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´´The world people need to have very efficient researches and projects resulting in very innovative drugs, vaccines, therapeutical substances, medical devices and other technologies according to the age, the genetics and medical records of the person. So, the treatment, diagnosis and prognosis will be very efficient and better, of course´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2021/08/14/do-the-downloads-of-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-data-of-the-world-about-my-dissertation-like-the-graphics-i-did-about-the-variations-of-weights-of-all-mice-control/

Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1

GRUPO_AF2

GRUPO AFAN 1

GRUPO AFAN 2

Slides – mestrado

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo

  • I DID VERY INTERESTING, INNOVATIVE, IMPORTANT AND DETAILED GRAPHICS ABOUT VARIATIONS OF ALL MICE WEIGHTS OF DIFFERENT AGES DURING ALL EXPERIMENTAL TIME OF ´´MY´´ DISSERTATION. THEY´RE AVAILABLE IN THIS BLOG AND ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY!! THE DIFFUSION OF RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE IS ALWAYS ESSENTIAL FOR A COUNTRY PROGRESS. NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES NEED TO EMERGE URGENTLY !! BELOW YOU CAN DO DOWNLOAD OF THESE GRAPHICS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATED TO SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION. SO, SHARE THESE GRAPHICS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS TO OTHER PEOPLE KNOW ABOUT IT AND PERHAPS USE THEM AS AN EXCELLENT REFERENCE IN THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. @ PERSON – PEOPLE – ANALYSIS – TIME – DATA – GRAPHICS – RESEARCHES – VISION – READING – SPEAKING – LISTENING – INFORMATION – KNOWLEDGE – INTENTIONS – INNOVATIONS – CHANGES – DATA INTERPRETATIONS – NEW INNOVATIONS – INTERNET – BOOKS – GRAPHICS INTERPRETATIONS – GRAPHICS COMPARISONS – INFLUENCES – TIME – SUBSTANCES – DRUGS – VACCINES – NEW MEDICAL DEVICES – WORLD HISTORY – NEW TECHNOLOGIES – HUMAN ENERGY – WORK – NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES – SCIENCE – GRAPHICS ANALYSIS – AGES – AGE – GENETICS – PHYSIOLOGY – MIND – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY – STATISTICS – BIOSTATISTICS – HUMAN LONGEVITY

Mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO_AF2 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 1 – ´´my´´ dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 2 – ´´my´´ dissertation

Slides – mestrado – ´´my´´ dissertation

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´my´´ dissertation

Positive Feedbacks by Facebook and Twitter about this Blog, like the very important, innovative and detailed graphics I did about variations of all mice weights (Control and Study Groups) of different ages during all experimental time of ´´my´´ dissertation. Note: I have received positive feedbacks about this Blog by LinkedIn, E-mails and Instagram too. @ Internet invitations I received by direct messages to participate in very important science events worldwide in less than 1 year because I participated of great researches in Brazil and other informations @ Links & The next step in nanotechnology | George Tulevski & Animated Nanomedicine movie @ Nanotechnology Animation & Powering Nanorobots & The World’s Smallest Robots: Rise of the Nanomachines & Building Medical Robots, Bacteria sized: Bradley Nelson at TEDxZurich @ Mind-controlled Machines: Jose del R. Millan at TEDxZurich & The present and future of brain-computer interfaces: Avi Goldberg at TEDxAsheville & Future of human/computer interface: Paul McAvinney at TEDxGreenville 2014 @ Bio-interfaced nanoengineering: human-machine interfaces | Hong Yeo | TEDxVCU @ Very important images, websites, social networks and links – https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/17/feedbacks-on-facebook-related-to-researches-i-participated-in-brazil-for-example-the-graphics-i-did-about-variations-of-all-mice-weights-control-and-study-groups-of-different-ages-during-all-exper/

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

monografia – ´´my´´ monograph

Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação pelo Messenger – Facebook. Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Facebook – Messenger. Ano – Year: 2018

My suggestion of a very important Project…

rodrigonunescal_dissertation

Apostila – Pubmed

LISTA DE NOMES – PEOPLE´S NAMES – E-MAIL LIST – LISTA DE E-MAILS

A Psicossomática Psicanalítica

O Homem como Sujeito da Realidade da Saúde – Redação

ÁCIDO HIALURONICO

As credenciais da ciência (1)

Aula_Resultados – Results

Frases que digitei – Phrases I typed

Nanomedicina – Texto que escrevi. Nanomedicine – Text I typed(1)

Nanomedicine123(2)57

Genes e Epilepsia

MÉTODOS DE DOSAGEM DO ÁCIDO HIALURÔNICO

microbiologia-famerp – Copia

Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Sciene_Journals

Positive feedback of people about my dissertation, blog and YouTube channel by Messenger (Facebook). Feedback positivo de pessoas sobre minha dissertação, blog e canal do YouTube pelo Facebook (Messenger) Year / Ano: 2018 – positive-feedback-of-people-about-my-dissertation-blog-and-youtube-channel-by-facebook-messenger-ano-year-2018

https://www.statista.com/chart/9981/top-10-supercomputers/

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-53147684

https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/japans-fugaku-tops-worlds-fastest-supercomputer-list/article31904759.ece

My Facebook Page: http://www.facebook.com/scientificblog

My YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9gsWVbGYWO04iYO2TMrP8Q

My Curriculum Lattes: http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.do?id=K4240145A2

http://www.google.com http://www.youtube.com http://www.facebook.com http://www.twitter.com

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https://portal.fgv.br/ https://www.energy.gov/ http://antigo.itamaraty.gov.br/

https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br https://www.nih.gov/ https://www.cdc.gov/

http://www.wordpress.com http://www.ibm.com https://ki.se/en https://www.ox.ac.uk/

https://www.cam.ac.uk/ http://www.embraer.com http://www.instagram.com

http://www.google.com http://www.gmail.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.microsoft.com http://www.alibaba.com http://www.amazon.com http://www.linkedin.com http://www.twitter.com http://www.facebook.com http://www.facebook.com/scientificblog http://www.youtube.com http://www.youtube.com http://www.instagram.com

http://www.forbes.com http://www.wordpress.com http://www.wikipedia.org http://www.cnn.com http://www.bbc.com http://www.harvard.edu http://www.mit.edu http://www.nasa.gov http://www.stanford.edu http://www.caltech.edu http://www.columbia.edu http://www.princeton.edu http://www.ita.br http://www.embraer.br http://www.unicamp.br http://www.famerp.br http://www.yale.edu http://www.duke.edu http://www.usa.gov http://www.michigan.edu

https://www.jumpstartmag.com/meet-the-worlds-top-10-most-powerful-supercomputers/

https://www.ibm.com/it-infrastructure/power/supercomputing

https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/en/news/fugaku-retains-top-spot-worlds-most-powerful-supercomputer-top500-ranking/

https://www.techrepublic.com/article/top-5-supercomputers/

https://www.zdnet.com/article/the-worlds-fastest-supercomputers-are-still-getting-faster-but-its-taking-them-longer/

https://www.analyticsinsight.net/top-10-fastest-supercomputers-world-watch-2020/

https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/supercomputers/top500-japan-s-fugaku-still-world-s-fastest-supercomputer

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/06/supercomputer-world-technology-countries-comparison/

https://www.networkworld.com/article/3236875/embargo-10-of-the-worlds-fastest-supercomputers.html

https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/supercomputers/world-s-10-fastest-supercomputers-pictures

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOP500

https://www.bbvaopenmind.com/en/technology/innovation/the-top-10-supercomputers-the-new-scientific-giants/

https://sciencenode.org/feature/the-5-fastest-supercomputers-in-the-world.php

https://www.electronicspecifier.com/news/analysis/world-s-fastest-supercomputer-coming-in-2021#:~:text=It%20has%20been%20announced%20that,more%20than%201.5%20exaflops%20of

https://www.top500.org/


https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2020.34.s1.02836

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Armella_Zadoorian

https://www.scottphotomedia.com/

https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100046366772680

https://www.scottphotomedia.com/media

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https://www.semanticscholar.org/author/Armella-Zadoorian/6298019

https://www.facebook.com/azadoorian

https://www.sydney.edu.au/science/about/our-people/research-students/armella-zadoorian-425.html

https://metabocybernetics.com/armellazadoorian

https://www.linkedin.com/in/armellazadoorian/?originalSubdomain=au

https://www.nature.com/

https://www.ahajournals.org/journal/circ

https://www.jacc.org/

National Center for Biotechnology Information – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_Reports

https://www.xprize.org/

https://www.nature.com/srep/

https://www.diamandis.com/blog

https://www.singularityubrazil.com/

https://login.webofknowledge.com/error/Error?Error=IPError&PathInfo=%2F&RouterURL=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.webofknowledge.com%2F&Domain=.webofknowledge.com&Src=IP&Alias=WOK5

https://www.thelancet.com/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_of_Science

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https://www.timeshighereducation.com/

https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings

https://www.facebook.com/timeshighereducation/

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) – https://www.nejm.org/

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defense_Advanced_Research_Projects_Agency

https://www.darpa.mil/

http://www-periodicos-capes-gov-br.ezl.periodicos.capes.gov.br/index.php?option=com_pcollection&mn=70&smn=79&cid=81&

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_no_Brasil

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hist%C3%B3ria_da_Internet

https://www.internetlivestats.com/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

https://www.facebook.com/ella.scarlet.5076

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry/abstract

https://www.lexismeeting.com/

https://www.unsw.edu.au/

https://www.sydney.edu.au/

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry?fbclid=IwAR2ztmCR6FakqS0e3GMHugjfDYQJ8nEgF_tLVxP5XcPoXFq-hRJY9Kd63kk ´´This event takes place over 2 days and will comprise plenary lectures, parallel sessions, poster sessions and our ever-popular ‘Workshop’ events, with something to suit all immunological and vaccines research.´´

I am graduated in Biomedicine at Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro (Uberaba – 2003-2007), I have a Master Degree in lung cancer research in mice at Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto (2008-2012) and nowadays I work as inspector of students since 2012 in Sao Jose do Rio Preto. Maybe I can try to do a doctorate and PhD to work as professor, scientist and/or researcher in Brazil or abroad. As you know, the human interdependence is essential for a country progress in many aspects. In my dissertation I did very interesting, important, innovative and detailed graphics about variations of all mice weights (Control Group, Study Group 1 and Study Group 2) of different ages during all experimental time and I did comparisons between them to a better and detailed analysis. It was a very innovative and important research as well my monograph (Chagas disease research -> Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi). There were not statistical difference significantly among them, but the discussion of this fact is very important to the Scientific Community, conforming an article published in Nature (It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance – Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better. 20 MARCH 2019). There are posts in my blog about this very important subject for Science. Discovering how the initial stages of certain diseases work, such as fatal diseases, is of huge importance for Science, of course. There are several biological factors connected in the human body that acting in a very complex form. Therefore, it is of great necessity to carry out new scientific researches much more detailed and modern, with high degree of precision, even if there is no significant statistical difference between certain factors. New Scientific Discoveries are essential for the world progress always. As you know, we need to have more efficient vaccines and drugs, so it is very important to do more detailed and efficient researches in mice and humans, of course. There are very important stages of development of vaccines and drugs, for sure. So, I would like so much you share this blog I did. I do not earn money from the blog. I never earned any money from blogs I did, nor my social networks nor my e-mails accounts. I never earned any money using Internet. (02/19/2021)

Compreender como funciona os estágios iniciais de uma determinada doença, tal como uma doença fatal, é de enorme importância para a Ciência, com toda certeza. Há vários fatores biológicos interligados no corpo humano que atuam de forma muito complexa. Portanto, é de grande necessidade a realização de pesquisas científicas muito mais minuciosas envolvendo alta tecnologia, com alto grau de precisão, mesmo que NÃO haja diferença estatística significativa entre determinados fatores analisados em gráficos, por exemplo. (02/19/2021)

This blog content is very good with very high quality! There are a very big amount of excellent information in this blog like human health, scientific researches in humans and animal models for human diseases like cardiovascular diseases, for example. The diffusion of knowledge is essential for a country progress always!! Article of my dissertation: The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81. The graphics I did about the variations of all mice weights of different ages during all experimental time aren´t in the scientific article related to my dissertation nor in my dissertation as well as details about time of exercise and rest of the animals. These data can be an excellent reference for many types of researches like genetic engineering. The age of the mouse and the human being with the genetics influence in certain ways in pathophysiology in the humans and mice. So, mice researches are very important for the society as well as researches with humans, for sure. (02/19/2021)

I was invited by Internet through direct messages to participate in 72 very important science events in 31 cities in less than 2 years (Auckland, Melbourne, Toronto, Edinburgh, Madrid, Suzhou, Stanbul, Miami, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Abu Dhabi, San Diego, Bangkok, Dublin, Sao Paulo, Dubai, Boston, Berlin, Stockholm, Prague, Valencia, Osaka, Amsterdam, Helsinki, Paris, Tokyo, Vienna, Rome, Zurich, London and Frankfurt) because I participated of very important researches. Images about it are in this blog, of course. Many people worldwide visited it and liked my blog, such as renowned professors, scientists and researchers!! So, this blog sharing is very important to the world society!! More people worldwide need to know about it!! (02/19/2021)

Many laboratories have been researching mice for a long time, even resulting in excellent prizes for researchers such as the Nobel Prize. For example, the Jackson Laboratory. The world needs to have more very good and efficient ideas and scientific discoveries for human live longer faster more and more. 

Many people think they have made mistakes but in fact they have not made mistakes. Many people think they did the right thing but they did not. The important thing is to reflect on this in order to better know the origin of your thoughts and your thoughts, acting accordingly in the best way for the good of you and other people.

Muitos acham que erraram mas na verdade não erraram. Muitos acham que acertaram mas não acertaram. O importante é refletir sobre isso para conhecer melhor a origem de seus pensamentos e seus pensamentos em si, agindo consequentemente da melhor forma para o bem de si e da(s) outra(s) pessoa(s).

Below there are more relevant information for the Science.

