordPress 3.7.
Individual installations of WordPress can be protected with security plugins that prevent user enumeration, hide resources and thwart probes. Users can also protect their WordPress installations by taking steps such as keeping all WordPress installation, themes, and plugins updated, using only trusted themes and plugins, editing the site’s .htaccess configuration file if supported by the web server to prevent many types of SQL injection attacks and block unauthorized access to sensitive files. It is especially important to keep WordPress plugins updated because would-be hackers can easily list all the plugins a site uses, and then run scans searching for any vulnerabilities against those plugins. If vulnerabilities are found, they may be exploited to allow hackers to, for example, upload their own files (such as a web shell) that collect sensitive information.
Developers can also use tools to analyze potential vulnerabilities, including WPScan, WordPress Auditor and WordPress Sploit Framework developed by 0pc0deFR. These types of tools research known vulnerabilities, such as a CSRF, LFI, RFI, XSS, SQL injection and user enumeration. However, not all vulnerabilities can be detected by tools, so it is advisable to check the code of plugins, themes and other add-ins from other developers.
In March 2015, it was reported by many security experts and SEOs, including Search Engine Land, that a SEO plugin for WordPress called Yoast which is used by more than 14 million users worldwide has a vulnerability which can lead to an exploit where hackers can do a Blind SQL injection. To fix that issue they immediately introduced a newer version 1.7.4 of the same plugin to avoid any disturbance on web because of the security lapse that the plugin had.
In January 2017, security auditors at Sucuri identified a vulnerability in the WordPress REST API that would allow any unauthenticated user to modify any post or page within a site running WordPress 4.7 or greater. The auditors quietly notified WordPress developers, and within six days WordPress released a high priority patch to version 4.7.2 which addressed the problem.
As of WordPress 5.2, the minimum PHP version requirement is PHP 5.6, which was released on August 28, 2014, and which has been unsupported by the PHP Group and not received any security patches since December 31, 2018. Thus, WordPress recommends using PHP version 7.3 or greater.
In the absence of specific alterations to their default formatting code, WordPress-based websites use the canvas element to detect whether the browser is able to correctly render emoji. Because Tor Browser does not currently discriminate between this legitimate use of the Canvas API and an effort to perform canvas fingerprinting, it warns that the website is attempting to ‘extract HTML5 canvas image data’. Ongoing efforts seek workarounds to reassure privacy advocates while retaining the ability to check for proper emoji rendering capability.
Development and support
WordPress is also developed by its community, including WP testers, a group of volunteers who test each release. They have early access to nightly builds, beta versions and release candidates. Errors are documented in a special mailing list or the project’s Trac tool.
Though largely developed by the community surrounding it, WordPress is closely associated with Automattic, the company founded by Matt Mullenweg. On September 9, 2010, Automattic handed the WordPress trademark to the newly created WordPress Foundation, which is an umbrella organization supporting WordPress.org (including the software and archives for plugins and themes), bbPress and BuddyPress.
WordCamp developer and user conferences
WordCamps are casual, locally organized conferences covering everything related to WordPress. The first such event was WordCamp 2006 in August 2006 in San Francisco, which lasted one day and had over 500 attendees. The first WordCamp outside San Francisco was held in Beijing in September 2007. Since then, there have been over 1,022 WordCamps in over 75 cities in 65 different countries around the world. WordCamp San Francisco 2014 was the last official annual conference of WordPress developers and users taking place in San Francisco, having now been replaced with WordCamp US. First ran in 2013 as WordCamp Europe, regional WordCamps in other geographical regions are held with the aim of connecting people who aren’t already active in their local communities and inspire attendees to start user communities in their hometowns. In 2019, the Nordic region had its own WordCamp Nordic. The first WordCamp Asia was to be held in 2020, but cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
WordPress’ primary support website is WordPress.org. This support website hosts both WordPress Codex, the online manual for WordPress and a living repository for WordPress information and documentation, and WordPress Forums, an active online community of WordPress users.
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