Twitter message for me about this blog from @saabdobrasil – 28 Following 35.3K Followers: ´´Thank you for share with us, Rodrigo! Congratulations for the job!´´ Obrigado, Rodrigo! Thank you a lot! Best wishes for you too!´´ – Saab do Brasil – Conta oficial da Saab do Brasil no Twitter. A Saab é uma empresa global de Defesa e Segurança. Estocolmo, Suécia.saab.com/br Joined July 2015 @ LinkedIn message for me from my LinkedIn contact Dr. Luciana Santos Serrão de Castro: ´´Oi Rodrigo, Boa noite! Muito interessante a tua linha de pesquisa, assim como, teu blog. Vou olhar com mais detalhe. Um abraco. :)´´ @ My New Twitter Followers & Images about messages I typed and sent to people read on yesterday’s live that Dr. Fauci (The White House) spoke to other person on Instagram @ THE ROLE OF REFERENCING IN SCIENTIFIC WRITING – April 03, 2020 @ The Importance of Proper Citation of References in Biomedical Articles & Thomas Mensah: the pioneer of fiber optics and nanotechnology @ Facebook message for me from my Facebook contact Jose Cordeiro to participate personaly in TransVision 2021 in Madrid, Spain. Note: One of the speakers is Ray Kurzweil. The group of speakers in this event is made up of very influential people in the global scientific community. Facebook Messages for me from Jose Cordeiro: ´´Great to connect here, and let me welcome you personally to our global futures summit TransVision 2021 in beautiful Madrid after the pandemic, it will be immortal, literally, so kindly put it in your agenda and share with your friends, please: https://www.transvisionmadrid.com/´´ Fantastic, congratulations on your work and also welcome your friends to beautiful Spain next October… Live Long and Prosper… https://lifeboat.com/ex/big.chronology.of.life.on.earth´´ @ Other Relevant Images and Links & YouTube Videos: Innovation is Not Efficient | Simon Sinek — What is Innovation? – Science of Innovation — The Reality Behind Scientific Discoveries and Technological Innovations @ Observação/Note: I won a scholarship by FAPEMIG during the period of ´´my´´ monograph in Uberaba. Ganhei bolsa de estudo pela FAPEMIG durante o período da ´´minha´´ monografia em Uberaba. During the period that I participated of ´´my´´ dissertation at FAMERP, I didn’t win a scholarship. Já durante o mestrado que fiz na FAMERP, não ganhei bolsa de estudo. @ Very Important Websites, Links and Social Networks of the World

The diffusion of relevant information and knowledge is essential for a country progress always!!

A difusão de relevantes informações e conhecimentos é sempre essencial para o progresso de um país!!

links-of-this-blog-part-1

links-of-my-blog-part-2

Informações relevantes relacionadas à leitura de livros e seus aspectos interligados no ambiente escolar – Rodrigo Nunes Cal – Parte 1 @ RELEVANT INFORMATION RELATED TO BOOK READING AND ITS INTERCONNECTED ASPECTS IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT – RODRIGO NUNES CAL – PART 1 

Informações relevantes relacionadas à leitura de livros e seus aspectos interligados no ambiente escolar – Rodrigo Nunes Cal – Parte 2 @ RELEVANT INFORMATION RELATED TO BOOK READING AND ITS INTERCONNECTED ASPECTS IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT – RODRIGO NUNES CAL – PART 2

  • – >Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics – ´´My´´ Dissertation @ #energy #time #tempo #energia #life #health #saúde #vida #people #person #pessoa #pessoas #reading #leitura #vision #visão #Innovation #internet #history #história #Graphics #Gráficos #dissertation #dissertação #mestrado #research #pesquisa #details #detalhes #thoughts #thinking #reflection #reflexão #pensamentos #importance #communication #comunicações #importância #information #knowledge #informações #conhecimento #Ciência #Science #data #dados #diffusion #difusão #countries #países #cell #DNA #Célula #RNA #substances #drugs #vaccines #TherapeuticalSubstances #efficacy #eficiência #diagnosis #prognosis #treatment #disease #UnknownDiseases #name #times #influences #longevity #age #ages #test #humans #AnimalTesting #MedicalDevices #tests #laboratories #investmens #researches #references #citations #ImpactFactor #journals


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – ´´My´´ Dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 1 – ´´My´´ Dissertation

GRUPO_AF2 – ´´My´´ Dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 2 – ´´My´´ Dissertation

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation

Do the downloads !!! Share!! Thanks!!

´´The world people need to have very efficient researches and projects resulting in very innovative drugs, vaccines, therapeutical substances, medical devices and other technologies according to the age, the genetics and medical records of the person. So, the treatment, diagnosis and prognosis will be very efficient and better, of course´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2021/08/14/do-the-downloads-of-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-data-of-the-world-about-my-dissertation-like-the-graphics-i-did-about-the-variations-of-weights-of-all-mice-control/

Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1

GRUPO_AF2

GRUPO AFAN 1

GRUPO AFAN 2

Slides – mestrado

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – ResumoMestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and GraphicsBaixarRedefine Statistical SignificanceBaixar

´´We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance from 0.05 to 0.005 for claims of new discoveries.´´ https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0189-z Published:  Daniel J. Benjamin, James O. Berger, […]Valen E. Johnson Nature Human Behaviour volume 2, pages6–10 (2018)

Um mundo além de p < 0,05 « Sandra Merlo – Fonoaudiologia da Fluência

Observação/Note: I won a scholarship by FAPEMIG during the period of ´´my´´ monograph in Uberaba. Ganhei bolsa de estudo pela FAPEMIG durante o período da ´´minha´´ monografia em Uberaba. During the period that I participated of ´´my´´ dissertation at FAMERP, I didn’t win a scholarship. Já durante o mestrado que fiz na FAMERP, não ganhei bolsa de estudo.

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  • Luciana Serrão de Castro
  •  Conexão de 1º grau1º

Geneticist ǀ Variant/NGS Analyst, PhD

http://lattes.cnpq.br/

https://www.escavador.com/sobre/5081469/luciana-santos-serrao-de-castro

´´Possui graduação em Ciências Biológicas Mod Biologia pela Universidade Federal do Pará (2004) e Mestrado em Genética e Biologia Molecular pela Universidade Federal do Pará (2006). Doutorado pela Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.Tem experiência na área de Genética, com ênfase em Genética Humana e Médica, atuando principalmente em surdez genética.´´

Acta Inform Med. 2013; 21(3): 148–155.Published online 2013 Sep. doi: 10.5455/aim.2013.21.148-155PMCID: PMC3804522PMID: 24167381

The Importance of Proper Citation of References in Biomedical Articles

Izet Masic

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804522/

Hand inserts a molecule into DNA concept design.

https://www.sydney.edu.au/news-opinion/news/2020/11/26/unexpected-discovery-about-stem-cell-immortality-study.html?fbclid=IwAR2a6BhWBqjSm4FIpJgpHBL1h_Rjj2tl5v9t7dTEV8yFB5Bv4K60u_KVsL0#

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41587-020-00794-3?fbclid=IwAR3UNcNAFf7tvDYfsLYsvDdBob1D0u7hQLKuGD2lyxonqWgUl4c-VzvaijI

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Big Chronology of Life on Earth

Big Chronology of Life on Earth

by Lifeboat Foundation Advisory Board member José Luis Cordeiro.

“Two possibilities exist: Either we are alone in the universe or we are not, both are equally terrifying.”

Sir Arthur C. Clarke, 1962

“Live long and prosper.
yIn nI’ yISIQ ‘ej yIchep (Klingon pronunciation).
dif-tor heh smusma (Vulcan pronunciation).”