POST

Conference Enquiries : lexis@eventqueries.com

Contact Address :Avenue Roger Vandendriessche 18, 1150 Brussels, Belgium
Toll Free +32 (800) 709-48

E: ties@lexisconferences.com
Toll Free : +32 (800) 753-58
+44 (203) 966-4288

Contact Address:

Avenue Roger Vandendriessche 18,
1150 Brussels, Belgium
Toll Free +32 (800) 709-48

https://www.lexismeeting.com/services

https://www.lexismeeting.com/donations

https://www.lexismeeting.com/contact

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry/about-us

https://www.lexismeeting.com/

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry/awards

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry/contact

https://www.lexismeeting.com/about-us

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry/services

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry/faqs

Conference Enquiries : lexis@eventqueries.com

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry/agenda

https://www.facebook.com/ella.scarlet.5076

https://www.facebook.com/nixa.espinola/

https://www.lexismeeting.com/immunochemistry?fbclid=IwAR2ztmCR6FakqS0e3GMHugjfDYQJ8nEgF_tLVxP5XcPoXFq-hRJY9Kd63kk

My YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9gsWVbGYWO04iYO2TMrP8Q

My Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/scientificblog

My Curriculum Lattes: http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.do?id=K4240145A2

My LinkedIn Account: https://www.linkedin.com/in/rodrigo-nunes-cal-81433b168/

My Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/CalZole

My Emails Acoounts: rodrigoncal1984@gmail.com calrodrigonunes@gmail.com rodrigoncal1984@yahoo.com rodrigonunescal@yahoo.com

http://lattes.cnpq.br/

https://www.karolinska.se/ https://www.manchester.ac.uk/ https://www.cam.ac.uk/

http://www.ox.ac.uk/ http://www.ita.br http://www.unicamp.br http://www.famerp.br http://www.cornell.edu

http://www.google.com http://www.gmail.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.facebook.com http://www.twitter.com http://www.linkedin.com http://www.facebook.com/scientificblog

http://www.instagram.com http://www.wikipedia.org http://www.nobelprize.org http://www.nasa.gov http://www.harvard.edu http://www.ucla.edu http://www.princeton.edu http://www.stanford.edu

http://www.youtube.com http://www.yale.edu http://www.duke.edu http://www.columbia.edu

https://www.internetlivestats.com/one-second/

https://www.allaccess.com/merge/archive/31294/infographic-what-happens-in-an-internet-minute

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/03/what-happens-in-an-internet-minute-in-2019

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer http://www.forbes.com

http://www.gmail.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.harvard.edu http://www.mit.edu

http://www.nobelprize.org http://www.nasa.gov http://www.stanford.edu http://www.mit.edu http://www.princeton.edu

http://www.facebook.com http://www.twitter.com http://www.linkedin.com http://www.instagram.com

http://www.famerp.br http://www.unicamp.com http://www.ita.br http://www.caltech.edu

My YouTube Channel -> https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9gsWVbGYWO04iYO2TMrP8Q

Link about my monograph: Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi: 

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/my-monography-chagas-disease-research-in-laboratory-2/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/05/08/21809/

-Links about animal model for human diseases like cardiovascular diseases: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/29/33426/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/29/the-good-thing-about-science-is-that-its-true-whether-you-believe-in-it-or-not/

– Links related with ´´my´´ dissertation: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/28/links-of-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-and-monograph-induction-of-benzonidazole-resistance-in-human-isolates-of-trypanoso/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/29/about-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-pathol-res-pract-2012-jul-152087377-81-doi-10-1016-j-prp-2012-04-006-epub-20/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/i-did-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-graphics-about-variations-of-all-mice-weigths-during-all-exerimental-time-my-dissertation-they-can-be-an-excelent-reference-for-future-researches-like-2/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/08/it-is-fundamental-professors-students-researchers-and-other-people-worldwide-know-about-my-dissertation-because-the-research-was-very-innovative-and-important-in-the-world-these-data-like-graphics/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/05/08/21809/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWWDMV2W7QM Gratitude: I was invited direclty throught direct messages to participate in 55 very important science events in 25 cities of different countries in less than 1 year. Informations about it are in ´´my´´ blog.https://www.youtube.com/embed/mWWDMV2W7QM?version=3&rel=1&showsearch=0&showinfo=1&iv_load_policy=1&fs=1&hl=en&autohide=2&wmode=transparent

Science events and researches are essential for the world progress in all aspects. The world is interdependent, of course. Unfortunately there´re fatal diseases without very efficient drugs and total prevention methods like vaccination. The scientific work can be very hard but can be of relevant value to the people. Therefore, new very important scientific discoveries are fundamental for human life urgently in the worldof course.

It´s very important professors, scientists, students, researchers and other people worldwide know about ´´my´´ dissertation made at Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto because it was a very innovative and important research as well as ´´my´´ monograph. They are related to very relevant subjects.

The data like very detailed, interesting and important graphics I made about variations of weights in all mice of different ages (Control Group -> treated with urethane and without physical activity and Study Groups – Aerobic Group -> treated with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise – Anaerobic Group –> treated with urethane and subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight) during all experimental time [My dissertation -> Lung cancer research in mice – Article: The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81] are very important for the world scientific community.

These graphics I did related to my dissertation aren´t in the article nor in ´´my´´ dissertation as well as details about time of exercise and rest of the animals. They can be an excellent reference for many types of researches in mice and humans, like in the field of genetic engineering. The discussion of certain facts in science envolving stastistics is fundamental to the scientific community, for example, the analysis and interpretation of very important, innovative and interesting graphics with no statistical difference between them can have a big value to the researches and to the future researches. So, the quality and efficiency of researches can increase so much in a little time, increasing the possiblities of excellent references and new scientific discoveries. The facts veracity and the disclosure of them are essential for the scientific community, of course. Links about this subject: 

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/28/alfred-nobel-had-a-vision-of-a-better-world-he-believed-that-people-are-capable-of-helping-to-improve-society-through-knowledge-science-and-humanism-this-is-why-he-created-a-prize-that/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/03/19/editorial-20-march-2019-its-time-to-talk-about-ditching-statistical-significance-looking-beyond-a-much-used-and-abused-measure-would-make-science-harder-but-better-nature-567-283-201/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/03/19/nao-houve-diferenca-estatistica-significativa-e-agora-a-frase-nao-houve-diferenca-estatistica-significativa-soa-quase-como-uma-sentenca-de-morte-para-muitos-alunos-de-g/

The age of the human, of the animal like mouse and the genetics influence in certain ways in the pathophysiology and in other aspects in the humans and mice. This subject is not easy to understand, of course. So, mice researches are essential for the world society as well as human researches. More information about it are in these links: 

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/i-did-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-graphics-about-variations-of-all-mice-weigths-during-all-exerimental-time-my-dissertation-they-can-be-an-excelent-reference-for-future-researches-like-2/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/03/27/32357/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/03/27/eara-european-animal-research-association-supports-call-to-end-embargo-by-transport-providers-in-the-uk-and-us-on-animal-research-transplant-method-avoids-rejection-of-donor-leg-for-months-in-rats/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/02/european-animal-research-association-mice-play-an-essential-role-in-both-vaccine-and-drug-development-for-covid-19-ordinary-mice-are-not-susceptible-to-the-disease-so-scientists-breed-genetica/

Very important observations:

  1. Cancer is very related to the weight loss of the patient. Weight loss of the patient is very associated with cancer – The syndrome of Anorexia-Cachexia (SAC) is a frequent complication in patients with advanced malignant neoplasia.
  2. Age, weight and genetics of the person are very important factors that influence cancer in a determined ways.
  3. The genetics of the mouse is very similar to that of the human.
  4. Maintaining proper body weight is one of the main ways to prevent cancer of a person.
  5. Animal testing has a very high importance to world society.
  6. The mouse is the main animal model used as the basis for research on diseases that affect humans.
  7. Weight lifting (bodybuilder) is a very good example of anaerobic physical activity in humans.

In ´´my´´ dissertation the progression of lung cancer was lower in the group of mice that practiced anaerobic physical activity. It would be very important, innovative and interesting to do researches in mice and humans testing a substance or substances and analyzing biochemical, pathological, pharmacological and physiological factors like weights in all experimental time and the influence of age and genetics within the group itself and in the other groups in the inhibition and/or progression of a determined disease like cancer. In this context, it´s very important to seek new methodologies for the treatment, prevention and early detection of cancer and/or other diseases, such as vaccines and other very modern and efficient technologies. It is clear that the correct and accurate study of cancer (as an example, the conduct of scientific researches) and certain diseases, is very complicated to be performed because they´re very complex diseases that are difficult to understand.

Note about ´´my´´ dissertartion: during anaerobic exercise it was necessary to briefly hold the tail of the mice for better physical performance and better adaptation to the submitted environment. In this same type of exercise, there were times when the mice could not exercise and sank, causing manual manipulation again. The physical wear of the animals was very intense.

It´s very important to consider the significance of variants of weight, age and genetics em relation to cancer. It is not easy understand it, of course. Therefore, more researches about it are very necessary in the world.

I hope that researchers, teachers, students, scientists and other people linked to scientific researches worldwide use the graphics I made about the variations of all mice weights during all experimental time of ´´my´´ dissertation as an example, model or reference for conducting future scientific researches as well as other data from ´´my´´ monograph and dissertation, leading to a very beneficial innovation in the researches methodologies bringing very relevant results to the world society, significantly increasing the human life time more and more.https://www.businessinsider.com/mars-landing-nasa-perseverance-rover-touches-down-in-jezero-crater-2021-2?utm_campaign=sf-bi-ti&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_medium=social&fbclid=IwAR3gDM2RsrO9tWUtFGW0CD9jSCudJUj3j3wF-yBaD6KMjuLuc-EH8Fei47I

Rodrigo Nunes Cal’s research works  

Rodrigo Nunes Cal’s research worksRodrigo Nunes Cal’s 1 research works with 12 citations and 137 reads, including: The influence of physical activ…

I hope collaborate significantly with these information in the world scientific progress always!

The world needs to improve so much in the best ways.

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RECENTThe Diminishing Role of Operating Systems JAN 06, 2021Tom Barrack’s Colony Capital to Relocate to Florida From California JAN 06, 2021


Red Hat Opens the Door for Windows Containers in OpenShift JAN 06, 2021Data Center Provider Global Switch’s Chinese Owners Explore $11B Sale JAN 05, 202110 Cybersecurity Threats Enterprise IT Should Watch Out for in 2021 JAN 05, 2021FEATUREDData Center and IT Trends to Watch in 2021 OCT 01, 2020What Data Center Colocation Is Today, and Why It’s Changed NOV 16, 2020Everything You Need to Know About Colocation Pricing NOV 13, 2020Why Equinix Doesn’t Think Its Bare Metal Service Competes With Its Cloud-Provider Customers NOV 09, 2020supercomputer fugaku.jpgRIKEN Center for Computational ScienceArm-powered Fugaku, in Kobe, Japan, is the the world’s fastest supercomputer as of November 2020, according to Top500.org.DESIGN>SUPERCOMPUTERS

Top500: Japan’s Fugaku Still the World’s Fastest Supercomputer

Growth of the cumulative computing power of Top500 systems is slowing down, pushing Moore’s Law closer to obsolescence.

Scott Fulton III | Nov 18, 2020

Fugaku, the Japanese computing cluster that won the Top500 race of the world’s fastest supercomputers earlier this year has taken the gold medal in the biannual contest again. This time around, it’s extended its lead over the rest of the field.

The system, built by Fujitsu for Japan’s RIKEN Center for Computational Science, posted a maximum sustained performance level of 442,010 teraflops per second on the Linpack benchmark. The non-profit Top500 organization released its November 2020 results this week.

That’s a 6.4 percent speed improvement over Fugaku’s score on the same test, posted last June. During the official announcement of the results Monday, RIKEN’s director, Satoshi Matsuoka, attributed the improvement to finally being able to use the entire machine rather than just a good chunk of it. The November 2020 Top500 list shows that the machine’s core count has increased by about 330,000 – the equivalent of about 6,912 additional Fujitsu Arm A64FX processors.

Looks Like a Butterfly…

RIKEN couldn’t use the system’s full power for the June competition because his team simply didn’t have enough time, Matsuoka explained. “We only had two weeks to the deadline from the time we brought up the final nodes of the machine. . . We had very little time, and a lot of benchmarks had been compromised.”

Since then, his team had ample opportunity not only to bring up the remaining nodes in the full cluster but also to fine-tune the code for maximum performance.

“I don’t think we can improve much anymore,” he said.

Fugaku scored what the supercomputing industry now calls a “triple,” scoring first on the accompanying HPCG and HPL-AI benchmark tests. HPCG provides what long-time Top500 co-maintainer Martin Meuer called “another angle into the hardware,” giving more favorable scores to systems that are tuned for efficiency and control of memory bandwidth, for instance. HPL-AI is a much faster running test, trading high-precision floating-point operations for lower-precision math more commonly used in machine learning — for example, for training convolutional neural networks.

Fugaku is one of only two systems in the Top500 with custom processing architectures. The other is Sunway TaihuLight, in fourth place this time around but previously the champion for two consecutive years, built for China’s National Supercomputing Center in Jiangsu province.

…Stings Like a Bee

Fugaku’s extended performance lead represents even more success for Arm architectures, which have been receiving much greater scrutiny now that the physical barriers of Moore’s Law appear to have been reached. We asked Matsuoka whether there are any lessons to be learned from Fujitsu’s development of its own supercomputer-exclusive processors that can explain why Fugaku continues to enjoy such a performance advantage over x86-based systems on the list?

Lesson number one, he told DCK, was the importance of co-design. “When, globally, we embarked on this endeavor of trying to reach exascale [1 exaflop per second and beyond], the emphasis was not just placed on achieving exascale, but really to excel in application performance.

Analyzing what it would take to reach that goal with the technology available in 2020, his team concluded that it wouldn’t be possible with off-the-shelf chips. “We had to rethink what we would do,” he said.

At that time, the eventual co-designers of A64FX determined that, at its current growth trajectory, memory bandwidth available to x86 server-class CPUs would touch 200GB/s (gigabyte per second). For the applications RIKEN was planning, they would need 1 TB/s. Soon, AMD, Samsung, and SK Hynix started collaborating on High-Bandwidth Memory (HBM), in which bandwidth could be increased by stacking DRAM modules atop one another. That might score some points with cloud or enterprise server manufacturers, but he said HBM would cause issues with respect to cache hierarchies and chip interconnects — factors that would have been detrimental to the deterministic performance that HPC components require.

“It was very important to think about what would be your objective, what would be the target, and really start from a clean slate,” RIKEN’s leader told us. “Think about whether your goal would be met by off-the-shelf processors, or you’d really have to invent your own. In our case, it was the latter.”

The Moore’s Law Pitfall

Up until a few years ago, supercomputer operators looked to Moore’s Law to provide a rough estimate (the doubling of compute capacity in new systems every 18 months) of how long they should expect to operate the machines they have before taking the plunge and investing in new ones. Specialists know how much power they’ll need from their machines to solve particular problems, and Moore’s Law projected when machines would become available that could deliver such power, if they didn’t have it at the time.

top500 fulton slide 1.jpg

Earlier this week, during the Supercomputing 2020 conference (this year held online), Berkeley National Labs’ Erich Strohmaier presented a chart clearly depicting the chughole left open by the decline of Moore’s Law. Since the list was first kept in 1994 up until 2013, according to this chart, performance growth among all machines in the Top500 grew in fits and starts, averaging out to 180 percent annually, or 1000x over an 11-year period. The saw-toothed line during this period could be attributed to the famous “tick-tock” cadence of Intel’s innovation agenda. During this phase, Intel tended to represent the lion’s share of CPUs in supercomputers, although there were years when AMD was competitive.

In 2013, said Strohmaier, there was a significant downturn in the global economy, which prompted research institutions to extend their investments in existing systems, postponing their planned replacements by at least two years. At this point, annual growth stumbled to an average of about 140 percent annually, even though the economy was in recovery up until the pandemic.

“After June 2013, all segments in the Top500 basically slowed down to the new growth rates,” said Strohmaier. “Those rates are substantially lower than before. . . If you multiply that out, it now takes about 20 years for an increase of 1000x.”

top500 fulton slide 2.jpg

The pace of commercial HPC owners replacing their systems, already slowed by the previous economic slowdown and the erosion of Moore’s Law, was only deepened by the pandemic, Strohmaier reported. Since 2013, the semi-annual replacement count for commercial systems had stayed roughly the same but plunged below the number of academic systems replaced.

“If anything, in 2020, the number of new systems in research centers has actually slightly increased,” he said. “Business as usual. The research centers have not delayed any purchases or installations in large numbers due to COVID. That has not happened.”

The pandemic may only have served to dampen what was already cooling enthusiasm for high-performance computing among commercial operators, including interest in GPU accelerators and other new architectures. Among the top 50 systems on the list, 17 still do not use accelerators at all. Another one-third use Nvidia-brand GPU accelerators, while the remainder use other types, such as FPGA or Intel Xeon Phi.

Among the top 100 systems on the list, about half of academic and half of commercial systems are powered by Intel’s x86 processors (not AMD’s) without any accelerators at all. It’s astonishing, Strohmaier said, that accelerators haven’t permeated the academic market anywhere near the extent predicted. Of the commercial systems in the top 100, about 80 percent use Nvidia-brand accelerators.