Commander Spock from Vulcan in the Spaceship USS Enterprise, 2260
José Luis Cordeiro

Overview

To put into perspective a complete chronology and evolution of life on our tiny planet Earth, I summarize here what I consider the most relevant information from the very distant past to our immediate future. The objective is to reach a better understanding about the long-term evolution of life, including the power of exponential changes.

Big History is a new discipline that allows us to analyze with a multidisciplinary focus the way events follow each other throughout time. Starting with a huge time scale from the faraway past to the present, we can see that there is an acceleration of the speed of changes, that should continue now thanks to exponential technologies. My great futurist friend Ray Kurzweil, in his best-seller The Singularity is Near, does a good job explaining the acceleration of these changes, and that is why I use some of his predictions to the end of the 21st Century.

Interested readers are invited to contact me directly to continue making this chronology better in the future. All comments are more than welcome, and you can find more information about my book (with my great British co-author David Wood) here.

Formation of the Moon

Millions of years ago (Ma)
~13,800 MaBig Bang and formation of the known Universe
~12,500 MaMilky Way Galaxy formation
~4,600 MaSolar System formation
~4,500 MaEarth formation
~4,300 MaFirst water concentration on Earth
~4,000 MaFirst unicellular life (prokaryotes without cellular nucleus)
~4,000 MaLUCA, our Last Universal Common Ancestor, was born
~3,500 MaOxygen concentration rises on Earth atmosphere
~3,000 MaFirst photosynthesis in simple unicellular organisms
~2,000 MaEvolution of unicellular prokaryotes (without nucleus) into eukaryotes (with nucleus)
~1,500 MaFirst multicellular eukaryote organisms
~1,200 MaFirst sexual reproduction (germinal and somatic cells appear)
~600 MaFirst invertebrate marine animals
~540 MaCambrian explosion and appearance of multiple species
~520 MaFirst vertebrate marine animals
~440 MaEvolution from marine life to terrestrial life (first plants on dry land)
~360 MaFirst terrestrial plants with seeds, and first crabs
~300 MaFirst reptiles
~250 MaFirst dinosaurs
~200 MaFirst mammals, and first birds
~130 MaFirst angiosperm plants (with flowers)
~65 MaExtinction of dinosaurs and development of primate
~15 MaHominidae family (big primates) appears
~3.5 MaFirst tools made of stone
~2.5 MaHomo gender appears
~1.5 MaFirst use of fire
~0.8 MaFirst time cooking was used
~0.5 MaFirst time clothes were used
~0.2 MaHomo sapiens species appears
~0.1 MaHomo sapiens sapiens comes out of Africa and starts colonizing planet Earth


Lascaux Cave Paintings

Thousands of years ago
< 40,000 BCRock paintings appear, symbols of deities, fertility, and death
< 20,000 BCLighter skin evolution due to migration to regions with less solar exposure
< 5,000 BCNeolithic proto-writing appears
< 4,000 BCPossible invention of the wheel in Mesopotamia
< 3,500 BCEgyptians invent hieroglyphs and Sumerians cuneiform writing
< 3,300 BCDocumented use of herbology and physiotherapy in China and Egypt
< 3,000 BCPapyrus was invented in Egypt and clay tablets were invented in Mesopotamia
< 2,800 BCChinese emperor Shennong compiles a text with acupuncture techniques
< 2.600 BCImhotep, priest and doctor, is considered the God of Medicine in Egypt
< 2,500 BCDocumented use of Ayurveda medicine in India
< 2,000 BCThe Code of Hammurabi establishes rules to exercise medicine in Babylon
650 BCAssurbanipal compiles 800 tablets about medicine in the library of Nineveh
450 BCXenophanes of Colophon examines fossils and speculates about the evolution of life
420 BCHippocrates writes the Hippocratic Treaties and creates the Hippocratic oath
350 BCAristotle writes about evolutionary biology and tries to classify animals
300 BCHerophilos of Chalcedon makes medical dissections on humans
100 BCAsclepiades of Bithynia imports Greek medicine to Rome and funds the Methodic School

Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders)

First millennium AD
180 ADGreek doctor Galen of Pergamon studies the connection between paralysis and the spinal cord
219 ADZhang Zhongjing publishes the Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders) in China
250 ADFoundation of a school of tribal medicine in Monte Alban, Mexico
390 ADOribasius of Pergamon compiles the Medical Collections in Constantinople
400 ADFirst Christian hospital founded by Saint Fabiola in Rome
630 ADIsidore of Seville compiles his great work The Etymologies
870 ADPersian doctor Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari writes a medical encyclopedia in Arab
910 ADPersian doctor Rasis identifies the difference between smallpox and measles


Benjamin Franklin wrote about curing aging and human preservation

1000 – 1799 AD
1030Persian polymath Avicenna writes the Canon of Medicine that would be used until the 18th Century
1204Pope Innocent III organizes the first Holy Spirit hospital in Rome
1403Quarantine against the Black Death pandemic in Venice (after already killing millions in Europe)
1541Swiss doctor Paracelsus made great progress in medicine (surgery and toxicology)
1553Spanish doctor Miguel Servet studies pulmonary circulation (and burnt at the stake for heresy)
1590Microscope is invented in the Netherlands and makes medicine move forward faster
1665English scientist Robert Hooke uses the microscope to identify cells (and popularizes that name)
1675Dutch scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek starts microbiology with microscopes
1774English scientist Joseph Priestley discovers oxygen and starts modern chemistry
1780US polymath Benjamin Franklin writes about curing aging and human preservation
1796English doctor Edward Jenner develops the first effective vaccine against smallpox
1798English scholar Thomas Malthus argues about food production and human overpopulation


High fashion
 when the world population hit one billion people in 1804

1800 – 1899 AD
1804Global population reaches 1,000,000,000 people
1804French doctor René Laennec invents the stethoscope
1809French scientist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposes the first theory of evolution
1818English doctor James Blundell performs the first successful blood transfusion
1828German scientist Christian Ehrenberg coins the word bacterium (“cane” in Greek)
1842US doctor Crawford Long accomplishes the first surgery with anesthesia
1858German doctor Rudolf Virchow publishes his cell theory
1859English scientist Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in London
1865Austrian monk Gregor Mendel discovers the laws of genetics
1869Swiss doctor Friedrich Miescher identifies DNA for the first time
1870Scientists Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch publish the microbial theory of infections
1882French scientist Louis Pasteur develops a vaccine against rabies
1890Walter Flemming and others describe the chromosome distribution during cellular division
1892German biologist August Weismann proposes the “immortality” of germ cells
1895German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers X-rays and their medical uses
1896French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity
1898Dutch scientist Martinus Beijerinck discovers the first virus and starts virology

1900 – 1959 AD
1905English biologist William Bateson coins the term genetics
1906English scientist Frederick Hopkins describes vitamins and associated illnesses
1906German doctor Alois Alzheimer describes the disease named after him
1906Santiago Ramón y Cajal receives the Nobel Prize for his studies about the nervous system
1911Thomas Hunt Morgan demonstrates that genes reside in chromosomes
1922Russian scientist Aleksandr Oparin proposes a theory about the origin of life on Earth
1925French biologist Edouard Chatton coins the words prokaryote and eukaryote
1927Global population reaches 2,000,000,000 people
1927First vaccines against tetanus and tuberculosis
1928English scientist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin (first antibiotic)
1933Polish scientist Tadeus Reichstein synthesizes the first vitamin (vitamin C, ascorbic acid)
1934Scientists working at Cornell University discover caloric restriction for life extension in mice
1938A coelacanth (considered a “living fossil”) was fished in the south of Africa
1950First synthetic antibiotic is developed
1951Artificial insemination of cattle starts with cryopreserved semen
1951HeLa (Henrietta Lacks) cancer cells are discovered to be “biologically immortal”
1952US doctor Jonas Salk develops a vaccine against poliomyelitis
1952US chemist Stanley Miller experiments about the origin of life
1952First cloning experiments with frog eggs are made
1953Scientists James D. Watson and Francis Crick demonstrate DNA’s double helix structure
1954US doctor Joseph Murray transplants the first human kidney
1958US doctor Jack Steele coins the word bionic
1959Global population reaches 3,000,000,000 people
1959Spanish scientist Severo Ochoa receives the Nobel Prize for his work about DNA and RNA