This is resulting not just in a mix of systems across operator classes, but a kind of settling of those classes into their own peculiar profiles.

“Research institutions are much more willing to adopt new technologies, to try out new things, and to go with architectures that are not as common in the market.” For example, IBM Power AC922 systems coupled with Nvidia GPUs (eight of the current Top500 systems), AMD-based systems (24 of 500), and Arm-based systems (three of 500).TAGS: DESIGNHARDWAREARM0 COMMENTSRECOMMENDED READINGAfter Moore’s Law: How Will We Know How Much Faster Computers Can Go?DEC 21, 2020Why the Supercomputer Sector May Bifurcate – AgainDEC 03, 2020Nvidia Offers UK Covid Supercomputer While Waiting on Arm DealOCT 05, 2020Fujitsu’s Arm-Powered Supercomputer Beats US, China to Take World Speed CrownJUN 23, 2020F5 offices in SeattleF5 NetworksF5 offices in SeattleBUSINESS>DEALS

F5 Networks Reaches $500 Million Deal for Startup Volterra

“We want to be the No.1 in app security as a service and we now have all the elements to do that.”

Bloomberg | Jan 08, 2021

Nabila Ahmed and Liana Baker (Bloomberg) — F5 Networks Inc. has reached an agreement to buy the privately owned software startup Volterra for $500 million.

Seattle-based F5 will pay $440 million in cash, plus about $60 million in deferred stock payments and incentives to Volterra’s founders and employees, according to a statement confirming an earlier report by Bloomberg.

Related: F5 Ups Its Container and Open Source Game With $670M Nginx Deal

“We’re not acquiring Volterra for what it’s going to do for us today, meaning what it’s going to do for revenue in the 2021 financial year, F5 Chief Executive Officer François Locoh-Donou said in an interview. “We are really acquiring Volterra because it transforms our competitive position.”

F5 has been trying to shift its business to sales from software as opposed to hardware. About 35% of its product revenue is software now, compared with 10% three years ago, Locoh-Donou said. The company’s longer-term goal is to reach 75% of revenue for software sales, he said.

Locoh-Donou said F5 decided to acquire Volterra after first trying to build its own version of the technology.

“We want to be the No.1 in app security as a service and we now have all the elements to do that,” he said.

Volterra, based in Santa Clara, California, is backed by Samsung Electronics Co. and Microsoft Corp., as well as by the venture capital firms Khosla Ventures and Mayfield.

Elliott Pressure

It’s the third acquisition in three years for F5, which has come under pressure from activist investor Elliott Management Corp. over previous transactions and its stock price.

F5, a networking company that works behind the scenes to make sure apps like Disney+ and Netflix run smoothly and securely, will be able to deliver its services quicker and cheaper by combining with Volterra.

F5, which helps power applications for banks such as Capital One Financial Corp. and JPMorgan Chase & Co., will gain access to a more modern infrastructure through the purchase.

The company’s shares have recovered after a pandemic-induced slump last year and are up about 30% since Elliott’s decision to buy a stake in it became public in August.

Ankur Singla, Volterra’s founder and CEO, said the companies have more than half of their customers in common, and combined with F5 will be able to better compete with more established rivals such as Cloudflare Inc. and Fastly Inc.TAGS: SECURITYRECOMMENDED READINGData Center Provider Global Switch’s Chinese Owners Explore $11B SaleJAN 05, 2021Rancher Acquisition May Make SUSE a Kubernetes and Hybrid Cloud PowerhouseDEC 22, 2020IBM Buys Nordcloud, Advancing Hybrid Cloud Strategy in EuropeDEC 21, 2020Weaveworks Raises $36M to Advance GitOps WorkflowsDEC 09, 2020

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SUPERCOMPUTERS

The World’s Top Supercomputers

by Katharina Buchholz, Dec 23, 2020

In June, Japanese supercomputer Fugaku zipped past all competitors to claim the top spot in the twice-annual ranking of the world’s most powerful computational machines released by research project Top500. Fugaku, which was developed by Fujitsu in cooperation with the federal Riken research lab, was able to perform almost three times as many computations per second as former leader of the list, U.S.-based supercomputer Summit.

Fugaku has not only topped the ranking in the number of computations per second – so-called TeraFLOPS – but in all four categories that supercomputers are judged on by the project. According to the Riken lab, no other computer had achieved this feat so far. Fugaku also had the most cores of all computers ranked, the highest theoretical peak performance for computations and the highest power capacity.

Supercomputers are used to run complicated simulations that involve a large number of variables. Common uses include economic and climate modeling, neurological research and nuclear science. In the case of Fugaku, the machine’s power is also used to research the coronavirus, more specifically to run simulations of how respiratory droplets move through the air in different settings like offices or train carriages.

The list of the top 8 supercomputers in the world includes one Dell, one Nvidia and two IBM machines as well as two Chinese supercomputers run by the Chinese government. German supercomputer Juwels Booster Module by IT company Atos entered the top 8 in November.

Katharina Buchholz

Katharina BuchholzData Journalistkatharina.buchholz@statista.com

Infographic: The World's Top Supercomputers | Statista

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World’s fastest supercomputer coming in 2021

Home > News & Analysis > World’s fastest supercomputer coming in 2021ANALYSIS

World’s fastest supercomputer coming in 2021

 13th May 2019 AMD Alex Lynn

It has been announced that AMD has joined the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cray, in announcing what is expected to be the world’s fastest exascale-class supercomputer, scheduled to be delivered to ORNL in 2021, aiming to deliver what is expected to be more than 1.5 exaflops of expected processing performance.

The Frontier system is designed to use future generation High Performance Computing (HPC) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) optimised, custom AMD EPYC CPU, and AMD Radeon Instinct GPU processors. Researchers at ORNL will use the Frontier system’s unprecedented computing power and next generation AI techniques to simulate, model and advance understanding of the interactions underlying the science of weather, sub-atomic structures, genomics, physics, and other important scientific fields.

“AMD is proud to partner with Cray and ORNL to deliver what is expected to be the world’s most powerful supercomputer,” said Forrest Norrod, Senior Vice President and General Manager, AMD Datacenter and Embedded Systems Group. “Frontier will feature custom CPU and GPU technology from AMD and represents the latest achievement on a long list of technology innovations AMD has contributed to the Department of Energy exascale programs.”

AMD innovations to be used in the Frontier system include:

  • Future-generation High Performance Computing (HPC) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) optimised, custom AMD EPYC CPU, and Radeon Instinct GPU processors supported by High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) and extensive mixed precision ops for optimum deep learning performance.
  • A custom high-bandwidth, low-latency coherent Infinity Fabric, connecting four AMD Radeon Instinct GPUs to one AMD EPYC CPU per node;
  • An enhanced version of the open source ROCm programming environment, developed with Cray to tap into the combined performance of AMD CPUs and GPUs.

“We are excited to work with the team at AMD to deliver the Frontier system to Oak Ridge National Laboratory,” said Steve Scott, Senior Vice President and CTO at Cray. “Cray’s Shasta supercomputers are designed to support leading edge processor technologies and high-performance storage, all tightly interconnected by Cray’s new Slingshot network.

“The combination of Cray and AMD technology in the Frontier system will dramatically enhance performance at scale for AI, analytics, and simulation, enabling DOE to further push the boundaries of scientific discovery.”

AMD has a proud supercomputing history and a long-standing engagement with DOE, starting with the Jaguar supercomputer in 2005 and Titan supercomputer in 2012. The Frontier system leverages years of exascale technology investments by DOE. The contract award includes technology development funding, a centre of excellence, several early-delivery systems, the main Frontier system and multi-year systems support. 

Jeff Nichols, Associate Laboratory Director for Computing and Computational Sciences, ORNL, added: “Frontier represents the state-of-the art in high-performance computing. Designing and standing up a machine of its scope requires working closely with industry, partnerships which not only enable breakthrough science but also ensure American scientific and economic competitiveness on the global stage. We are delighted to work with AMD to integrate the CPU and GPU technologies that enable this extremely capable accelerated node architecture.”https://www.facebook.com/v5.0/plugins/comments.php?app_id=504537453531555&channel=https%3A%2F%2Fstaticxx.facebook.com%2Fx%2Fconnect%2Fxd_arbiter%2F%3Fversion%3D46%23cb%3Df120f4f564d7749%26domain%3Dwww.electronicspecifier.com%26origin%3Dhttps%253A%252F%252Fwww.electronicspecifier.com%252Ff2aba962e97875%26relation%3Dparent.parent&container_width=0&height=100&href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.electronicspecifier.com%2Fnews%2Fanalysis%2Fworld-s-fastest-supercomputer-coming-in-2021&locale=en_GB&numposts=5&sdk=joey&version=v5.0&width=768     Selected: Analysis             Appointments             Blog             Events News             Latest             Podcasts             Webinars     https://f2e6d934d319b5515b526ac271cf0faf.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-37/html/container.html

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A selection of Analysis articles for further readingRead moreANALYSIS21st December 2020What To Expect From the IC Industry in 2021ANALYSIS16th December 20205G in 2020: highlights from IDTechExANALYSIS15th December 2020The implications of regulations on Li-ion sustainabilityANALYSIS14th December 2020What 2020 taught us and where 2021 is taking usANALYSIS11th December 2020Foundry to account for 34% of total semi capex in 2020ANALYSIS10th December 2020Distribution industry top brass optimistic for 2021ANALYSIS6th January 2021Global 5G coverage to grow by 253% in five yearsANALYSIS5th January 20212021 technology predictions: acceleration and innovationANALYSIS4th January 2021Printed sensors required for wearable skin patchesANALYSIS4th January 2021Transparent electronics: $20bn market comes into sightANALYSIS4th January 2021IDTechEx highlights 2020: energy storage researchANALYSIS31st December 2020What will the long-term industry effects of COVID-19 be?ANALYSIS21st December 2020What To Expect From the IC Industry in 2021ANALYSIS16th December 20205G in 2020: highlights from IDTechExANALYSIS15th December 2020The implications of regulations on Li-ion sustainabilityANALYSIS14th December 2020What 2020 taught us and where 2021 is taking usANALYSIS11th December 2020Foundry to account for 34% of total semi capex in 2020ANALYSIS10th December 2020Distribution industry top brass optimistic for 2021ANALYSIS6th January 2021Global 5G coverage to grow by 253% in five yearsANALYSIS5th January 20212021 technology predictions: acceleration and innovationANALYSIS4th January 2021Printed sensors required for wearable skin patchesANALYSIS4th January 2021Transparent electronics: $20bn market comes into sightANALYSIS4th January 2021IDTechEx highlights 2020: energy storage researchANALYSIS31st December 2020What will the long-term industry effects of COVID-19 be?NewsletterLatest global electronics newsSign up Menu

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TOP500 Expands Exaflops Capacity Amidst Low Turnover
Nov. 16, 2020

FRANKFURT, Germany; BERKELEY, Calif.; and KNOXVILLE, Tenn.—The 56th edition of the TOP500 saw the Japanese Fugaku supercomputer solidify its number one status in a list that reflects a flattening performance growth curve.  Although two new systems managed to make it into the top 10, the full list recorded the smallest number of new entries since the project began in 1993.

The entry level to the list moved up to 1.32 petaflops on the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark, a small increase from 1.23 petaflops recorded in the June 2020 rankings. In a similar vein, the aggregate performance of all …read more »


TOP500 NEWS

None
TOP500 Event at ISC High Performance 2020 Digital
June 23, 2020

Find the highlights of the 55th TOP500 list below, presented by Erich Strohmaier. Slides from the session are also available now.read more »


None
Report on the Fujitsu Fugaku system by Jack Dongarra
June 22, 2020

Detailed report on the Fujitsu Fugaku system.read more »


None
TOP500 Certificates for top ranking systems in the 55th List
June 22, 2020

Certificates for the top ranking systems in the TOP500 list, Green500 list, HPCG and HPL-AI benchmarks.read more »


NEWS FEED

E4 Computer Engineering Announces University of Pisa as the First Customer of USTI

Scandiano, Jan. 7, 2021 — E4 Computer Engineering, a leading Italian company in the fields of High Performance Computing, Artificial Intelligence and High Performance Data Analytics, announces that University of Pisa will become the first customer of USTI (Ultrafast Storage, Totally Integrated), the new solution for high performance distributed block storage, based on software-defined block […]

The post E4 Computer Engineering Announces University of Pisa as the First Customer of USTI appeared first on HPCwire.

IBM Appoints Martin Schroeter as CEO of ‘NewCo’ Spinout

ARMONK, N.Y., Jan. 7, 2021 — IBM today announced the appointment of Martin Schroeter as Chief Executive Officer of the independent company that will be created following the separation of IBM’s Managed Infrastructure Services business (“NewCo”), effective January 15.  NewCo will focus on the management and modernization of IT infrastructure in every industry around the world.  The previously announced […]

The post IBM Appoints Martin Schroeter as CEO of ‘NewCo’ Spinout appeared first on HPCwire.

FPGA Maker Achronix to List on Nasdaq Through Merger With ACE Convergence

Jan. 7, 2021, Santa Clara, CA – Achronix Semiconductor Corporation, maker of high-performance field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and embedded FPGA (eFPGA) IP, and ACE Convergence Acquisition Corp. (ACE) (Nasdaq: ACEV), a special-purpose acquisition company, today announced that they have entered into a definitive agreement for a business combination that would result in the combined entity […]

The post FPGA Maker Achronix to List on Nasdaq Through Merger With ACE Convergence appeared first on insideHPC.

UK Antitrust Agency to Probe Nvidia Acquisition of Arm

Nvidia’s intended acquisition of chip maker Arm from SoftBank, the biggest tech deal of 2020 and one with major implications for HPC and AI, is now under investigation by British regulators. A story in today’s Wall Street Journal by Stu Woo reported that the UK’s Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) said “it was inviting third […]

The post UK Antitrust Agency to Probe Nvidia Acquisition of Arm appeared first on insideHPC.

Reimagining Accelerators with Sparsity at the Core

There could be a new era of codesign dawning for machine learning, one that moves away from the training and inference separations and toward far less dense networks with highly sparse weights and activations. 

Reimagining Accelerators with Sparsity at the Core was written by Nicole Hemsoth at The Next Platform.

Evolving GPUs Power Content Recommendation at Scale

Although there are now well-engineered systems that tightly package compute, acceleration, and data movement for deep learning training, for some users, working on time-critical AI training (and constant retraining), the backend applications and frameworks require a different way of thinking. 

Evolving GPUs Power Content Recommendation at Scale was written by Nicole Hemsoth at The Next Platform.

Details of 23 projects that receive EuroHPC JU funding

The research and innovation funding programme from the EuroHPC JU is special in that it includes money from different European research programmes, augmented by additional funding from almost all countries participating in EuroHPC..

Air Force Office of Scientific Research awards 17 quantum research grants from Million Dollar Quantum competition

The Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) recently awarded 17 quantum information science grants, with a focus on basic research, to scientists and engineers at institutions across the globe. These awards were fast-tracked following a three-day virtual pitch competition held during the Million Dollar International Quantum U Tech Accelerator..

THE LIST

11/2020 Highlights

After a make-over of the Top10 in June we again see some interesting changes driven by two system upgrades (#1 Fugaku and #5 Selene) and two new systems (#7 JUWELS Booster Module and #10 Dammam-7). The full list however recorded the smallest number of new entries ever since the project started in 1993.

Supercomputer Fugaku, a system based on Fujitsu’s custom ARM A64FX processor remains the new No. 1. It is installed at the RIKEN Center for Computational Science (R-CCS) in Kobe, Japan, the location of the former K-Computer. It was co-developed in close partnership by Riken and Fujitsu and uses Fujitsu’s Tofu D interconnect to transfer data between nodes. It increased in size by about 5% which allowed it to improve its HPL benchmark score to 442 Pflop/s easily exceeding the No. 2 Summit by 3x.

read more »

List Statistics

Vendors System ShareLenovoInspurSugonHPECray/HPEAtosDell EMCFujitsuIBMPenguinComputing,Inc.Others36.4%13.2%

VendorsCount
Lenovo182
Inspur66
Sugon51
HPE43
Cray/HPE32
Atos31
Dell EMC16
Fujitsu15
IBM9
Penguin Computing, Inc.8
Others47

Vendors Performance ShareLenovoInspurSugonHPECray/HPEAtosDell EMCFujitsuIBMPenguinComputing,Inc.Others14.7%19.6%21.7%

VendorsRmax (GFlops)
Lenovo358,044,326
Inspur129,755,280
Sugon94,172,000
HPE195,618,570
Cray/HPE161,491,330
Atos161,191,330
Dell EMC100,435,700
Fujitsu525,854,860
IBM206,397,102
Penguin Computing, Inc.20,239,160
Others475,562,194

Countries System ShareChinaUnitedStatesJapanFranceGermanyNetherla…IrelandUnitedKingdomCanadaItalyOthers42.8%9%22.6%

CountriesCount
China214
United States113
Japan34
France18
Germany17
Netherlands15
Ireland14
United Kingdom12
Canada12
Italy6
Others45

Countries Performance ShareChinaUnitedStatesJapanFranceGermanyNetherla…IrelandUnitedKingdomCanadaItalyOthers23.3%24.4%27.5%

CountriesRmax (GFlops)
China566,635,422
United States668,704,300
Japan593,700,080
France89,828,330
Germany131,048,770
Netherlands24,736,650
Ireland23,087,540
United Kingdom34,067,502
Canada26,698,060
Italy78,529,000
Others191,726,198
1Supercomputer Fugaku – Supercomputer Fugaku, A64FX 48C 2.2GHz, Tofu interconnect D, Fujitsu
2Summit – IBM Power System AC922, IBM POWER9 22C 3.07GHz, NVIDIA Volta GV100, Dual-rail Mellanox EDR Infiniband, IBM
3Sierra – IBM Power System AC922, IBM POWER9 22C 3.1GHz, NVIDIA Volta GV100, Dual-rail Mellanox EDR Infiniband, IBM / NVIDIA / Mellanox
4Sunway TaihuLight – Sunway MPP, Sunway SW26010 260C 1.45GHz, Sunway, NRCPC
5Selene – NVIDIA DGX A100, AMD EPYC 7742 64C 2.25GHz, NVIDIA A100, Mellanox HDR Infiniband, Nvidia
6Tianhe-2A – TH-IVB-FEP Cluster, Intel Xeon E5-2692v2 12C 2.2GHz, TH Express-2, Matrix-2000, NUDT
7JUWELS Booster Module – Bull Sequana XH2000 , AMD EPYC 7402 24C 2.8GHz, NVIDIA A100, Mellanox HDR InfiniBand/ParTec ParaStation ClusterSuite, Atos
8HPC5 – PowerEdge C4140, Xeon Gold 6252 24C 2.1GHz, NVIDIA Tesla V100, Mellanox HDR Infiniband, Dell EMC
9Frontera – Dell C6420, Xeon Platinum 8280 28C 2.7GHz, Mellanox InfiniBand HDR, Dell EMC
10Dammam-7 – Cray CS-Storm, Xeon Gold 6248 20C 2.5GHz, NVIDIA Tesla V100 SXM2, InfiniBand HDR 100, HPE

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOP500

TOP500

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search

TOP500
Key peopleErich StrohmaierJack DongarraHorst SimonMartin Meuer
Established24 June 1993
Websitewww.top500.org

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world. The project was started in 1993 and publishes an updated list of the supercomputers twice a year. The first of these updates always coincides with the International Supercomputing Conference in June, and the second is presented at the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference in November. The project aims to provide a reliable basis for tracking and detecting trends in high-performance computing and bases rankings on HPL,[1] a portable implementation of the high-performance LINPACK benchmark written in Fortran for distributed-memory computers.

Currently the latest TOP500 list is the 56th published in November 2020. Since June 2020, the Japanese Fugaku is the world’s most powerful supercomputer, reaching initially 415.53 petaFLOPS and 442.01 petaFlops after an update in November 2020 on the LINPACK benchmarksChina currently dominates the list with 212 supercomputers, leading the second place (United States) by a record margin of 113. Ranked by performance the most powerful supercomputers are located in the US (669 petaFLOPS). Followed by Japan (594 petaFLOPS) and China (564 petaFLOPS).

The TOP500 list is compiled by Jack Dongarra of the University of TennesseeKnoxville, Erich Strohmaier and Horst Simon of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and until his death in 2014, Hans Meuer of the University of MannheimGermany.

The TOP500 project lists also Green500 and HPCG benchmark list.

Contents

History[edit]

Rapid growth of supercomputer performance, based on data from top500.org site. The loga­rithmic y-axis shows performance in GFLOPS.  Combined performance of 500 largest supercomputers  Fastest supercomputer  Supercomputer in 500th place

In the early 1990s, a new definition of supercomputer was needed to produce meaningful statistics. After experimenting with metrics based on processor count in 1992, the idea arose at the University of Mannheim to use a detailed listing of installed systems as the basis. In early 1993, Jack Dongarra was persuaded to join the project with his LINPACK benchmarks. A first test version was produced in May 1993, partly based on data available on the Internet, including the following sources:[2][3]

  • “List of the World’s Most Powerful Computing Sites” maintained by Gunter Ahrendt[4]
  • David Kahaner, the director of the Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP);[5] published a report in 1992, titled “Kahaner Report on Supercomputer in Japan”[3] which had an immense amount of data.[citation needed]

The information from those sources was used for the first two lists. Since June 1993, the TOP500 is produced bi-annually based on site and vendor submissions only.

Since 1993, performance of the No. 1 ranked position has grown steadily in accordance with Moore’s law, doubling roughly every 14 months. As of June 2018, Summit was fastest with an Rpeak[6] of 187.6593 PFLOPS. For comparison, this is over 1,432,513 times faster than the Connection Machine CM-5/1024 (1,024 cores), which was the fastest system in November 1993 (twenty-five years prior) with an Rpeak of 131.0 GFLOPS.[7]

Architecture and operating systems[edit]

Share of processor architecture families in TOP500 supercomputers by time trend

As of November 2020, all supercomputers on TOP500 are 64-bit, mostly based on CPUs using the x86-64 instruction set architecture (of which 459 are Intel EMT64-based and 22 are AMD AMD64-based. The few exceptions are all based on RISC architectures). Thirteen supercomputers, including the no 2. and no. 3 are based on the Power ISA used by IBM POWER microprocessors, three on Fujitsu-designed SPARC64 chips. One computer uses another non-US design, the Japanese PEZY-SC (based on the British ARM[8]) as an accelerator paired with Intel’s Xeon.

In recent years heterogeneous computing, mostly using Nvidia‘s graphics processing units (GPU) or Intel’s x86-based Xeon Phi as coprocessors, has dominated the TOP500 because of better performance per watt ratios and often providing higher absolute performance. The only major recent exceptions being the aforementioned FugakuSunway TaihuLight and K computerTianhe-2 is also an interesting exception, as while it does use accelerators (just not GPUs), i.e. Xeon Phi, US sanctions blocked the upgrade, but still the upgraded Tianhe-2A is faster with non-US-based Matrix-2000,[9] accelerators which where exploited ahead of schedule. Frontera supercomputer, ranked 5th at debut, based on 28-core (56-thread) Intel Xeon Platinum is also an exception, as it was measured without help of GPUs which were later added,[10] but it has two subsystems, both with Nvidia GPUs, and one of them additionally with POWER9 CPUs, and the other liquid immersion cooling.[11][12]

Two computers which first appeared on the list in 2018 are based on architectures never before seen on the Top500. One was a new x86-64 microarchitecture from Chinese manufacturer Sugon, using Hygon Dhyana CPUs (these result from a collaboration with AMD, and are a minor variant of Zen-based AMD EPYC) and is ranked 38th,[13] and the other was the first ever ARM-based computer on the list (then upgraded for June 2019) – using Cavium ThunderX2 CPUs.[14] Before the ascendancy of 32-bit x86 and later 64-bit x86-64 in the early 2000s, a variety of RISC processor families made up most TOP500 supercomputers, including RISC architectures such as SPARCMIPSPA-RISC, and Alpha.

All the fastest supercomputers in the decade since the Earth Simulator supercomputer have used operating systems based on Linux. Since November 2017, all the listed supercomputers use an operating system based on the Linux kernel.[15][16]

Since November 2015, no computer on the list runs Windows. In November 2014, Windows Azure[17] cloud computer was no longer on the list of fastest supercomputers (its best rank was 165 in 2012), leaving the Shanghai Supercomputer Center‘s Magic Cube as the only Windows-based supercomputer on the list, until it was also dropped off from the list. It was ranked 436 in its last appearance on the list released in June 2015, while its best rank was 11 in 2008.[18] There are no longer any Mac OS computers on the list. It had at most five such systems at a time, one more than the Windows systems that came later, while the total performance share for Windows was higher. The relative performance share of the whole list was however similar, and never high for either.

It has been well over a decade since MIPS systems dropped entirely off the list[19] while the Gyoukou supercomputer that jumped to 4th place in November 2017 (after a huge upgrade) has MIPS as a small part of the coprocessors. Use of 2,048-core coprocessors (plus 8× 6-core MIPS, for each, that “no longer require to rely on an external Intel Xeon E5 host processor”[20]) make the supercomputer much more energy efficient than the other top 10 (i.e. it is 5th on Green500 and other such ZettaScaler-2.2-based systems take first three spots).[21] At 19.86 million cores, it is by far the biggest system: almost double that of the best manycore system in the TOP500, the Chinese Sunway TaihuLight, ranked 3rd.

TOP 500[edit]

After an upgrade, as of 56th TOP500 in November 2020,Fugaku grew its HPL performance to 442 petaflops, a modest increase from the 416 petaflops the system achieved when it debuted in June 2020. More significantly, Fugaku increased its performance on the new mixed precision HPC-AI benchmark to 2.0 exaflops, besting its 1.4 exaflops mark recorded six months ago. These represents the first benchmark measurements above one exaflop for any precision on any type of hardware.[22]

From the 52nd list (November 2018) to the 53rd list (June 2019), the Xeon Platinum-based Frontera is the only new top-10 supercomputer, then 5th fastest and the upgraded POWER9-based Lassen moved from 11th to 10th.[23] Sequoia became the last Blue Gene/Q model to drop completely off the list; it had been ranked 10th on the 52nd list (and 1st on the June 2012, 41st list, after an upgrade).For the first time, all 500 systems deliver a petaflop or more on the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark, with the entry level to the list now at 1.022 petaflops.” However, for a different benchmark “Summit and Sierra remain the only two systems to exceed a petaflop on the HPCG benchmark, delivering 2.9 petaflops and 1.8 petaflops, respectively. The average HPCG result on the current list is 213.3 teraflops, a marginal increase from 211.2 six months ago.[24]

Since November 2020, the last computer on the list delivers a Rmax performance of 1.3 petaflops.

Rank (previous)Rmax
Rpeak
(PFLOPS)
NameModelCPU coresAccelerator (e.g. GPU) coresInterconnectManufacturerSite
country, year
YearOperating
system
1442.010
537.212
FugakuSupercomputer Fugaku158,976 × 48 A64FX @2.2 GHz0Tofu interconnect DFujitsuRIKEN Center for Computational Science
 Japan
2020Linux (RHEL)
2Decrease (1)148.600
200.795
SummitIBM Power System
AC922
9,216 × 22 POWER9 @3.07 GHz27,648 × 80 Tesla V100InfiniBand EDRIBMOak Ridge National Laboratory
 United States
2018Linux (RHEL)
3Decrease (2)94.640
125.712
SierraIBM Power System
S922LC
8,640 × 22 POWER9 @3.1 GHz17,280 × 80 Tesla V100InfiniBand EDRIBMLawrence Livermore National Laboratory
 United States
2018Linux (RHEL)
4Decrease (3)93.015
125.436
Sunway
TaihuLight
Sunway MPP40,960 × 260 SW26010 @1.45 GHz0Sunway[26]NRCPCNational Supercomputing Center in Wuxi
 China[26]
2016Linux (Raise)
5Increase (7)63.460
79.215
SeleneNvidia1,120 × 64 Epyc 7742 @2.25 GHz4,480 × 108 Ampere A100Mellanox HDR InfinibandNvidiaNvidia
 United States
2020Linux (Ubuntu)
6Decrease (5)61.445
100.679
Tianhe-2ATH-IVB-FEP35,584 × 12 Xeon E5–2692 v2 @2.2 GHz35,584 × 128 Matrix-2000[27]TH Express-2NUDTNational Supercomputing Center in Guangzhou
 China
2013Linux (Kylin)
7Increase (new)44.120
70.980
JUWELS
(booster module)[28]
BullSequana XH20001,872 × 24 AMD EPYC 7402 @2.8 GHz3,744 × 108 Ampere A100Mellanox HDR InfinibandATOSForschungszentrum Jülich in  Germany2020Linux (CentOS)
Decrease(6)35.450
51.721
HPC5Dell3,640 × 24 Xeon Gold 6252 @2.1 GHz7,280 × 80 Tesla V100Mellanox HDR InfinibandDell EMCEni
 Italy
2020Linux (CentOS)
Decrease (8)23.516
38.746
FronteraDell C642016,016 × 28 Xeon Platinum 8280 @2.7 GHz (subsystems with e.g.
POWER9 CPUs and Nvidia GPUs were added after official benchmarking[10])
0InfiniBand HDRDell EMCTexas Advanced Computing Center
 United States
2019Linux (CentOS)
10Increase(new)22.400
55.424
DAMMAM-7CRAY CS-Storm1,978 × Xeon Gold 6248 @2.5 GHz7,912 × 80 Tesla V100InfiniBand HDR 100CraySaudi Aramco
 Saudi Arabia
2020Linux (RHEL)


Legend:[29]

  • Rank – Position within the TOP500 ranking. In the TOP500 list table, the computers are ordered first by their Rmax value. In the case of equal performances (Rmax value) for different computers, the order is by Rpeak. For sites that have the same computer, the order is by memory size and then alphabetically.
  • Rmax – The highest score measured using the LINPACK benchmarks suite. This is the number that is used to rank the computers. Measured in quadrillions of 64 bit floating point operations per second, i.e., petaFLOPS.[30]
  • Rpeak – This is the theoretical peak performance of the system. Computed in petaFLOPS.
  • Name – Some supercomputers are unique, at least on its location, and are thus named by their owner.
  • Model – The computing platform as it is marketed.
  • Processor – The instruction set architecture or processor microarchitecture, alongside GPU and accelerators when available.
  • Interconnect – The interconnect between computing nodes. InfiniBand is most used (38%) by performance share, while Gigabit Ethernet is most used (54%) by number of computers.
  • Manufacturer – The manufacturer of the platform and hardware.
  • Site – The name of the facility operating the supercomputer.
  • Country – The country in which the computer is located.
  • Year – The year of installation or last major update.
  • Operating system – The operating system that the computer uses.

Other rankings[edit]

Top countries[edit]

Numbers below represent the number of computers in the TOP500 that are in each of the listed countries or territories.