World Population hit 6 billion in 1999 (Prince 1999 video)

1960 – 1999 AD
1961Spanish biochemist Joan Oró advances his theories about the origin of life
1961US scientist Leonard Hayflick discovers a limit on cellular division
1967US academic James Bedford becomes the first patient in cryopreservation
1967South African doctor Christiaan Barnard makes the first human heart transplant
1972Discovery that the DNA composition in humans and gorillas is almost 99% similar
1974Global population reaches 4,000,000,000 people
1975Different scientists finally discover the telomeres (first considered in 1933)
1978First human being is born thanks to artificial insemination (Louise Brown in England)
1978Stem cells discovered in the blood of an umbilical cord
1980World Health Organization declares smallpox officially eradicated worldwide
1981First stem cells (from mice) developed “in vitro”
1982Humulin (drug for diabetes) is the first biotech product approved by the FDA
1985Australian-American biologist Elizabeth Blackburn identifies the telomerase enzyme
1986HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is identified as the cause of AIDS
1987Global population reaches 5,000,000,000 people
1990Human Genome Project starts as a great effort lead by several governments
1990First gene therapy is approved to treat an immune disorder
1990FDA approves the first genetically modified organism (Flavr Savr tomato)
1993US biologist Cynthia Kenyon increases several times the lifespan of C. elegans
1995US scientist Caleb Finch describes negligible senescence in some animals
1996Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut clones Dolly, first cloned mammal (a sheep)
1998First embryonic stem cells isolated in young human embryos
1999Global population reaches 6,000,000,000 people

2000 – 2019 AD
2001US scientist Craig Venter announces his sequence of the human genome (based on his own)
2002First artificial virus (polio virus) is completely created by scientists
2003Human Genome Project ends officially, with both public and private participation and projects
2003English scientist Aubrey de Grey and his colleagues create the Methuselah Foundation
2004SARS epidemy is contained a year after its start (genome sequenced in days)
2006Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka generates induced pluripotent stem cells in Kyoto
2008Spanish biologist María Blasco announces the life extension of mice at CNIO in Madrid
2009English scientist Aubrey de Grey and his colleagues create the SENS Research Foundation
2009Nobel Prize on Physiology and Medicine for studies on telomeres and telomerase
2010sFirst Bridge towards indefinite lifespans using current technologies (Ray Kurzweil)
2010US scientist Craig Venter announces the creation of the first artificial bacterium (Synthia)
2010Nobel Prize on Physiology and Medicine for the development of in vitro fertilization
2011Global population reaches 7,000,000,000 people
2011French researches achieve the rejuvenation of human cells “in vitro”
2012Nobel Prize on Physiology and Medicine for cloning and cell reprogramming (pluripotent cells)
2013First rat kidney produced “in vitro” in the USA
2013First human liver produced with stem cells in Japan
2013Google announces the creation of Calico (California Life Company) to cure aging
2014IBM expands the use of its intelligent medical system called Doctor Watson
2014Korean-American doctor Joon Yun creates the Palo Alto Longevity Prize
2015First experimental vaccine against the virus of Ebola hemorrhagic fever
2016Facebook chairman Mark Zuckerberg announces that it will be possible to cure “all diseases”
2016Microsoft scientists announce that they should be able to cure cancer within 10 years
2017Spanish scientist Juan Carlos Izpisúa announces that he has been able to rejuvenate mice 40%
2018First commercial treatment with gene therapy using CRISPR
2018Birth of first CRISPR babies to avoid HIV infections in China
2019FDA approval of the first senolytics treatments for life extension


Our Ray Kurzweil predicts that an AI will pass the Turing test in 2029

2020 AD – 2029 AD (some possibilities)
2020sSecond Bridge towards indefinite lifespans using biotechnology (Ray Kurzweil)
2020sWorldwide eradication of poliomyelitis
2020sWorldwide eradication of measles
2020sVaccine against malaria
2020sVaccine against HIV
2020sCure for the majority of cancers
2020sCure for Parkinson’s disease
2020s3D bioprinting of simple human organs
2020sCommercial cloning of human organs with own cells from patients
2020sBeginning of commercial rejuvenation treatments with stem cells and telomerase
2020sAI and robot doctors complement and supplement human doctors
2020sTelemedicine spreads worldwide
2020sFirst manned trips to Mars (Elon Musk)
2025Molecular assemblers (nanotechnology) are possible (Ray Kurzweil)
2023Global population reaches 8,000,000,000 people according to the United Nations
2026Global population reaches 8,000,000,000 people according to the US Census Bureau
2029Longevity escape velocity is reached (Ray Kurzweil)
2029An advanced AI finally passes Alan Turing’s test (Ray Kurzweil)


Ray Kurzweil predicts that cryopreserved patients will be reanimated in the 2050s

After 2030 AD (more possibilities)
2030sThird Bridge towards indefinite lifespans using nanotechnology (Ray Kurzweil)
2030sCure for Alzheimer’s disease
2030sWorldwide eradication of malaria
2030sWorldwide eradication of HIV
2030sConsolidation of the first human colony in Mars (Elon Musk)
2037Global population reaches 9,000,000,000 people according to the United Nations
2039Mental transfer from brain to brain becomes possible (Ray Kurzweil)
2040sFourth Bridge towards indefinite lifespans and immortality using AI (Ray Kurzweil)
2040sInterplanetary Internet connects to Earth, Moon, Mars, and spaceships
2042Global population reaches 9,000,000,000 people according to the US Census Bureau
2045Aging is cured and death becomes optional (Ray Kurzweil)
2045The Singularity: AI surpasses all human intelligence (Ray Kurzweil)
2049Distinction between reality and virtual reality disappears (Ray Kurzweil)
2050Humanoid robots win English football cup (British Telecom)
2050sFirst reanimations of cryopreserved patients (Ray Kurzweil)
2072Picotechnology starts (pico is one thousand times smaller than nano, Ray Kurzweil)
2099Femtotechnology starts (femto one thousand times smaller than pico, Ray Kurzweil)
2099Lifespan becomes irrelevant in a world of “amortality

José Luis Cordeiro, MBA, PhD is an international fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS), executive director of the Ibero-American Futurists Network (RIBER), director of The Millennium Project, vicechair of HumanityPlus (H+), and former director of the Club of Rome (Venezuela Chapter), the World Transhumanist Association (WTA), and the Extropy Institute (ExI). He has also been invited faculty at prestigious institutions like the Institute of Developing Economies IDE — JETRO in Tokyo, Japan, the Monterrey Institute of Technology in Mexico, Singularity University (SU) at NASA Ames in Silicon Valley, California, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and the Higher School of Economics (HSE) in Russia.

José Luis studied engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, MA, economics at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, management at the European Business School INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France, and science at Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB) in Caracas, Venezuela. He is a leading international expert on technological change and future trends. He has published more than 10 books in 5 languages and appeared in programs with the BBC, CNN, Discovery Channel, and History Channel, among many international media interviews. His recent book La muerte de la muerte has become an international best-seller in Spain and Latin America, published by Editorial Planeta in Madrid, Spain, with coauthor David Wood and prologue by Aubrey de Grey. He is a lifetime member of the Sigma Xi (ΣΞ), Tau Beta Pi (ΤΒΠ), and Beta Gamma Sigma (ΒΓΣ) honor societies.