Country or TerritorySystems
 China226
 United States113
 Japan34
 France18
 Germany17
 Netherlands15
 Ireland14
 Canada12
 United Kingdom12
 Italy6
 Saudi Arabia5
 Brazil4
 Singapore4
 Taiwan3
 Norway3
  Switzerland3
 India2
 South Korea3
 Sweden2
 United Arab Emirates2
 Finland2
 Australia2
 Poland2
 Russia2
 Czechia1
 Hong Kong (China)1
 Austria1
 Spain1
 Morocco1
showCountry/RegionJun 2020[32]Nov 2019[33]Jun 2019[34]Nov 2018[35]Jun 2018[36]Nov 2017[37]Jun 2017[38]Nov 2016[39]Jun 2016[40]Nov 2015[41]Jun 2015[42]Nov 2014[43]Jun 2014[44]Nov 2013[45]Jun 2013[46]Nov 2012[47]Jun 2012[48]Nov 2011[49]Jun 2011[50]Nov 2010[51]Jun 2010[52]Nov 2009[53]Jun 2009[54]Nov 2008[55]Jun 2008[56]Nov 2007[57]

Systems ranked No. 1 since 1976[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of fastest computers.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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Additional Statistics[edit]

By number of systems as of November 2020:[64]

Top five processor generations by system quantityProcessor GenerationSystemsIntel Skylake (Launched: 2015)199Intel Broadwell (Launched: 2014)140Intel Cascade Lake (Launched: 2019)72Intel Haswell (Launched: 2013)26AMD Zen 2 (Launched: 2019)19Top five accelerators/co-processorsAcceleratorSystemsNone353NVIDIA TESLA V100 (SXM2) (Launched: 2017)105NVIDIA TESLA P100 (Launched: 2016)13NVIDIA AMPERE A1006NVIDIA TESLA GV1000 (Launched: 2016)4Top five manufacturers by system quantityManufacturerSystemsLenovo182Inspur66Sugon51Hewlett Packard Enterprise43Cray32Top five operating systemsOperating SystemSystemsLinux267CentOS100Cray Linux Environment30bullx SCS15Red Hat Enterprise Linux10Note: All operating systems of the TOP500 systems are Linux-famlily based , but Linux above is generic Linux.

The oldest system is currently the Endeavour at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at NASA Ames Research Center. It initially appeared on the 35th list in June 2010 with a Rmax of 50.3 teraFLOPS ranked as no. 112. After several updates this system is ranked as no. 328 with a Rmax of 1.654 teraFLOPS.

Sunway TaihuLight is the system with the most number of CPU-Cores (10,649,600). Tianhe-2 has the most GPU/accelerator cores (4,554,752). Fugaku is the system with the greatest power consumption with 29.900 megawatts. An unnamed system, ranked at no. 436, has the highest CPU clock speed with 3.836 MHz.

New developments in supercomputing[edit]

In November 2014, it was announced that the United States was developing two new supercomputers to exceed China’s Tianhe-2 in its place as world’s fastest supercomputer. The two computers, Sierra and Summit, will each exceed Tianhe-2’s 55 peak petaflops. Summit, the more powerful of the two, will deliver 150–300 peak petaflops.[65] On 10 April 2015, US government agencies banned selling chips, from Nvidia to supercomputing centers in China as “acting contrary to the national security … interests of the United States”;[66] and Intel Corporation from providing Xeon chips to China due to their use, according to the US, in researching nuclear weapons – research to which US export control law bans US companies from contributing – “The Department of Commerce refused, saying it was concerned about nuclear research being done with the machine.”[67]

On 29 July 2015, President Obama signed an executive order creating a National Strategic Computing Initiative calling for the accelerated development of an exascale (1000 petaflop) system and funding research into post-semiconductor computing.[68]

In June 2016, Japanese firm Fujitsu announced at the International Supercomputing Conference that its future exascale supercomputer will feature processors of its own design that implement the ARMv8 architecture. The Flagship2020 program, by Fujitsu for RIKEN plans to break the exaflops barrier by 2020 through the Fugaku supercomputer, (and “it looks like China and France have a chance to do so and that the United States is content – for the moment at least – to wait until 2023 to break through the exaflops barrier.”[69]) These processors will also implement extensions to the ARMv8 architecture equivalent to HPC-ACE2 that Fujitsu is developing with ARM Holdings.[69]

In June 2016, Sunway TaihuLight became the No. 1 system with 93 petaflop/s (PFLOP/s) on the Linpack benchmark.[70]

In November 2016, Piz Daint was upgraded, moving it from 8th to 3rd, leaving the US with no systems under the TOP3 for only the 2nd time ever.[71][72]

Inspur has been one of the largest HPC system manufacturer based out of Jinan, China. As of May 2017, Inspur has become the third manufacturer to have manufactured 64-way system – a record which has been previously mastered by IBM and HP. The company has registered over $10B in revenues and have successfully provided a number of HPC systems to countries outside China such as Sudan, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela. Inspur was also a major technology partner behind both the supercomputers from China, namely Tianhe-2 and Taihu which lead the top 2 positions of Top500 supercomputer list up to November 2017. Inspur and Supermicro released a few platforms aimed at HPC using GPU such as SR-AI and AGX-2 in May 2017.[73]

In November 2017, for the second time in a row there were no system from the USA under the TOP3. #1 and #2 were installed in China, a system in Switzerland at #3, and a new system in Japan was #4 pushing the top US system to #5.[74]

In June 2018, Summit, an IBM-built system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, USA, took the #1 spot with a performance of 122.3 petaflop/s (PFLOP/s), and Sierra, a very similar system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA, USA took #3. These two system took also the first two spots on the HPCG benchmark. Due to Summit and Sierra, the USA took back the lead as consumer of HPC performance with 38.2% of the overall installed performance while China was second with 29.1% of the overall installed performance. For the first time ever, the leading HPC manufacturer is not a US company. Lenovo took the lead with 23.8% of systems installed. It is followed by HPE with 15.8%, Inspur with 13.6%, Cray with 11.2%, and Sugon with 11%. [75]

On 18 March 2019, the United States Department of Energy and Intel announced the first exaFLOP supercomputer would be operational at Argonne National Laboratory by the end of 2021. The computer, named Aurora, is to be delivered to Argonne by Intel and Cray.[76][77]

On 7 May 2019, The U.S. Department of Energy announced a contract with Cray to build the “Frontier” supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Frontier is anticipated to be operational in 2021 and, with a performance of greater than 1.5 exaflops, should then be the world’s most powerful computer.[78]

As of June 2019, all TOP500 systems deliver a petaflop or more on the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark, with the entry level to the list now at 1.022 petaflops.[79]

Large machines not on the list[edit]

Some major systems are not on the list. The largest example is the NCSA’s Blue Waters which publicly announced the decision not to participate in the list[80] because they do not feel it accurately indicates the ability of any system to do useful work.[81] Other organizations decide not to list systems for security and/or commercial competitiveness reasons. Additional purpose-built machines that are not capable or do not run the benchmark were not included, such as RIKEN MDGRAPE-3 and MDGRAPE-4.

Computers and architectures that have dropped off the list[edit]

IBM Roadrunner[82] is no longer on the list (nor is any other using the Cell coprocessor, or PowerXCell).

Although Itanium-based systems reached second rank in 2004,[83][84] none now remain.

Similarly (non-SIMD-style) vector processors (NEC-based such as the Earth simulator that was fastest in 2002[85]) have also fallen off the list. Also the Sun Starfire computers that occupied many spots in the past now no longer appear.

The last non-Linux computers on the list – the two AIX ones – running on POWER7 (in July 2017 ranked 494th and 495th[86] originally 86th and 85th), dropped off the list in November 2017.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to TOP500.

References[edit]

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  6. ^ Rpeak – This is the theoretical peak performance of the system. Measured in PFLOPS.
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  21. ^ “The 2,048-core PEZY-SC2 sets a Green500 record”WikiChip Fuse. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017. Powering the ZettaScaler-2.2 is the PEZY-SC2. The SC2 is a second-generation chip featuring twice as many cores – i.e., 2,048 cores with 8-way SMT for a total of 16,384 threads. [..] The first-generation SC incorporated two ARM926 cores and while that was sufficient for basic management and debugging its processing power was inadequate for much more. The SC2 uses a hexa-core P-Class P6600 MIPS processor which share the same memory address as the PEZY cores, improving performance and reducing data transfer overhead. With the powerful MIPS management cores, it is now also possible to entirely eliminate the Xeon host processor. However, PEZY has not done so yet.
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  59. ^ Summit, an IBM-built supercomputer now running at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), captured the number one spot June 2018 with a performance of 122.3 petaflops on High Performance Linpack (HPL), the benchmark used to rank the TOP500 list. Summit has 4,356 nodes, each one equipped with two 22-core Power9 CPUs, and six NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs. The nodes are linked together with a Mellanox dual-rail EDR InfiniBand network.“TOP500 List – June 2018”The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  60. ^ Advanced reports that Oak Ridge National Laboratory was fielding the world’s fastest supercomputer were proven correct when the 40th edition of the twice-yearly TOP500 List of the world’s top supercomputers was released today (Nov. 12, 2012). Titan, a Cray XK7 system installed at Oak Ridge, achieved 17.59 Petaflop/s (quadrillions of calculations per second) on the Linpack benchmark. Titan has 560,640 processors, including 261,632 NVIDIA K20x accelerator cores.“TOP500 List – November 2012”The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  61. ^ For the first time since November 2009, a United States supercomputer sits atop the TOP500 list of the world’s top supercomputers. Named Sequoia, the IBM BlueGene/Q system installed at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory achieved an impressive 16.32 petaflop/s on the Linpack benchmark using 1,572,864 cores.“TOP500 List – June 2012”The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  62. ^ The DOE/IBM BlueGene/L beta-System was able to claim the No. 1 position on the new TOP500 list with its record Linpack benchmark performance of 70.72 Tflop/s (“teraflops” or trillions of calculations per second). This system, once completed, will be moved to the DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif.“TOP500 List – November 2004”The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 30 November 2004. Retrieved 10 July2019.
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The 5 fastest supercomputers in the world

Countries around the world strive to reach the peak of computing power–but there can be only oneSpeed read

  • Japan’s Fugaku supercomputer is world’s new #1
  • Fugaku’s ARM-based architecture is unique for a top-performing supercomputer
  • US national laboratories slip to second and third place

We’ve updated this popular article to reflect the most current ranking.

Peak performance within supercomputing is a constantly moving target. In fact, a supercomputer is defined as being any machine “that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate.” The field is a continual battle to be the best. Those who achieve the top rank may only hang on to it for a fleeting moment.

Competition is what makes supercomputing so exciting, continually driving engineers to reach heights that were unimaginable only a few years ago. To celebrate this amazing technology, let’s take a look at the fastest computers as defined by computer ranking project TOP500—and at what these machines are used for. 

5. Tianhe-2 (China)

<strong> China's Tianhe-2</strong> is used mainly for government security applications at China's National University of Defense Technology. Courtesy NUDT.China’s Tianhe-2 is used mainly for government security applications at China’s National University of Defense Technology. Courtesy NUDT.

Tianhe-2, whose name translates as “MilkyWay-2,” originally debuted as the world’s #1 in June 2013. But despite upgrades over the years to 4,981,760 cores running at 61.4 petaFLOPS, it’s now just barely hanging on to a spot in the top five. Such is the fleeting glory of a modern supercomputer.

TOP500 reported that the machine, developed by the National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) in China, is intended mainly for government security applications. This means that much of the work done by Tianhe-2 is kept secret, but if its processing power is anything to judge by, it must be working on some pretty important projects.

4. Sunway TaihuLight (China)

Also a former number one, Sunway TaihuLight dominated the list for two years after its debut in June 2016. At that time, its 93.01 petaFLOPS and 10,649,000 cores made it the world’s most powerful supercomputer by a wide margin, boasting more than five times the processing power of its nearest competitor (ORNL’s Titan) and nearly 19 times more cores.

But given the non-stop pace of technological advancement, no position is ever secure for long. TaihuLight ceded the top spot to competitors in June 2018.<strong>Supercomputers save lives</strong> by forecasting serious storms like Cyclone Felling in the Southern Indian Ocean. Courtesy William Straka, UWM/NASA/NOAA.Supercomputers save lives by forecasting serious storms like Cyclone Felling in the Southern Indian Ocean. Courtesy William Straka, UWM/NASA/NOAA.Located at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, China, TaihuLight’s creators are using the supercomputer for tasks ranging from climate science to advanced manufacturing. It has also found success in marine forecasting, helping ships avoid rough seas and aiding offshore oil drilling.

Read more: How supercomputers are uniting the US and China

3. Sierra (US) 

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Sierra initially debuted at #3 on the June 2018 list with 71.6 petaFLOPS. Optimization later pushed the processing speed on its 1,572,480 cores to 94.6 petaFLOPS, earning it the #2 spot in November 2018. However, the ascension of a new number one in June 2020 pushes Sierra back to third position. 

Incorporating both IBM central processing units (CPUs) and NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs), Sierra is specifically designed for modeling and simulations essential for the US National Nuclear Security Administration.

2. Summit (US)

https://www.youtube.com/embed/OlH5BG9giWIPoised at the Summit. The US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee slips to #2 after two years in first place. Courtesy ORNL.

As part of the US Department of Energy’s renewed commitment to supercomputing power, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) Summit first claimed the #1 spot in June 2018, taking the top rank from China for the first time in 6 years. 

Since its debut on the June 2018 list, Summit improved its initial High Performance Linpack (HPL) performance from 122.3 to the current 148.6 petaFLOPS. Unusually for such a high-performing machine, Summit also initially ranked third on the GreenTop500, which measures energy efficiency in supercomputers, though it has since dropped to ninth place.

A seven-member team from ORNL won the 2018 Gordon Bell Prize for their deployment of Summit to process genetic data in order to better understand how individuals develop chronic pain and respond to opioids. Summit is now playing a critical role in the global race to discover treatments and vaccines against COVID-19.

Read moreInvestigating the opioid epidemic with the most powerful supercomputer in the world

1. Fugaku (Japan)

Jointly developed by RIKEN and Fujitsu, Japan’s Fugaku is the new number one fastest supercomputer in the world. Japan has not had a system take the top spot since June 2011 when Fugaku’s predecessor, the K computer, debuted in first place. <strong>The world’s fastest supercomputer, Fugaku</strong>, boasts several architectural innovations that may pave the way for even greater performance. Courtesy RIKEN.The world’s fastest supercomputer, Fugaku, boasts several architectural innovations that may pave the way for even greater performance. Courtesy RIKEN.Boasting nearly 7.3 million cores and a speed of 415.5 petaFLOPS, Fugaku far outperforms previous #1 Summit’s 148.6 PetaFLOPS, bringing HPC technology one step closer to the promised exascale era. 

Fugaku is the first top-ranked system to be powered by ARM processors. Two other new features are hybrid memory cubes attached to each of the processors, and a new iteration of the Tofu network that provides tight integration between all of the nodes in the system. 

The ARM-based architecture represents a dramatic shift in the type of compute traditionally employed in supercomputers. Its designers view its success as proof that there is still room for innovation in HPC. 

Installed at RIKEN Center for Computational Science (R-CCS) in Kobe, Japan, Fugaku is intended for applications that will address high-priority social and scientific issues. These include drug discovery, personalized medicine, weather and climate forecasting, clean energy development, and exploring the fundamental laws of the universe. It is already being used in an experimental basis for COVID-19 research. Fugaku will begin full operation in April 2021. 

The race to possess the most powerful supercomputer never really ends. This friendly competition between countries has propelled a boom in processing power, and it doesn’t look like it’ll be slowing down anytime soon. With scientists using supercomputers for important projects such as curing debilitating diseases, we can only hope it will continue for years to come.

Read more about what’s next for supercomputers, beyond petascale:

Posted on 23 JUN, 2020

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4Start The top 10 supercomputers, the new scientific giantsTECHNOLOGY INNOVATION30 September 2019

The top 10 supercomputers, the new scientific giants

Computing | Internet | ScienceVentana al Conocimiento (Knowledge Window)Scientific journalismTime  4  to read

According to a quote with several origins, science advances on the shoulders of giants. In our time, these words have taken on a special meaning thanks to a new class of giants—supercomputers—which nowadays are pushing the boundaries of science to levels that the human intellect would be incapable of reaching on its own. 

In a few decades, the strength of these giants has multiplied dramatically: in 1985 the world’s most powerful supercomputer, Cray-2, could process 1.9 billion floating point operations per second (FLOPS), or 1.9 gigaflops, the parameter used to measure the power of these machines. By comparison, a current PlayStation 4 game console reaches 1.84 teraflops, almost a thousand times more. Today, there are at least 500 supercomputers in the world that can exceed a petaflop, or one billion flops, according to the TOP500 list drawn up by experts from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the universities of Mannheim (Germany) and Tennessee (USA). 

Below we present what are currently the ten most powerful supercomputers in the world and some of their contributions to knowledge.

1. SUMMIT, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (USA)

The world’s most powerful supercomputer today is Summit, built by IBM for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. It occupies the equivalent of two basketball courts and achieves an impressive 148.6 petaflops thanks to its 2.41 million cores. 

El supercomputador Summit es el más potente del mundo en la actualidad. Credit: Carlos Jones/ORNL
The Summit is the world’s most powerful supercomputer today. Credit: Carlos Jones/ORNL

In addition to its large capacity, Summit is also the most energy-efficient machine in the top 10 of the world’s supercomputers. Its mission is civil scientific research, and since it came into operation in 2018 it has already participated in projects such as the search for genetic variants in the population related to diseases, the simulation of earthquakes in urban environments, the study of extreme climatic phenomena, the study of materials on an atomic scale and the explosion of supernovae, among others.

2. SIERRA, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY (USA)

IBM is also responsible for the second most powerful supercomputer on the list, Sierra, located in California’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Based on Summit-like hardware, Sierra manages 94.6 petaflops. 

The Sierra supercomputer  is dedicated to military research. Crédito: LLNL
The Sierra supercomputer is dedicated to military research. Crédito: LLNL

Unlike its older brother, Sierra is dedicated to military research, more specifically to the simulation of nuclear weapons in place of underground tests, so its studies are classified material.

3. SUNWAY TAIHULIGHT, NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTRE (WUXI, CHINA)

Until Summit and Sierra came into service in 2018, China was at the forefront of global supercomputing with TaihuLight, a machine built by the National Centre for Engineering Research and Parallel Computing Technology and installed at the National Supercomputing Centre in Wuxi. Unlike other machines of its calibre, it lacks accelerator chips, so its 93 petaflops depend on its more than 10 million Chinese Sunway processors. 

TaihuLight is installed in the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi. Credit: Nsccwx
TaihuLight is installed in the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi. Credit: Nsccwx

TaihuLight is in a way a product of the trade war between China and the US, since its construction has completely dispensed with US technology, in response to the restrictions imposed by the US. This supercomputer has participated in research such as the simulation of the birth and expansion of the universe using 10 billion digital particles.

4. TIANHE-2A, NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTRE (GUANGZHOU, CHINA)

China also retains fourth place in the ranking with Tianhe-2A, or Milky Way 2A, developed by the National University of Defence Technology and equipped with Intel Xeon processors that allow it to reach 61.4 petaflops. According to its operators, the machine is use for computing related to government security, among others.

Tianhe-2, in National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou. Credit: O01326
Tianhe-2, in National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou. Credit: O01326

5. FRONTIER, TEXAS ADVANCED COMPUTING CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS (USA)

The Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin has entered the top 10 in global supercomputing thanks to Frontera, a new system built by Dell and equipped by Intel. Frontera was unveiled to the world in September 2019 as the world’s fastest supercomputer located in a university. Since June, it has been collaborating with three dozen scientific teams in research related to the physics of black holes, quantum mechanics, drug design and climate models. Its 23.5 petaflops will be available to the scientific community, which will benefit from its computational capacity especially in the areas of astrophysics, materials science, energy, genomics and the modelling of natural disasters.

The Frontera supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computing Center. Crédit: TACC
The Frontera supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computing Center. Credit: TACC

6. PIZ DAINT, SWISS NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CENTRE

Europe’s most powerful system ranks sixth on the list. Piz Daint is a supercomputer named after an alpine mountain—whose image is displayed on its housing—located at the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre in Lugano. It is an upgrade of a system built by the American company Cray, founded by the father of supercomputing Seymour Cray and responsible for several of the world’s most powerful machines. Its Intel and NVIDIA processors give it a speed of 21.2 petaflops. Piz Daint is involved in extensive research in materials science, physics, geophysics, life sciences, climatology and data science.

Piz Daint is the most powerful system in Europe. Credit: CSCS
Piz Daint is the most powerful system in Europe. Credit: CSCS

7. TRINITY, LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY (USA)

Also a product of the Cray company is Trinity, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory system that is able to reach nearly 20.2 petaflops. This machine, which inherited its name from the first U.S. nuclear test in 1945, is mainly devoted to nuclear weapons-related calculations.

Trinity inherited its name from the first U.S. nuclear test. Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory
Trinity inherited its name from the first U.S. nuclear test. Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory

8. AI BRIDGING CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE (ABCI), NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (JAPAN)

The 19.9 petaflops of ABCI, a system built by Fujitsu and belonging to Japan’s National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, place this machine in eighth place in the ranking. One of its most striking features is its energy efficiency, a parameter in which it scores just below Summit. ABCI’s goal is to serve as a cloud-based Artificial Intelligence resource available to Japanese companies and research groups.

ABCI's goal is to serve as a cloud-based Artificial Intelligence resource. Credit: ABCI
ABCI’s goal is to serve as a cloud-based Artificial Intelligence resource. Credit: ABCI

9. SUPERMUC-NG, LEIBNIZ RECHENZENTRUM (GERMANY)

In 2018, the new generation SuperMUC supercomputer officially came into service at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre in Garching, near Munich (Germany). Built by Lenovo with technology from the company and Intel, the most powerful supercomputer in the European Union achieves a processing speed of 19.5 petaflops.

The new generation of the SuperMUC supercomputer came into service in 2018. Credit: lrz
The new generation of the SuperMUC supercomputer came into service in 2018. Credit: lrz

10. LASSEN, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY (USA)

The top 10 closes with Lassen, Sierra’s little brother at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, built by IBM with the same architecture. Its recent improvements have increased its speed to 18.2 petaflops. Unlike its brother, Lassen is dedicated to unclassified research.

Lassen is dedicated to unclassified research. Credit: LLN
Lassen is dedicated to unclassified research. Credit: LLN

Javier Yanes

@yanes68

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Login to commentLog inSubscribenull21 mayo, 2020 a las 16:00Fascinating read, I ended up here after learning about Microsoft’s supercomputer. But I think the petaflop definition as one billion flops above needs to be revised to one thousand teraflops. Keep up the good work.ResponderNext articleINNOVATIONSmarter Medical Research Through a New Collective IntelligenceCarlos María Galmarini

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The 8 most powerful supercomputers and where to find them

People are silhouetted against a screen displaying a logo of Fujitsu at CEATEC JAPAN 2012 electronics show in Chiba, east of Tokyo, October 2, 2012. Japan's largest cutting-edge IT and electronics trade show started on Tuesday and runs until October 6 at Makuhari Messe convention center. REUTERS/Yuriko Nakao (JAPAN - Tags: BUSINESS) - GM1E8A21I2401
Fujisu’s Fugaku supercomputer, in Japan, took the top spot.Image: REUTERS/Yuriko Nakao

With the collaboration ofStatista30 Jun 2020

  1. Katharina BuchholzData Journalist, Statista

The World Economic Forum COVID Action PlatformLearn moreMost PopularWhat a ‘Norwegian mindset’ could teach us about coping with COVID-19 restrictionsMelissa De Witte · Stanford News 06 Jan 2021Fall asleep in Vienna, wake up in Paris – Europe’s night trains make a comebackAlex Thornton 07 Jan 2021Think you’re safe at home? Think again. 5 household demons to be mindful aboutAlisha Moopen 06 Jan 2021More on the agendaExplore contextInformation TechnologyExplore the latest strategic trends, research and analysis

  • The world’s supercomputers have been ranked by their power.
  • Taking the top spot was Fujitsu’s Fugaku supercomputer in Japan, due to having the highest theoretical peak performance and highest power capacity.
  • Half of the world’s top 8 supercomputers are in America.

Japanese supercomputer Fugaku zipped past all competitors to claim the top spot in the twice-annual ranking of the world’s most powerful computational machines released by research project Top500. Fugaku, which was developed by Fujitsu in cooperation with the federal Riken research lab, was able to perform almost three times as many computations per second as former leader of the list, U.S.-based supercomputer Summit.

Have you read?

Fugaku has not only topped the ranking in the number of computations per second – so-called TeraFLOPS – but in all four categories that supercomputers are judged on by the project. According to the Riken lab, no other computer had achieved this feat so far. Fugaku also had the most cores of all computers ranked, the highest theoretical peak performance for computations and the highest power capacity.

super computers pc tech technology countries comparison dell ibm fujitsu china america mexico japan
The world’s top supercomputers.Image: Statista

Supercomputers are used to run complicated simulations that involve a large number of variables. Common uses include economic and climate modeling, neurological research and nuclear science. In the case of Fugaku, the machine’s power is also used to research the coronavirus, more specifically to run simulations of how respiratory droplets move through the air in different settings like offices or train carriages.

The list of the top 8 supercomputers in the world includes two Dell and two IBM machines as well as two Chinese supercomputers run by the Chinese government.https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/836932723&color=%23ff5500&auto_play=false&hide_related=false&show_comments=true&show_user=true&show_reposts=false&show_teaser=true&visual=truehttps://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/842515834&color=%23ff5500&auto_play=false&hide_related=false&show_comments=true&show_user=true&show_reposts=false&show_teaser=true&visual=trueShareLicense and Republishing

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Japanese supercomputer, crowned world’s fastest, is fighting coronavirus

Published23 June 2020ShareRelated Topics

This picture taken on June 16, 2020 shows Japan"s Fugaku supercomputer at the Riken Center for Computational Science in Kobe,
image captionThe Fugaku system is already analysing coronavirus droplet spread in offices and public transport

The newly crowned world’s fastest supercomputer is being deployed in the fight against the coronavirus.

Japan’s Fugaku supercomputer claimed the top spot on Monday, carrying out 2.8 times more calculations per second than an IBM machine in the US.

The US machine, called Summit, came top of the bi-annual Top500 list the previous four times.

Fugaku’s victory broke a long run of US-China dominance, returning Japan to the top for the first time in 11 years.

Top500 ranks the world’s most powerful non-distributed computer systems.

Fugaku has already been put to work on fighting the coronavirus, simulating how droplets would spread in office spaces with partitions installed or in packed trains with the windows open.

When it is fully operational next year, experts are hoping the machine will also be able to help narrow down the search for effective treatments for the virus.

The room-sized machine lives in the city of Kobe and was developed over six years by Japanese technology firm Fujitsu and the government-backed Riken Institute. Its name is another way of saying Mount Fuji.ADVERTISEMENT

Its performance was measured at 415.53 petaflops, 2.8 times faster than second-place Summit’s 148.6 petaflops. The US machine is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. A supercomputer is classified by being more than 1,000 times faster than a regular computer.

“I hope that the leading-edge IT developed for it will contribute to major advances on difficult social challenges such as Covid-19,” said Satoshi Matsuoka, the head of Riken’s Center for Computational Science.

Third place in the list went to another IBM system, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, while the fourth and fifth places were taken by computers in China.

Fugaku also topped other supercomputer performance rankings, becoming the first to simultaneously sit atop the Graph500, HPCG, and HPL-AI lists.

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TOP 10 FASTEST SUPERCOMPUTERS IN THE WORLD TO WATCH IN 2020

LATEST NEWSMARKET TRENDSTOP LISTby Vivek KumarAugust 28, 2020

Super Computer

With decline in supercomputing costs, supercomputers are gaining rapid traction.

The demand for high-performing computing systems in market research, scientific and engineering work and other business associated models continues to surge today. This is where a supercomputer comes in, performing at or near its current highest operational rate. The performance of supercomputers is typically measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), in place of million instructions per second (MIPS). Such computers are composed of thousands of processors working in parallel and respond to increasing needs to process zillions of data in real-time with quality and accuracy.

Analytics Insight compiles a list of the top 10 fastest supercomputers in the world known for their supercomputing capabilities.

Fugaku

Fugaku was jointly developed by RIKEN and Fujitsu. Named after an alternative name for Mount Fuji, the supercomputer built with the Fujitsu A64FX microprocessor. This CPU is based on the ARM version 8.2A processor architecture and adopts the Scalable Vector Extensions for supercomputers. Installed at RIKEN Center for Computational Science (R-CCS) in Kobe, Japan, Fugaku is designed for applications that will address high-priority social and scientific issues. Its core features include low power consumption, high computational performance, user convenience, and ability to produce ground-breaking results; power consumption of 30 to 40 MW, and its design suited for AI applications such as deep learning.

Sierra

Sierra, one of the world’s fastest supercomputers, which is developed for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) as the second Advanced Technology System. The system provides computational resources that are vital for nuclear weapon scientists to fulfill the NNSA’s stockpile stewardship mission through simulation instead of underground testing. The IBM-built Sierra supercomputer provides over six times the sustained throughput performance and more than five times the sustained scalable science performance of Sequoia, with a 125 petaFLOP/s peak. This supercomputer, which combines IBM’s Power 9 processors and NVIDIA’s Volta graphics processing units, is over five times more power-efficient than Sequoia, with a peak power consumption of approximately 11 MW.

Sunway TaihuLight

Sunway TaihuLight, a Chinese supercomputer, which is ranked third in the TOP500 list, as of November 2018, with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops. The supercomputer uses a total of 40,960 Chinese-designed SW26010 manycore 64-bit RISC processors based on the Sunway architecture. Each processor chip carries 256 processing cores and an additional four auxiliary cores for system management (also RISC cores, just more fully-featured) for a total of 10,649,600 CPU cores across the entire system. The computer, which runs the Linux-based Sunway Raise OS 2.0.5, uses the SW26010 processor, a chip designed by Shanghai High-Performance IC Design Center.

HPC5

HPC5, also called High-Performance Computing – layer 5, is a set of parallel computing units with a peak processing power of 51.7 petaFlops. Combined with the supercomputing system in operation since 2018 (HPC4), the peak computational capacity of the infrastructure totals 70 petaFlops: that is, 70 million billion mathematical operations performed in a single second. Located inside Eni’s Green Data Center has a peak power of over 50 petaflops, HPC5 is the most powerful industrial supercomputer in the world. This supercomputer consists of 1820 Dell EMC PowerEdge C4140 nodes, each with 2 Intel Gold 6252 24-core CPUs and 4 NVIDIA V100 GPU accelerators.