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THE ROLE OF REFERENCING IN SCIENTIFIC WRITING

– The Role of Referencing in Scientific Writing

Scientific writing makes up an integral element within research. Of late, the pace at which findings of a research is communicated through diverse mediums such as thesis, books, conference papers and journal articles has substantially increased with widespread developments in technology and medicine. The findings from these researches are usually perceived as harbingers of development in the academic and scientific domain, driving further research or action. As is the case in any kind of academic writing, scientific writing too warrants the need for adequate references to correlate the findings with experiments conducted in the past or to indicate what researchers have said about a particular phenomenon. As a matter of fact, referencing and bibliography are vital components within a scientific paper. This article is essentially an attempt to highlight the key features, benefits and limitations of most commonly used referencing tools that can greatly improve the efficacy of scientific writing in research.The Objective of Referencing within Scientific WritingReferencing can be considered as a systematic and scientific technique to define a source of data by presenting a set of information that facilitates a particular text to be easily identified, sought and retrieved. Though referencing would specifically refer to information sources that are included within a scientific paper, the detailed list of sources is presented within the bibliography.Statements made by researchers in the past are validated with the help of in-text citations and also allows a link to be created between various studies which helps readers to compare and contrast their results.There are several styles of referencing that have been in use in the medical, scientific and other domains which would include:-

HARVARD REFERENCING STYLESOf course there are other styles of referencing that is used too but the above said three styles of referencing are the most commonly used styles for scientific writing.The Harvard and APA referencing styles would comprise of including the name of the author and the year of publication while the Vancouver style involves the use of numbers to denote a reference.

VANCOUVER REFERENCING STYLESThough the formats and styles might differ, the objective of referencing remains the same and presents the same information.

APA( American Psychological Association)Problems in Managing ReferencesThe most common problems that can arise during referencing is the large variation in categories of referencing which would include, formatting styles, data fields, wide range of materials that comprise of sections from books, whole books, conference papers and proceedings, journal articles, newspaper articles, patents, dissertations and thesis, legal documents, electronic articles etc., which can be used as appropriate data sources that can be cited. Nonetheless, the increased number of diverse fields of data for every single material that can be cited often gives rise to referencing that is incomplete or erroneous. Punctuations, formatting of text pertaining to bold, italics, basic short forms of the name of the journal or the author, listing the reference in chronological or alphabetical order and the format for in-text citations can vary substantially in different styles of referencing. In addition, in the case of Vancouver style referencing, the in-text citation numbers can undergo alteration if there is any addition or deletion in the text content. In view of these aspects, ensuring the correct referencing can be quite a challenge.The SolutionScientific writers today can circumvent these issues by leveraging several referencing tools that are either web-based or non-web based. These tools are automated and can be effectively utilized to distinctly recognize and save the relevant data fields within a reference wherein diverse rules for formatting can be applied to separate elements to match the requirements of diverse referencing styles. The most appropriate referencing software will be built to support various operating systems, facilitate references to be organized and segregated within folders and groups, attach files, import and export diverse file formats, can be easily integrated with common word processers, facilitates connectivity with the database to allow literature search and customize the styles of referencing. There are several referencing software available amongst which the oldest software includes Thomson Reuters’ Reference Manager and EndNote. However, there are other referencing software too which can be effectively utilized. Another option would be to outsource the task of referencing the scientific document to third party organizations such as Medical Writing Experts.How Medical Writing Experts can helpMedical Writing Experts are one such organization that has been active in this domain for over a decade now. Medical Writing Experts not only enables research writers to easily reference their scientific papers but they are also a leading global provider of scientific, clinical and medical communication services to pharmaceutical, biotech, medical device companies and researchers, scholars, academic societies and publishers. We have experience in scientific publications services referencing in accordance to the target journal as well as the regulations and norms set in different countries and different continents. Some of which are, Bulgaria, France, India, Germany, Poland, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Russia, Czech Republic, Israel, SriLanka, Latvia and Lithuania. Scholars and organizations alike can stand to gain immensely by availing the services of Medical Writing Experts.Realted TopicsScientific Writing Servicesclinical research organization servicesmedical writing servicesMedical Device Regulatory Consulting Services

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Thomas Mensah: the pioneer of fiber optics and nanotechnology

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THEODORA AIDOO Mar 12, 2020 at 12:30pm

March 12, 2020 at 12:30 pm | SUCCESS STORYTECH & INNOVATION

Theodora Aidoo

THEODORA AIDOO | Staff Writer

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March 12, 2020 at 12:30 pm | SUCCESS STORYTECH & INNOVATION

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Theodora Aidoo is a young woman who is passionate about women-related issues. Her Love: To bring to fore the activities of women making a global impact. This stems from her journalism background from the Nigerian Institute of Journalism and Ghana Institute of Journalism.MOST POPULARRECENT ARTICLES

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Dr. Thomas Mensah, a nanotechnology expert and Ghana’s technology icon, is a pioneer in fiber optics manufacturing and communications systems.

He has contributed immensely to the development of fiber optics and nanotechnology. Fiber-optic communication is the use of light pulses to transmit data through cables from one place to another.

The Ghanaian-American engineer’s contribution to the process of making fiber optic cables has enhanced the cost-efficiency of producing those cables, paving the way for a much greater degree of fiber optics technologies at work in our world.

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Mensah was born in 1950 in Kumasi, Ghana. He could read newspapers and speak French fluently and was the main contact person between his father’s business and french clients. He also won different levels of the National French Contest (Le Grand Concours) between 1968 and 1970.

Whilst in high school, Mensah excelled in science and math and went on to study chemical engineering at the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in Ghana graduating in 1974.

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He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then studied chemical engineering at the University of Science and Technology at Montpellier, France where he graduated in 1978 with a Ph.D.

Dr. Mensah moved to the United States in 1980 after taking a job as a research engineer with Air Products & Chemicals of Allentown, PA.

Three years later, he joined the engineering team of Corning Glass Works in Corning, NY. He soon discovered that the fragility of the glass fiber-optic wires which the company manufactured caused them to snap easily if the drawing and coating phases of manufacturing fiber optics were configured to produce more than two meters per second of wire.

He discovered a solution that results in the fiber optic wire’s greater durability and increases in production at rates of up to 20 times the previous production speed without breaking.

His groundbreaking discoveries at Corning Glass Works was the beginning of his engineering career.

In 1986, he joined Georgia’s AT&T Bell Laboratories, now known as Bell Labs, where he was able to utilize fiber optics to create a guidance system for missiles that incorporated a small camera that was installed within the missile’s nose.

The images captured by that camera could be delivered to a pilot, giving them a technique for locking onto a target with incredible accuracy.

Reportedly, the fiber optics missile guidance systems were capable of working while traveling at the speed of sound and were utilized in Patriot missiles and other guided weaponry used by the United States in the Gulf War.

In December 1988, Dr. Mensah was part of a team of Corning inventors who were issued U.S. Patent No. 4792347, entitled Method for Coating Optical Waveguide Fiber. The patent protects the method of using carbon dioxide as a purge gas to reduce air entrainment and bubble inclusions in the liquid coating of a glass optical fiber.

Dr. Mensah is also one of two inventors listed on U.S. Patent No. 4636405, issued under the title Curing Apparatus for Coated Fiber.

He holds 14 patents with seven patents in fiber optics technologies over the course of six years.

Some of his inventions include semiconductors designed for space communications, tank gun barrel replacements and solid-state rechargeable cell phone batteries.

Dr. Mensah founded in Norcross, GA, a high tech firm called “Supercond Technologies”, which helped to develop advanced structural materials for American fighter aircraft.

Dr. Mensah is currently the president and director of Georgia Aerospace Systems Manufacturing, which is also focused on research and development in aerospace materials.

Dr. Mensah’s technological exploits have various recognition and award. He earned the Corning Glass Works Industrial Outstanding Contributor Award for Innovation in Fiber Optics, 1985; AT&T Bell Laboratories High-Performance Award, 1988; and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)’s William Grimes Award for Excellence in Chemical Engineering, 2006.

He got the Kwame Nkrumah African Genius Award in Ghana in 2017, The World Nanotechnology Conference Award in Dubai, 2019, Fellow recognition at the US National Academy of Inventors, Percy Julian Award in the US, AIChE 100 amongst others.

He has also authored five books on innovation including the international textbook “Nanotechnology Commercialization”.

Apart from creating Silicon Valley of Ghana, Dr. Mensah is involved in several high profile infrastructure programmes in the West African country that is aimed at helping Ghana reach 90 percent of its Sustainable Development Goals.

Dr. Mensah has been described as the Imhotep of Modern Times.

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Bem-vindo à Saab do Brasil

A Saab do Brasil trabalha com os clientes para apoiar o mercado de defesa e segurança da região. Nesta área de mercado, a Saab oferece produtos, serviços e soluções avançados, incluindo aeronaves de combate, sistemas de alerta aéreo, treinamento e simulação, C4I, defesa aérea terrestre e gerenciamento de tráfego aéreo e marítimo. Usando nosso pensamento inovador, colaborativo e pragmático, a Saab é o parceiro regional preferido para a defesa militar e a segurança civil no Brasil.

Nossa história

Há cerca de 70 anos, a Saab, empresa sueca de Defesa e Segurança, fundada em 1937, mantém relações com o Brasil. O primeiro negócio da companhia no país ocorreu na década de 1950, com a venda de sua primeira aeronave civil, o Saab Scandia. Esse foi o primeiro avião a pousar no Aeroporto de Brasília.

A partir do início da década de 1980, as vendas de produtos militares ocorreram por meio de representantes de vendas e, a desde 2009, a companhia mantém operações estabelecidas no país. Dentre as diversas soluções em uso nas Forças Armadas do Brasil estão o Sistema Míssil de Baixa Altura Telecomandado RBS 70, a arma anticarro AT-4, o canhão sem recuo multipropósito Carl Gustaf, o sistema de Alerta Aéreo Antecipado e Controle Erieye, equipamentos para treinamento e simulação, soluções de Guerra Eletrônica e o caça Gripen E/F.

O Brasil também é usuário de soluções para a segurança civil desenvolvidas pela Saab, como a plataforma de vigilância de superfície compartilhada que está instalada no Aeroporto Internacional Tom Jobim, no Rio de Janeiro, e no Aeroporto Afonso Pena, em Curitiba.

A partir de 2021, a Força Aérea Brasileira receberá as primeiras aeronaves Gripen na Ala 2, em Anápolis. A parceria para o desenvolvimento conjunto e fornecimento de 36 caças Gripen é o maior contrato de exportação da história da Suécia e o programa de transferência de tecnologia, certamente, é um dos mais expressivos globalmente.  Com contrato vigente desde 2014, a ampla parceria por conta do programa solidificou a posição da companhia no país e na América Latina.

Atualmente, cerca de 100 funcionários atuam nos escritórios de Brasília, São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro; na fábrica de aeroestruturas da Saab, responsável pela montagem do Gripen em São Bernardo do Campo (SP) e na Saab Sensores e Serviços do Brasil, também em São Bernardo do Campo, e no Centro de Projetos e Desenvolvimento do Gripen (GDDN), na planta da Embraer em Gavião Peixoto (SP).

Linha do tempo

1937

Fundação da Saab na Suécia 1950 – Saab fornece primeira aeronave civil para o Brasil, o Saab Scandia

1995

Exército Brasileiro adquire o canhão sem recuo Carl Gustaf e a arma anticarro AT4 (EB 1991 e Marinha 1991 )

2002

Aeronaves da Força Aérea Brasileira são equipadas com o sistema de Alerta Aéreo Antecipado e Controle Erieye

2008

Dispositivo de Simulação de Engajamento Tático (DSET), equipamento para treinamento e simulação, começa a ser utilizado pelo Exército Brasileiro

2009

Início da operação do escritório da Saab em Brasília.

Assinado o Protocolo Adicional de Cooperação em Tecnologia Industrial Altamente Inovadora entre Saab e Brasil.

2013

Saab é escolhida, junto a um consórcio, para fornecer sistemas de Guerra Eletrônica para o Sistema de Monitoramento de Fronteiras (Sisfron).

Governo Brasileiro escolhe a Saab para fornecer o caça Gripen à FAB.

2014

Saab assina contrato para o fornecimento de caças Gripen ao Brasil.

Saab assina contrato do fornecimento do RBS 70 para o Exército Brasileiro.

2016

RBS 70 é utilizado para a segurança do espaço aéreo durante as Olimpíadas Rio 2016.

Inauguração do Centro de Projetos e Desenvolvimento do Gripen (GDDN), em Gavião Peixoto (SP).

2017

Início da operação do escritório da Saab em São Paulo.

2018

Saab assina contrato com o Exército Brasileiro para fornecimento do RBS 70 NG.

Apresentação da fábrica de aeroestruturas da Saab,  em São Bernardo do Campo

2019

Início da operação do escritório da Saab no Rio de Janeiro

2020

Aquisição da Atmos pela Saab, que passa a se chamar Saab Sensores e Serviços do Brasil

Início de produção na fábrica de aeroestruturas da Saab

Brazilian Gripen E

Gripen para o Brasil

O programa Gripen fortalece os laços entre a Suécia e o Brasil. Em conjunto com a indústria local, a Saab está construindo uma parceria estratégica de longo prazo com o Brasil e com a Força Aérea Brasileira.Saiba mais

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Soluções integradas para múltiplos cenários

A Saab fornece sistemas de ponta para a defesa militar e segurança civil. Temos uma parceria de confiança e compromisso de longo prazo com o Brasil e cooperamos com a indústria local em programas conjuntos para desenvolver soluções avançadas.Conheça nosas Soluções

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5MARPRESS RELEASESaab divulga Relatório de Sustentabilidade 2020O documento anual mostra o propósito e o papel da empresa na sociedade e como ela visa gerar maior valor para seus stakeholders.3MARPRESS RELEASEGripen inicia ensaios em voo supersônico no BrasilO novo caça da Força Aérea Brasileira, F-39 E Gripen, iniciou a fase de ensaios em voo supersônico no Brasil.1MARPRESS RELEASESaab no Brasil entrega primeiro par de freios aerodinâmicos para o GripenA fábrica de aeroestruturas da Saab no Brasil concluiu a produção do primeiro par de freios aerodinâmicos do Gripen E.23FEVPRESS RELEASESaab entrega o terceiro GlobalEye para os Emirados Árabes UnidosNo dia 20 de fevereiro, a Saab entregou o terceiro GlobalEye para os Emirados Árabes Unidos, conforme calendário de entregas anteriores de abril e setembro de 2020.

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Read moreABOUT SAABSaab was founded in 1937 and since then we have come a long way.PRODUCTSFrom peacekeeping operations to real combat scenarios – today’s missions demand the seamless implementation of strategies.

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4MARPRESS RELEASE – REGULATORYSaab publishes its Annual and Sustainability Report 2020Saab’s annual and sustainability report for 2020 is as of today available on the Group’s website at www.saab.com.23FEBNEWSSaab receives order from the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy for Digital TowersSaab has signed a contract with the UK’s Royal Navy to provide a Digital Tower solution at Air Station Culdrose´s satellite airfield at Predannack. 20FEBPRESS RELEASESaab Delivers Third GlobalEyeSaab delivered the third GlobalEye aircraft to the United Arab Emirates on 20 February 2021.11FEBPRESS RELEASE – REGULATORYSaab Year-End Report 2020: Strong order intake and positive cash flowSaab presents the year-end results for 2020.