Tianhe-2

Tianhe-2, a supercomputer developed by the China’s National University of Defense Technology, which processes at a great 33.9 petaflops, nearly twice the performance of the Titan or Sequoia, and over 10 times the performance of Tianhe-1A. The system runs on a mix of Intel Xeon E5 processors, custom processors and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors, nearly 3,120,000 cores in total. Located at the National Super Computer Center in Guangzhou, Tianhe-2 will be used for education and research. Moreover, it runs on a custom version of the Ubuntu Linux operating system called Kylin, which was built through a partnership between the NUDT, the China Software and Integrated Circuit Promotions Centre (CSIP) and Canonical (creators of Ubuntu).

Marconi-100

Marconi100 supercomputer was developed by IBM using IBM POWER9 technology and NVIDIA V100 Tensor Core GPUs as the world’s smartest AI supercomputer, the US Department of Energy’s Summit system, and according to measurements conducted by CINECA. This offers nearly 32 theoretical peak petaFLOPS of computing power, or up to 32 quadrillion calculations per second. Marconi100 will support European researchers, through the PRACE initiative, and Italian researchers through the Italian Supercomputing Resource Allocation initiative (ISCRA). This will equip them with additional computing resources to face socio-economic challenges such as climate change, renewable energy, sustainable economics, and precision medicine.

Summit

Summit, a supercomputer developed by IBM for use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is capable of 200 petaFLOPS, making it the fastest supercomputer in the world. Its current LINPACK benchmark is clocked at 148.6 petaFLOPS. Summit provides scientists with incredible computing power to solve challenges in energy, AI, human health, and other research areas, that were impossible until now. Undeniably, these discoveries will help shape the human understanding of the universe, bolster US economic competitiveness, and contribute to a better future.

Piz Daint

Piz Daint, a supercomputer in the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre, has a computing power of 7.8 petaFlops, this means 7.8 quadrillions of mathematical operations per second. This supercomputer has the potential to compute in one day over a modern laptop that could compute in 900 years. Piz Daint is a 28 cabinet Cray XC30 system with a total of 5’272 compute nodes. The compute nodes are equipped with an 8-core 64-bit Intel SandyBridge CPU (Intel® Xeon® E5-2670), an NVIDIA® Tesla® K20X with 6 GB GDDR5 memory, and 32 GB of host memory. The nodes are connected by the “Aries” proprietary interconnect from Cray, with a dragonfly network topology.

Trinity

The Trinity supercomputer is aimed at providing an increased computational capability for the NNSA Nuclear Security Enterprise in support of ever-demanding workloads. Managed and operated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories under the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership, this supercomputer’s capabilities are required for supporting the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship program’s certification and assessments to ensure that the nation’s nuclear stockpile is safe, reliable, and secure. Trinity was built in 2 stages – the first stage incorporated the Intel Xeon Haswell processor and the second stage added a significant performance increase using the Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing Processor.

Frontera

Frontera is the fastest academic supercomputer located at the University of Texas at Austin. The supercomputer is the joint development of Dell EMC and Intel, funded by a US$60 million grant from the National Science Foundation that would replace Stampede2 at the University’s Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC). Deployed in June 2019, Frontera is the 8th most powerful supercomputer in the world and the fastest supercomputer on a university campus. It has two computing subsystems, the primary computing system focused on double-precision performance and the second subsystem focused on single-precision streaming-memory computing. Additionally, Frontera has multiple storage systems, along with interfaces to the cloud and archive systems, and a set of application nodes for hosting virtual servers.

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Fugaku retains top spot as world’s most powerful supercomputer in Top500 ranking

In a quiet six months for supercomputersNovember 17, 2020 By Sebastian Moss Be the first to commentFacebookTwitterLinkedInRedditEmailCompartilhar

Fugaku is still the world’s most powerful supercomputer in the latest Top500 ranking of HPC systems.

Two new systems broke into the top 10 of the charts, but the full list recorded the smallest number of new entries since the project began in 1993. The aggregate performance of all 500 systems grew to 2.43 exaflops from 2.22 exaflops in its June listing.

The top 10 supercomputers in the world

Fugaku– Fugaku

Japan’s Fugaku took the top spot in June, when it had 7,299,072 cores. That has now been increased to 7,630,848 cores, with the Arm A64FX supercomputer now capable of a record 442 petaflops on the High Performance Linpack benchmark, up from 416 petaflops.

That puts the system at roughly three times the power of the next fastest system, Oak Ridge’s Summit supercomputer – which manages 148.8 petaflops across its 4,356 nodes, each one housing two 22-core Power9 CPUs and six Nvidia Tesla V100 GPUs.

Then comes Sierra, a Lawrence Livermore supercomputer with a similar architecture to Summit – 4,320 nodes equipped with two Power9 CPUs and four Nvidia Tesla V100 GPUs – capable of 94.6 petaflops.

Next is China’s most powerful supercomputer, the Sunway TaihuLight. Installed at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, it features Sunway SW26010 processors and achieves 93 petaflops on HPL.

At number five is the most powerful corporate-owned supercomputer, Nvidia’s Selene supercomputer. Featuring DGX A100 SuperPODs with AMD Epyc processors, Selene has a benchmark performance of 63.4 petaflops, after it was upgraded earlier this year.

China again features at number six, with the Tianhe-2A (Milky Way-2A) supercomputer developed by China’s National University of Defense Technology and deployed at the National Supercomputer Center in Guangzho. It is powered by Intel Xeon CPUs and NUDT’s Matrix-2000 DSP accelerators and achieves 61.4 petaflops on HPL.

A new supercomputer debuts at number seven in the Top500, the JUWELS Booster Module. The Atos-built BullSequana machine was installed at the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany earlier this year. As the most powerful system in Europe, it is capable of 44.1 petaflops.

Another European system comes in next, the HPC5 supercomputer operated by Italian oil giant Eni. Using Intel Xeon Gold CPUs and Nvidia Tesla V100 GPUs, it hit a benchmark performance of 35.5 petaflops.

It’s back to the US for number nine, with Texas Advanced Computing Center’s Frontera achieving 23.5 petaflops using 448,448 Intel Platinum Xeon cores.

And, finally, rounding out the top 10 is a new system from Saudi Aramco. The world’s largest fossil fuel company’s Dammam-7 is an HPE Cray CS-Storm system using Intel Gold Xeon CPUs and Nvidia Tesla V100 GPUs, and managed 22.4 petaflops on the HPL benchmark.

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Top 5 supercomputers in the world

by Tom Merritt in Hardware on November 2, 2020, 2:22 PM PST

Supercomputers are high-level computers used for managing very large databases or great amounts of computation. Tom Merritt lists the top five ranked supercomputers in the world, according to TOP500.

Top 5 supercomputers WATCH NOW

HPE is building a supercomputer called LUMI in Finland, and it is expected to have peak performance of more than 550 petaflops, putting it at the top of the list of the world’s most powerful supercomputers. Let’s check in on the top supercomputers right now.

Twice a year since 1993, TOP500 has ranked the world’s supercomputers. Here are the top five supercomputers.

SEE: Hardware inventory policy (TechRepublic Premium)

5. Tianhe-2A. This supercomputer, also known as Milky Way-2A, is located at the National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou. It’s a hybrid architecture employing Intel Xeon CPUs and custom-built Matrix-2000 coprocessors. Tianhe-2A tops out at 61.4 petaflops.

4. Sunway TaihuLight. It’s not just fast–it’s also energy-efficient. It can take almost any application you throw at it–at scale. Sunway TaihuLight reaches 93 petaflops.

3. The Sierra system. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory checks in with the Sierra system. It uses two Power9 CPUs and four NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs in each of its 4,320 nodes. It can achieve 94.6 petaflops.

2. IBM’s Summit. Summit also uses two 22-core Power9 CPUs and six NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs. Summit is running at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, making it the fastest in the US. It can reach 148.8 petaflops.

1. Fugaku. The reigning champ (until Finland gets its new HPE built) is Japan’s Fugaku. The supercomputer is powered by Fujitsu’s 48-core A64FX SoC, the first to reach number one using ARM. You can find it at RIKEN Center for Computational Science (R-CCS) in Kobe, Japan. It hits a lofty 415.5 petaflops.

Someday we’ll have implanted eyeballs that are more powerful than the Sunway TaihuLight. Imagine what will be on the top supercomputer list then.

Subscribe to TechRepublic Top 5 on YouTube for all the latest tech advice for business pros from Tom Merritt.

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Jumpstart Magazine

Meet the World’s Top 10 Most Powerful Supercomputers

By Reethu Ravi
Published November 27, 2020

Japan’s Fugaku supercomputer has retained its position as the number one computer system, followed by IBM’s Summit and Sierra in the U.S.

In the 56th edition of the TOP500, Japan, USA, Germany, Italy and France have dominated the top 100 of the world’s most powerful supercomputers. Japan’s Fugaku supercomputer retained its position as the number one computer system, followed by IBM’s Summit and Sierra in the U.S.

The Top500 project tracks the most powerful supercomputers in the world and is published biannually. The non-profit organization released its November 2020 results last week. This year, while two new systems made it to the top 10, the full list recorded the smallest number of new entries since the project’s inception in 1993.

As a result, Top500 representatives suggested that the current list reflects a flattening performance growth curve.

What the results show

The world’s supercomputers are now not only faster, but also smarter, and support a greater variety of workloads.

Nearly 70% (140) of the systems on the TOP500 list, including eight of the top 10, are powered by NVIDIA technology and are “increasingly using AI to help researchers make discoveries faster.”

NVIDIA’s end-to-end HGX AI supercomputing platform helps accelerate scientific computing, data analytics, and AI workloads.

“The shift to incorporating AI into HPC (High-Performance Computing), and a platform that extends beyond traditional supercomputing centers, represents a significant change in a field that, since Seymour Cray’s CDC 6600 was launched in 1964, has focused on harnessing ever larger, more powerful machines for compute-intensive simulation and modeling,” NVIDIA said in a blog post.

In October this year, Italian inter-university consortium CINECA had announced its plans to build the world’s fastest AI supercomputer. The new “Leonardo” system is expected to deliver 10 exaflops of FP16 performance in AI workloads. It will feature around 14,000 Nvidia A100 GPUs and around 3,500 Intel Sapphire Rapids CPUs.

In the case of a supercomputer, its performance capabilities are indicated using a standard rate called FLOPS or floating-point operations per second. This rate indicates the number of floating-point arithmetic calculations a system can perform per second. While a 1 petaFLOPS (PFLOPS) computer system can perform one quadrillion (10^15) floating-point operations per second, 1 exaFLOPS (EFLOPS) computer system can perform one quintillion (10^18) floating-point operations per second.

Meanwhile, Intel has remained the preferred processor provider, with 90% of the systems equipped with its Xeon or Xeon Phi chips.

With 212 systems on the list, China has exerted unequivocal domination over the list, followed by the U.S. with 113 systems, and Japan with 34. However, when it comes to aggregate performance, the U.S. continues to lead at 668.7 petaflops, compared to China’s 564.0 petaflops. Meanwhile, Japan has an aggregate performance of 593.7 petaflops.

Supercomputers, which have the unfortunate side effect of consuming enormous amounts of energy, are now also ranked on the Green500 by energy efficiency. On the Green500 list, the new NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD in the U.S. was found to be the most energy-efficient system. It was followed by MN-3 in Japan, and Atos-built JUWELS Booster Module in Germany.

Top 10 supercomputers

Notable developments in the top 10 include the addition of two new systems, and a new performance benchmark set by the Fugaku supercomputer.

Due to the addition of new hardware to beef up the system, Fugaku grew its High Performance LINPACK (HPL) benchmark to 442 petaflops, compared to the 416 petaflops the system achieved when it debuted in June 2020 – a 6.4% speed improvement.

The HPL benchmark, which indicates the performance of a dedicated system when solving a dense system of equations, is used to determine the Top500.

1. Fugaku, Japan

Built by Fujitsu, Fugaku is installed at the RIKEN Center for Computational Science (R-CCS) in Kobe, Japan. With its additional hardware, the system achieved a new world record of 442 petaflops result on HPL, making it three times ahead of the number two system in the list.

RIKEN’s director, Satoshi Matsuoka, stated that the improvement came as they were “finally being able to use the entire machine rather than just a good chunk of it.”

Since the June competition, his team has been able to fine-tune the code for maximum performance. “I don’t think we can improve much anymore,” Matsuoka said.

2. Summit, U.S.

Based at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, Summit was built by IBM and is the fastest system in the US.. Launched in 2018, it has a performance of 148.8 petaflops and has 4,356 nodes, each one housing two 22-core Power9 CPUs and six NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs.

Recently, two teams working on Summit won the prestigious Gordon Bell Prize for outstanding achievement in high-performance computing, commonly referred to as the ‘Nobel Prize of supercomputing.’

3. Sierra, U.S.

A system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California, Sierra has an HPL mark of 94.6 petaflops. With each of its 4,320 nodes equipped with two Power9 CPUs and four NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs, it has an architecture similar to that of Summit.

Sierra also made it to the 15th position on the Green500 List of the world’s most energy-efficient supercomputers.

4. Sunway TaihuLight, China

Installed at China’s National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, Sunway TaihuLight previously held the Number 1 spot for two years (2016-2017). However, its rank has since fallen. While it was in third position last year, it has now slipped to fourth.

Built by China’s National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering & Technology (NRCPC), it achieved 93 petaflops on its HPL benchmark. It is powered exclusively by Sunway SW26010 processors.

5. Selene, U.S.

Installed in-house at NVIDIA Corp, Selene jumped to fifth position from seventh position in the June rankings. After a recent upgrade, Selene achieved 63.4 petaflops on HPL, nearly doubling its previous score of 27.6 petaflops.

NVIDIA unveiled Selene, its AI supercomputer, in June this year, after constructing and running it in less than a month. Its key uses include system development and testing, in-house AI workloads, and chip design work.

6. Tianhe-2A, China

With 61.4 petaflops, Tianhe-2A (aka MilkyWay-2A) climbed one spot to sixth position. Developed by China’s National University of Defense Technology (NUDT), it is installed at the National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou.

Tianhe-2A is powered by Intel Xeon CPUs and NUDT’s Matrix-2000 DSP accelerators. It will be used for simulation, analysis, and government security applications. It held the Number 1 spot from June 2013 to November 2015.

7. JUWELS Booster Module, Germany

Atos-built JUWELS Booster Module is the newest entrant on the list. The BullSequana machine was recently installed at the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany and is the most powerful system in Europe, coming in at 44.1 HPL petaflops.

Based on a  modular system architecture, JUWELS is powered by AMD processors and NVIDIA GPUs, similar to the Selene system.

8. HPC5, Italy

A Dell PowerEdge system, HPC5 was installed by the Italian company Eni S.p.A and is located inside Eni’s Green Data Center in Italy. One of the most powerful and sustainable computing systems in the world, HPC5 is used to research new sources of energy.

With a performance of 35.5 petaflops, it is the most powerful system in the list used for commercial purposes at a customer site. It uses Intel Xeon Gold CPUs and NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs.

9. Frontera, US

Installed at the Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin in September year, Frontera is a Dell C6420 system equipped by Intel. Using 448,448 of its Intel Platinum Xeon cores, the system achieves 23.5 petaflops.

Frontera aids research across all areas of science including those related to quantum mechanics, drug design, eradicating emerging viruses, and the physics of black holes.

10. Dammam-7, Saudi Arabia

Dammam-7 is the second new addition at the top of the list. Installed at Saudi Aramco in Saudi Arabia, the HPE Cray CS-Storm systems uses Intel Gold Xeon CPUs and NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs. It achieves 22.4 petaflops and is the second commercial supercomputer in the top 10.

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The world’s fastest supercomputers are still getting faster, but it’s taking them longer

The latest Top500 list shows that supercomputers are getting better, but more slowly.https://96b0a107cf4649c2e8ddea6b3a050886.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-37/html/container.html

Daphne Leprince-Ringuet

By Daphne Leprince-Ringuet | November 17, 2020 — 16:57 GMT (08:57 PST) | Topic: Innovation

The Top 500 supercomputers have one thing in common: They all run on Linux WATCH NOW

The performance of modern supercomputers is growing slower than it has in almost 30 years, according to the latest iteration of the bi-yearly Top500 list, which, as the name suggests, classifies the 500 most powerful computer systems around the world. 

record low number of new entrants were registered for the November 2020 classification. With only 44 new devices recorded, the list has never seen such a small turnover since it was first published in 1993. The numbers compare poorly to years like 2007, when more than 300 new devices made it to the ranking.  

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This was mostly blamed on the impact of the COVID-19 crisis, which drove investment in commercial high-performance computing systems to an all-time low.  

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In parallel, a significant slow-down was noted in the performance growth curve of the devices that featured on the list. Performance used to multiply by 1,000 every 11 years, noted the scientists who put the list together; it will now take 20 years to achieve the same growth. 

The Top500 list is compiled twice a year by a group of four researchers, and started off as an exercise for a small conference in Germany some 27 years ago. The authors, out of curiosity, revisited the ranking a few months later, and eventually decided to transform the list into a regular update.  

Topping the Top500 for the second time in a row this time was Japan’s Fugaku supercomputer, which achieved a world record of 442 petaflops – only a “modest increase”, according to the authors, from the 416 petaflops the system showed off when it debuted in June 2020. 

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A petaflop describes the ability of a computer to do one quadrillion floating point operations per second. The entry level to the Top500 list currently stands at 1.32 petaflops, which was again deemed a “small increase” from the 1.23 petaflops recorded in the previous ranking. 

At 442 petaflops, Fugaku stands a long way ahead of its competitors. The supercomputer, in fact, has three times more capability than the number two system on the list, IBM’s Summit, which is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the US, and has a performance of 148.8 petaflops.

Fugaku was jointly developed by Fujitsu and the Riken Center for Computational Science in Kobe, Japan, and is already used to fight against the Covid-19 pandemic, to better understand the virus and to design drugs that might counter it. In the long-term, Fugaku will also be leveraged for disaster-prevention simulations of earthquakes and tsunami, as well as manufacturing applications and new material design. 

The researchers said that the overall performance of the world’s supercomputers is slowing down as Moore’s law starts hitting significant technological barriers, and processors struggle to increase their capability as quickly as before. While many governments have pledged to build exascale systems – that can perform a quintillion calculations each second – in the next couple of years, therefore, a more realistic timeline might be necessary. 

One of the list’s authors, Erich Strohmaier, predicted that a supercomputer capable of achieving one exaflop should not be expected before the second half of the 2020s, which his colleagues labeled as the “optimistic” forecast

SEE: This powerful new supercomputer will let scientists ask ‘the right questions’

The US is currently building two exascale computing systems, which are expected to launch next year, while China has previously pledged to hit the mark in 2020. The EU has also announced a series of upcoming exaflop-capable computing projects. 

The computing power enabled by exascale supercomputers would hugely benefit precision medicine, regional climate simulation, materials discovery and design, but also drive research in the fundamental forces of the universe, the conversion of plants to biofuels, and much more.

It is still unclear where the first exascale achievement will take place, but the latest iteration of the Top500 list shows a clear lead from Chinese systems, which represent 212 machines in the ranking, while the US only holds 113 systems. Japan, although holding the most powerful supercomputer by far, only has 34 supercomputers that have entered the list. 

In continuation of previous trends, the new list also reflected Intel’s clear domination of the processor market share, with over 90% of the systems equipped with Xeon or Xeon Phi chips. 

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Japan’s Fugaku tops world’s fastest supercomputer list

TECHNOLOGY

Japan’s Fugaku tops world’s fastest supercomputer list

John XavierJUNE 24, 2020 15:07 ISTUPDATED: JUNE 24, 2020 17:12 IST

The winning machine’s concept was initially proposed a decade ago, and six years after the official start of the project, the supercomputer is getting ready for a full launch in April 2021

While the US and China were fighting to take the lead in supercomputing, Japan seems to have emerged as the winner with its world’s fastest supercomputer.

Fugaku, a supercomputer jointly developed by RIKEN and Fujitsu Ltd., has taken the top position on the TOP500 list, a supercomputer benchmarking index.

Fugaku turned in a High Performance Linpack (HPL) result of 415.5 petaflops, besting the now second-place Summit system by a factor of 2.8x.

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The winning machine’s concept was initially proposed a decade ago, and six years after the official start of the project, the supercomputer is getting ready for a full launch in April 2021. It is powered by Fujitsu’s 48-core A64FX SoC, becoming the first number one system on the list to be powered by ARM processors.

On Graph 500 ranking, another supercomputer benchmarking firm, Fugaku used 92,160 nodes to solve a breadth-first search of an enormous graph with 1.1 trillion nodes and 17.6 trillion edges in about 0.25 seconds.

That speed of processing put the Japanese supercomputer on top with a score of 70,980 gigaTEPS, far surpassing China’s Sunway TaihuLight, which scored 23,756 gigaTEPS and took the second position.

Use in Society 5.0

Fugaku has also topped the list of supercomputers that are ranked based on their performance capabilities for tasks completed using AI applications.

The winning supercomputer is now installed at the RIKEN Center for Computational Science (R-CCS) in Kobe, Japan.

It is developed under Japan’s national plan to design next generation flagship supercomputers that may be used to achieve the South Asian nation’s Society 5.0 plan, a human-centred system that integrates cyberspace and physical world.

RIKEN institute claims that the supercomputer can run applications that can assist drug discovery, simulate natural disasters, climate forecasting and new material development.

“Fugaku was developed based on the idea of achieving high performance on a variety of applications of great public interest, such as the achievement of Society 5.0, and we are very happy that it has shown itself to be outstanding on all the major supercomputer benchmarks,” Satoshi Matsuoka, director of R-CCS said in a statement.

“In addition to its use as a supercomputer, I hope that the leading-edge IT developed for it will contribute to major advances on difficult social challenges such as COVID-19.”

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2nd International Conference on Immunity and Immunochemistry

Treating Covid-19 through Immune Based Therapies

AUG 09-10, 2021

|

BARCELONA, SPAIN170Days,11Hours,59Minutes,27Seconds

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Welcome Message
“As we all know the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, brought about by extreme intense respiratory disorder Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has influenced a huge number of individuals around the world, touching off an unprecedented effort from mainstream researchers to comprehend the organic supporting of COVID19 pathophysiology. The immune system ensures against infections and sicknesses and produces antibodies to kill microbes.”
We’re delighted to welcome you to the 2nd International Conference on Immunity and Immunochemistry, taking place on August 09-10, 2021 in Barcelona, Spain. This event takes place over 2 days and will comprise plenary lectures, parallel sessions, poster sessions and our ever-popular ‘Workshop’ events, with something to suit all immunological and vaccines research.  About the Conference
Immunochemistry 2021 gives a profound impulse into the most recent discoveries and innovative headway in the field of Immunity and Immunochemistry. With individuals from around the globe focused in on finding out about Immunology and its advances; this is your best opportunity to arrive at the biggest array of members from the Immunology community. Widely acclaimed speakers, the latest   strategies, advancements, and the most up to date refreshes in Immunology are signs of this gathering. The aim of the event is to host shows from far-famed specialists across the planet to harness the new collaborations in medical specialty, and medical specialty Sciences. Therefore, researchers within the relevant field will gift their analysis to debate the new results. rising sessions includes, young researchers forum and poster sessions providing likelihood to young participants to develop their career. Through the oral and poster displays, scientific sessions, and networking sessions, we tend to encourage dialogue between all the attendees to fill within the gaps to inspire innovative collaborations. 

Target Audience

  • Immunologists, Virologists, Microbiologists
  • Allergists, Pathologists, Biotechnologists
  • Physicians and Infectious diseases treatment doctors
  • University Professors
  • Research Labs
  • Various Societies Members
  • Research Scholars and Medical Students
  • Business Entrepreneurs
  • Manufacturing Medical Devices and Pharma Companies
  • Laboratory Technicians

Why to attend?

The attendees will notice exclusive sessions and panel discussions on the most recent innovations in Molecular medical specialty & Immunogenetics, be the first to showcase your analysis, innovation.

  • Lectures from noted speakers
  • Keynote forums by outstanding Professors and Directors
  • Open Innovation Challenges
  • Certification
  • Poster displays by Young Researchers
  • Global Networking sessions with 50+ Countries
  • Strengthening the network between the university, hospitals, research labs and pharma industries.
  • Summarize the studies of Immune System and targeting therapies to prevent coronavirus disease.
  • Discussing the latest findings and achievements in the treatment of Covid-19 through immunotherapies.

MARKET SCENARIO

Global Immune Health Supplements Market was valued at US$ 14.1 Bn in 2019 and is expected to reach US$ 24.7 Bn by 2027, at a CAGR of 7.26% during a forecast period. The report includes the analysis of impact of COVID-19 lock-down on the revenue of market leaders, followers, and disrupters. Since lock down was implemented differently in different regions and countries, impact of same is also different by regions and segments. The report has covered the current short term and long term impact on the market; same will help decision makers to prepare the outline for short term and long term strategies for companies by region.

The global immune health supplements market is driven by the increased awareness regarding the benefits of the immune health supplements among consumers. Increasing consumption of immune health supplements around the globe, which is anticipated to drive the immune health supplements market growth in the forecast period. The rise in chronic diseases around the globe, which is influencing the demand for immune health supplements. In addition, rising demand for the immune health supplements coupled with changing lifestyles of consumers across global, which is also estimated to fuel the global immune health supplements market growth in a positive way. Increased investments in R&D are driving the global immune health supplements market growth in a positive way. However, lack of awareness regarding immune health supplements among consumers is expected to hamper the global immune health supplements market growth in the forecast period.

COVID-19 Impact on Vaccines & Drugs Market – Global Forecast to 2025

The global COVID-19 vaccines market is projected to reach USD 1,401 million by 2025 from USD 2,273 million in 2022, at a CAGR of -14.9% during the forecast period. The growth of the COVID vaccines market is attributed majorly to the rising number of people infected with COVID-19 and increasing funding for vaccine development.

On the other hand, the global COVID-19 drugs market is projected to reach USD 2 million by 2025 from USD 165 million in 2020, at a CAGR of -57.8% during the forecast period. The growth of the COVID drugs market is primarily attributed to use of repurposed drugs for compassionate use, and the emergence of alternative therapies such as convalescent plasma therapy which were earlier used for treating epidemic diseases such as SARS, MERS, and H1N1. Moreover, collaborations between global organizations and governments of various nations to promote the supply of essential drugs and medical supplies are fueling the market growth.

Currently, the R&D landscape for COVID-19 vaccines includes 115 vaccine candidates. The most advanced candidates that have recently moved into clinical development are:

  • mRNA-1273 from Moderna
  • Ad5-nCoV from CanSino Biologics
  • INO-4800 from Inovio
  • LV-SMENP-DC and pathogen-specific aAPC from Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute

VACCINE MANUFACTURING RAMP-UP TO DRIVE THE GROWTH FURTHER
 

Currently, around 155 molecules are under clinical investigation, and about 45 molecules are under preclinical development to be targeted against COVID-19. In this list, four promising drugs have been repurposed for use against COVID-19.

Remdesivir
Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine
Lopinavir and ritonavir (and that same combination plus interferon-beta)
An immune system messenger that can help stop the multiplication of viruses.

CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS

Abstracts will be reviewed by the Abstract Review Board (ARB) of the conference

Andrea NicoliniClinical ResearcherUniversity of Pisa, Italy
BIOGRAPHYDr. Nicolini graduated (summa cum laude) at School of Medicine, University of Pisa in 1974. He received postgraduate diplomas at University of Pisa in Internal Medicine (1980), Pneumology (1984), and Nuclear Medicine (1986). His research interests include breast and gastrointestinal cancer and their metastases, tumour markers, post-operative follow-up, physiopathology, immunology and immunotherapy of cancer, and thyroid tumours.RESEARCHES :breast and gastrointestinal cancerLyudmyla SymochkoAssociate ProfessorInstitute of Agroecology and Environmental ManagementUzhhorod National University, Ukraine
BIOGRAPHYSymochko Lyudmya is a specialist in environmental microbiology and soil ecology. Since 2008 she has focused on autecology and synecology researches of soil microbiota. She explores the soil resistome and the role of natural and transformed ecosystems as reserves of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. She developing and improving existing methods of bioindication and biotesting the edaphotops in different biogeocenosis. She is an author of over 120 scientific publications and 55 in professional journals.RESEARCHES :soil resistome and human healthAhmed HegaziProfessorMicrobiology and ImmunologyNational Research Center, Egypt
BIOGRAPHYAhmed Hegazi is currently a Professor of Microbiology and Immunology in the National Research Center, Egypt. Prof. Hegazi received his master’s degree in 1979 and his PhD in 1981. Hegazi’s research work has been focused lately on bee products and their therapeutic effects. Hegazi organized and contributed to national and international research projects since 1977 and up till now; he has been the principal investigator on multiple research projects within the National Research Center. He has published 222 scientific papers and articles in national and international journals. He also served on the board of multiple national and international scientific journals. Dr. Hegazi is also the president of the Egyptian Environmental Society for Uses and Production of Bee Products, secretary of the Egyptian Society of Apitherapy, secretary general of the African Federation of Apiculture Associations, and a member of the International Apitherapy Commission (APIMONDIA).RESEARCHES :Prof. Hegazi’s research work has been focused lately on bee products and their therapeutic effects.Aaron LernerProfessorAesku.Kipp Institute. Wendelsheim, Germany
BIOGRAPHYAfter receiving his MD from the Sakler school of medicine, Tel-Aviv University (1976), Professor Lerner  specialized in Pediatrics ( 1982 ), Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (  1984 ) and Adult Gastroenterology ( 1987).  Took several senior positions as head of Department of pediatrics (1995-2005) and head of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition unit, at the Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. Finished his Medical Management degree M.H.A, at Ben- Gurion University, Beer-Sheba, Israel (1999), spent research sabbaticals in Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, PA, USA (1991), State University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C, U.S.A (2005) and currently, involved In scientific projects in Aesku.Kipp Institute, Wendelsheim, Germany.(2014-2020). RESEARCHES :pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of systemic autoimmune diseases (ADs) in particular gastrointestinal conditions and pediatric nutrition, nutritional assessment and deficiencies, celiac and Crohn’s diseasesGisele PicoloDirectorLaboratory of Pain and SignalingButantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil
BIOGRAPHYGisele Picolo graduated in Biology, obtained her master degree in Experimental and Comparative Pathology and her PhD in the field of Pharmacology. She is currently researcher at Butantan Institute and Director of the Laboratory of Pain and Signaling. She acts as principal investigator at the Center for toxins, immune response and cell signaling (CeTICS, Brazil) and as a collaborative researcher at the Center of excellence in the discovery of new molecular targets (CENTD, Brazil). She acts in the areas of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, acting mainly on the following themes: pain and inflammation, analgesia, animal poisons and toxins, and in the search for new analgesic compounds. She was awarded with the IASP Developing Countries Collaborative Research Grants, offered by the International Association for the Study of Pain in 2016, and awarded among the 5 best works in chronic pain during the 6th International Congress on Neuropathic Pain, Sweden, 2017. She is member of the National Commission for the Organization of the Brazilian Biology Olympics since 2018. She authored more than 45 publications (scientific articles, reviews, monographs, book chapters). She has 4 patents applied as inventor in the area of analgesics.RESEARCHES :Pathophysiology and Pharmacology

PROGRAM OVERVIEW

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