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Women who changed the world

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Literary mastery, pioneering science, life-saving discoveries and actions for peace and human rights – achievements of women around the world awarded the Nobel Prize.https://www.youtube.com/embed/b8GQchvStyg

Marie Curie

– discovered the elements radium and polonium

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Women who changed science: Maria Goeppert Mayer

For most of her career, Maria Goeppert Mayer worked “just for the fun of doing physics,” without pay or status or a tenured position. She was 58 before she became a full professor. And yet she made major contributions to the growing understanding of nuclear physics, including the revelatory nuclear shell model.

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

From bedside to bench

Many Nobel Laureates have often faced times of enormous disruption. Rita Levi-Montalcini faced many challenges on her road to the Nobel Prize. Born in Italy in 1909, her father did not believe in professional careers for women and did not let his daughters enroll at university. But Levi-Montalcini insisted on studying. The long road to the Nobel Prize included having to build a laboratory in her bedroom during World War II.

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“I have always loved going to school”

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“I was one of the first”

“I did not set out to be the first female engineer to break into this rarefied territory, but I was one of the first to be given the chance to show what she could do. Only the ninth woman to be hired on the Caltech faculty, I am the first female Nobel Laureate there. Many brilliant women have joined science and engineering faculties in my lifetime, and I predict that many more of the highest recognitions of women’s scientific contributions are coming.” – Chemistry Laureate Frances Arnold in her biography.

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Laureates share their thoughts

2019 Physics Laureates: Why I got into science

“I used to break apart stuff just to understand how it works”

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Nobel Prizes 2020

Black holes and the Milky Way’s darkest secret

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2020 was awarded with one half to Roger Penrose “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity” and the other half jointly to Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez “for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy”.

Genetic scissors: a tool for rewriting the code of life

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020 was awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the development of a method for genome editing”.

Hepatitis – a global threat to human health

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2020 was awarded jointly to Harvey J. AlterMichael Houghton and Charles M. Rice “for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus”.

A prominent poet in American contemporary literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2020 was awarded to the American poet Louise Glück “for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal”.

Combatting the threat of hunger

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The quest for the perfect auction

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2020 was awarded to Paul R. Milgrom and Robert B. Wilson “for improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats”.

Nobel Prize Lessons

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From genetic editing to combatting world hunger. An unmistakable poetic voice to black holes. New treatments for hepatitis C to the quest for the perfect auction. Now you can bring the discoveries and achievements made by the 2020 Nobel Laureates into the classroom.

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Nobel Prize DialogueTHE FUTURE OF WORKPretoria, South Africa, 18 May 2021Find out more

Alfred Nobel – Established the Nobel Prize

Alfred Nobel’s last will

On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris, France. The Swedish dynamite millionaire, who thought that his invention would end all wars, had now realised that it was a very deadly product. Wanting to make amends, he did what no man of such wealth had done before …

The very first Nobel Prizes

On 10 December 1901 the first Nobel Prizes were awarded, in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace. Read more about the first prizes.

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In memoriam

Paul J. Crutzen, 1933-2021

Chemistry Laureate Paul J. Crutzen passed away on 28 January. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for work in atmospheric chemistry, a work that led to extensive limitations on the release of ozone-damaging substances.

Physics Laureate Martinus J.G. Veltman dies

Martinus J.G. Veltman, was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions concerning electromagnetic and weak interactions of the building blocks of matter. He passed away on 4 January at age 89.

Jack Steinberger passes away aged 99

Physicist Jack Steinberger passed away on 12 December. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1988 after managing to create a beam of neutrinos using a high-energy accelerator.

Masatoshi Koshiba dies age 94

Masatoshi Koshiba passed away on 12 November. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2002 “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos.”

About the Nobel Prize organisation

The Nobel Foundation

Tasked with a mission to manage Alfred Nobel’s fortune and has ultimate responsibility for fulfilling the intentions of Nobel’s will.

The prize-awarding institutions

For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Laureates in each prize category.

Nobel Prize outreach activities

Several outreach organisations and activities have been developed to inspire generations and disseminate knowledge about the Nobel Prize.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

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AAAS logo
AbbreviationAAAS
PronunciationTriple-A S
FoundedSeptember 20, 1848 (172 years ago)
FocusScience education and outreach
LocationWilliam T. Golden Center for Science and Engineering
Washington, DC
Membersmore than 120,000
WebsiteAAAS.org
Formerly calledAssociation of American Geologists and Naturalists

Washington, D.C., office of the AAAS

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.[1] It is the world’s largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members,[2] and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science.

Contents

History[edit]

Creation[edit]

The American Association for the Advancement of Science was created on September 20, 1848, at the Academy of Natural Sciences in PhiladelphiaPennsylvania. It was a reformation of the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists.[3] The society chose William Charles Redfield as their first president[4] because he had proposed the most comprehensive plans for the organization. According to the first constitution which was agreed to at the September 20 meeting, the goal of the society was to promote scientific dialogue in order to allow for greater scientific collaboration.[5] By doing so the association aimed to use resources to conduct science with increased efficiency and allow for scientific progress at a greater rate.[6] The association also sought to increase the resources available to the scientific community through active advocacy of science. There were only 78 members when the AAAS was formed.[7] As a member of the new scientific body, Matthew Fontaine MauryUSN was one of those who attended the first 1848 meeting.[8]

At a meeting held on Friday afternoon, September 22, 1848, Redfield presided, and Matthew Fontaine Maury gave a full scientific report on his Wind and Current Charts. Maury stated that hundreds of ship navigators were now sending abstract logs of their voyages to the United States Naval Observatory. He added, “Never before was such a corps of observers known.”[7] But, he pointed out to his fellow scientists, his critical need was for more “simultaneous observations.” “The work,” Maury stated, “is not exclusively for the benefit of any nation or age.” The minutes of the AAAS meeting reveal that because of the universality of this “view on the subject, it was suggested whether the states of Christendom might not be induced to cooperate with their Navies in the undertaking; at least so far as to cause abstracts of their log-books and sea journals to be furnished to Matthew F. Maury, USN, at the Naval Observatory at Washington.”

William Barton Rogers, professor at the University of Virginia and later founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offered a resolution: “Resolved that a Committee of five be appointed to address a memorial to the Secretary of the Navy, requesting his further aid in procuring for Matthew Maury the use of the observations of European and other foreign navigators, for the extension and perfecting of his charts of winds and currents.” The resolution was adopted and, in addition to Rogers, the following members of the association were appointed to the committee: Professor Joseph Henry of Washington; Professor Benjamin Peirce of Cambridge, Massachusetts; Professor James H. Coffin of Easton, Pennsylvania, and Professor Stephen Alexander of Princeton, New Jersey.[9] This was scientific cooperation, and Maury went back to Washington with great hopes for the future.

In 1850, the first female members were accepted, they were: astronomer Maria Mitchell, entomologist Margaretta Morris, and science educator Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps.

Growth and Civil War dormancy[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

By 1860, membership increased to over 2,000. The AAAS became dormant during the American Civil War; their August 1861 meeting in Nashville, Tennessee, was postponed indefinitely after the outbreak of the first major engagement of the war at Bull Run. The AAAS did not become a permanent casualty of the war.

In 1866, Frederick Barnard presided over the first meeting of the resurrected AAAS at a meeting in New York City. Following the revival of the AAAS, the group had considerable growth. The AAAS permitted all people, regardless of scientific credentials, to join. The AAAS did, however, institute a policy of granting the title of “Fellow of the AAAS” to well-respected scientists within the organization. The years of peace brought the development and expansion of other scientific-oriented groups. The AAAS’s focus on the unification of many fields of science under a single organization was in contrast to the many new science organizations founded to promote a single discipline. For example, the American Chemical Society, founded in 1876, promotes chemistry.

In 1863, the US Congress established the National Academy of Sciences, another multidisciplinary sciences organization. It elects members based on recommendations from colleagues and the value of published works.

Advocacy[edit]

Alan I. Leshner, AAAS CEO from 2001 until 2015, published many op-ed articles discussing how many people integrate science and religion in their lives. He has opposed the insertion of non-scientific content, such as creationism or intelligent design, into the scientific curriculum of schools.[10][11][12][13]

In December 2006, the AAAS adopted an official statement on climate change, in which they stated, “The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human activities is occurring now, and it is a growing threat to society….The pace of change and the evidence of harm have increased markedly over the last five years. The time to control greenhouse gas emissions is now.”[14]

In February 2007, the AAAS used satellite images to document human rights abuses in Burma.[15] The next year, AAAS launched the Center for Science Diplomacy to advance both science and the broader relationships among partner countries, by promoting science diplomacy and international scientific cooperation.[16]

In 2012, AAAS published op-eds,[17] held events on Capitol Hill and released analyses of the U.S. federal research-and-development budget, to warn that a budget sequestration would have severe consequences for scientific progress.[18][19]

Sciences[edit]

AAAS covers various areas [20] of sciences and engineering. It has twelve sections, each with a committee and its chair. These committees are also entrusted with the annual evaluation and selection of Fellows (see: Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science). The sections are:

  • Astronomy
  • Engineering
  • Anthropology
  • Education
  • Medical Sciences
  • Biological Sciences
  • Industrial Science and Technology
  • Geology and Geography
  • History and Philosophy of Science
  • Agriculture, Food & Renewable Resources
  • Linguistics and Language Sciences
  • General Interest in Science and Engineering

Governance[edit]

AAAS officers and senior officials in 1947. Left to right, standing: SinnottBaitsellPayneLark-HorovitzMilesStakman, sitting: CarlsonMatherMoultonShapley.

The most recent Constitution of the AAAS, enacted on January 1, 1973, establishes that the governance of the AAAS is accomplished through four entities: a President, a group of administrative officers, a Council, and a Board of Directors.

Presidents[edit]

Main article: President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Individuals elected to the presidency of the AAAS hold a three-year term in a unique way. The first year is spent as President-elect, the second as President and the third as Chairperson of the Board of Directors. In accordance with the convention followed by the AAAS, presidents are referenced by the year in which they left office.

Geraldine Richmond is the President of AAAS for 2015–16; Phillip Sharp is the Board Chair; and Barbara A. Schaal is the President-Elect.[21] Each took office on the last day of the 2015 AAAS Annual Meeting in February 2015.[22][23] On the last day of the 2016 AAAS Annual Meeting, February 15, 2016,[24] Richmond will become the Chair, Schaal will become the President, and a new President-Elect will take office.

Past presidents of AAAS have included some of the most important scientific figures of their time. Among them: explorer and geologist John Wesley Powell (1888); astronomer and physicist Edward Charles Pickering (1912); anthropologist Margaret Mead (1975); and biologist Stephen Jay Gould (2000).

Notable Presidents of the AAAS, 1848–2005

Administrative officers[edit]

There are three classifications of high-level administrative officials that execute the basic, daily functions of the AAAS. These are the executive officer, the treasurer and then each of the AAAS’s section secretaries. The current CEO of AAAS and executive publisher of Science magazine is Rush D. Holt.[25]

Sections of the AAAS[edit]

The AAAS has 24 “sections” with each section being responsible for a particular concern of the AAAS. There are sections for agricultureanthropologyastronomyatmospheric sciencebiological sciencechemistrydentistryeducationengineering, general interest in science and engineering, geology and geography, the history and philosophy of sciencetechnologycomputer sciencelinguisticsmathematicsmedical scienceneurosciencepharmaceutical sciencephysicspsychology, science and human rights, social and political science, the social impact of science and engineering, and statistics.[26]

Affiliates[edit]

AAAS affiliates include 262 societies and academies of science, serving more than 10 million members, from the Acoustical Society of America to the Wildlife Society, as well as non-mainstream groups like the Parapsychological Association.[27]

The Council[edit]

The Council is composed of the members of the Board of Directors, the retiring section chairmen, elected delegates and affiliated foreign council members. Among the elected delegates there are always at least two members from the National Academy of Sciences and one from each region of the country. The President of the AAAS serves as the Chairperson of the Council. Members serve the Council for a term of three years.

The council meets annually to discuss matters of importance to the AAAS. They have the power to review all activities of the Association, elect new fellows, adopt resolutions, propose amendments to the Association’s constitution and bylaws, create new scientific sections, and organize and aid local chapters of the AAAS. The Council recently has new additions to it from different sections which include many youngsters as well. John Kerry of Chicago is the youngest American in the council and Akhil Ennamsetty of India is the youngest foreign council member.

Board of directors[edit]

The board of directors is composed of a chairperson, the president, and the president-elect along with eight elected directors, the executive officer of the association and up to two additional directors appointed by elected officers. Members serve a four-year term except for directors appointed by elected officers, who serve three-year terms.

The current chairman is Gerald Fink, Margaret and Herman Sokol Professor at Whitehead Institute, MIT. Fink will serve in the post until the end of the 2016 AAAS Annual Meeting,[28] 15 February 2016.[29] (The chairperson is always the immediate past-president of AAAS.)

The board of directors has a variety of powers and responsibilities. It is charged with the administration of all association funds, publication of a budget, appointment of administrators, proposition of amendments, and determining the time and place of meetings of the national association. The board may also speak publicly on behalf of the association. The board must also regularly correspond with the council to discuss their actions.

AAAS Fellows[edit]

Further information: Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

The AAAS council elects every year, its members who are distinguished scientifically,[30] to the grade of fellow (FAAAS). Election to AAAS is an honor bestowed by their peers and elected fellows are presented with a certificate and rosette pin. To limit the effects and tolerance of sexual harassment in the sciences, starting 15 October 2018, a Fellow’s status can be revoked “in cases of proven scientific misconduct, serious breaches of professional ethics, or when the Fellow in the view of the AAAS otherwise no longer merits the status of Fellow.”[31]

Meetings[edit]

Formal meetings of the AAAS are numbered consecutively, starting with the first meeting in 1848. Meetings were not held 1861–1865 during the American Civil War, and also 1942–1943 during World War II. Since 1946, one meeting has occurred annually, now customarily in February.

Awards and fellowships[edit]

Each year, the AAAS gives out a number of honorary awards, most of which focus on science communication, journalism, and outreach – sometimes in partnership with other organizations. The awards recognize “scientists, journalists, and public servants for significant contributions to science and to the public’s understanding of science.”[32] The awards are presented each year at the association’s annual meeting.

The AAAS also offers a number of fellowship programs.[33]

Currently active awards include[edit]

Publications[edit]

The society’s flagship publication is Science, a weekly interdisciplinary scientific journal. Other peer-reviewed journals published by the AAAS are Science SignalingScience Translational MedicineScience ImmunologyScience Robotics and the interdisciplinary Science Advances.[34][35] They also publish the non-peer-reviewed Science & Diplomacy.

EurekAlert![edit]

In 1996,[36] AAAS launched the EurekAlert! website, an editorially independent, non-profit news release distribution service[37] covering all areas of science, medicine and technology.[38][39][40] EurekAlert! provides news in English, Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Japanese,[41][39] and, from 2007, in Chinese.[42]

Working staff journalists and freelancers who meet eligibility guidelines can access the latest studies before publication and obtain embargoed information in compliance with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s Regulation Fair Disclosure policy.[43][44] By early 2018, more than 14,000 reporters from more than 90 countries have registered for free access to embargoed materials. More than 5,000 active public information officers from 2,300 universities, academic journals, government agencies, and medical centers are credentialed to provide new releases to reporters and the public through the system.[36][42][37]

In 1998, European science organizations countered Eurekalert! with a press release distribution service AlphaGalileo.[39]

EurekAlert! has fallen under criticism for lack of press release standards[45] and for generating churnalism.[46][47][48][49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “About AAAS”. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  2. ^ “About – AAAS MemberCentral”membercentral.aaas.org. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  3. ^ “150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS Origins: 1848–1899”. AAAS. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  4. ^ Reingold, Nathan (1964). Science in Nineteenth-Century America: A Documentary History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-226-70947-5.
  5. ^ “1856 AAAS Constitution”AAAS Archives & Records Center. AAAS. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  6. ^ “The How and Why of Scientific Meetings”. Visionlearning. 2011. Retrieved July 28,2016.
  7. Jump up to:a b “Sep. 20, 2013”. The Writer’s Almanac. September 20, 2013. Retrieved July 28,2016.
  8. ^ “Lt. Matthew Fontaine Maury”. Naval Oceanographic Portal. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  9. ^ “Articles of Incorporation of the American Association for the Advancement of Science”. AAAS. 1993. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  10. ^ “‘Academic Freedom’ Bill Dangerous Distraction,” Alan I. Leshner, The Shreveport Times 28 May 2008
  11. ^ “Anti-science law threatens tech jobs of future,” Archived 2009-04-29 at the Wayback Machine Alan I. Leshner, The Times-Picayune 6 May 2008
  12. ^ “Design: Critical Deception?,” Alan I. Leshner, Akron Beacon-Journal 11 September 2006
  13. ^ “Science and Public Engagement,” Alan I. Leshner, The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Chronicle Review 13 October 2006
  14. ^ AAAS Board Statement on Climate Change http://www.aaas.org December 2006
  15. ^ “Satellite Images Verify Myanmar Forced Relocations, Mounting Military Presence”. ScienceMode. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved October 1,2007.
  16. ^ “AAAS – AAAS News Release – “AAAS Opens New Center for Science Diplomacy to “Promote International Understanding and Prosperity”””. http://www.aaas.org.&nbsp;Archived from the original on May 12, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
  17. ^ “Stalling science threatens every domain of modern life” Archived 2013-04-30 at the Wayback Machine Alan I. Leshner, Bradenton Herald 27 September 2012
  18. ^ Edward W. Lempinen (November 21, 2012). “Sequestration Budget Cuts Would Cripple U.S. Scientific Progress, Experts Warn”AAAS.org.
  19. ^ “Federal and State Research Could Be Crippled by Looming Cuts, Says New AAAS Report” Earl Lane, AAAS 28 September 2012
  20. ^ “Committee on Sections”American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  21. ^ About AAASAAAS.org
  22. ^ AAAS Annual Meeting Archives (dates) Archived 2010-05-06 at the Wayback MachineAAAS.org
  23. ^ “Gerald R. Fink Chosen To Serve As AAAS President-Elect”AAAS.org
  24. ^ Future AAAS Annual Meetings (dates) Archived 2011-04-18 at the Wayback MachineAAAS.org
  25. ^ Rush D. HoltAAAS.org
  26. ^ AAAS Sections Archived 2009-06-17 at the Wayback MachineAAAS.org
  27. ^ list of affiliates starting with the letter P.
  28. ^ Board of DirectorsAAAS.org
  29. ^ 2016 AAAS Annual Meeting Archived 2015-09-28 at the Wayback MachineAAAS.org
  30. ^ “General Process”American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  31. ^ “Revocation Process”American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  32. ^ “AAAS Awards”AAAS.org. June 19, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ McNutt, Marcia; Leshner, Alan I. (February 14, 2014). “Science Advances” (PDF). Science343 (6172): 709. doi:10.1126/science.1251654PMID 24523283S2CID 206555690.
  35. ^ “Science Journals”. American Association for the Advancement of Science. August 21, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  36. Jump up to:a b “INSIDE EUREKALERT, THE NEWS HUB THAT SHAPES THE SCIENCE YOU READ”Wired.com.
  37. Jump up to:a b “Association of British Science Writers (ABSW)”http://www.facebook.com. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
  38. ^ “2017 top science news release breaks EurekAlert!’s all-time record”EurekAlert!. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
  39. Jump up to:a b c Kiernan, Vincent (2006). Embargoed Science. University of Illinois Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0252030970.
  40. ^ Anagnostelis, Betsy; Cooke, Alison; Welsh, Sue (2004). Finding and Using Health and Medical Information on the Internet. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-1135477424.
  41. ^ Hornig Priest, Susanna (2010). Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Communication, Volume 1. SAGE. p. 40. ISBN 9781412959209.
  42. Jump up to:a b “EurekAlert! celebrates 20 years forefront science communication”AAAS.org. AAAS.
  43. ^ Shipman, Matthew (2015). Handbook for Science Public Information Officers. University of Chicago Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780252030970.
  44. ^ Shipman, Matt (September 4, 2013). “Defining a Reporter: EurekAlert! and the Question of Access”Science Communication Breakdown.
  45. ^ “It’s time for AAAS and EurekAlert! to crack down on misinformation in PR news releases”HealthNewsReview.org. October 9, 2018. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  46. ^ Yong, Ed (January 11, 2010). “Adapting to the new ecosystem of science journalism”National Geographic Phenomena. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013.
  47. ^ Choi, Charles Q. (January 24, 2012). “From the Writer s Desk: The Dangers of Press Releases”Scientific American Blog Network.
  48. ^ Shipman, Matt (April 16, 2014). “The News Release Is Dead, Long Live the News Release”Science Communication Breakdown.
  49. ^ “Why science reporters were thrown for a loop this week”Christian Science Monitor. September 16, 2016. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved February 12, 2018.

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Science Journals

AAAS publishes six respected peer-reviewed journals. Science, the premier global science weekly; Science Signaling, the leading journal of cell signaling and regulatory biology; Science Translational Medicine, integrating medicine, engineering and science to promote human health; Science Advances, an innovative and high-quality open access journal for all the sciences; Science Immunology, research articles that report critical advances in all areas of immunological research, including important new tools and techniques; and Science Robotics, original, peer-reviewed, science- or engineering-based research articles that advance the field of robotics.

SCIENCE

Flooding damage in the Bahamas, from Hurricane Dorian in 2019, was remotely assessed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Earth Observatory of Singapore using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Europe’s Sentinel-1 satellites. By comparing SAR images acquired before and after the hurricane, researchers can see shifts in ground surface related to flooding (yellow and red indicate increasingly substantial surface change). A surge in SAR data is enabling researchers to study changes like these at finer scales and frequencies.

Image: ARIA, JPL-Caltech, Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, NASA Earth Applied Sciences Disasters Program. Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019)

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SCIENCE ADVANCES

More than one million people worldwide suffer from pulmonary fibrosis, a deadly disease in which damage in the lungs creates scar tissue that interferes with the lungs’ function. While both environmental (e.g. cigarette smoking) and genetic factors contribute to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease have proven difficult to understand. Due to the diverse cellular makeup of the lungs, single-cell technologies such as single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) provide a promising platform for scientists to unravel the lungs’ cellular complexity and pinpoint key molecular and cellular changes. Habermann et al. performed scRNA-seq of single-cell suspensions from 20 lungs with pulmonary fibrosis and 10 control lungs without the disease, providing a high-resolution view of the changes that occur in lung cells with pulmonary fibrosis, including a shift in epithelial cell phenotypes. In another study, Adams et al. profiled 312,928 nuclei from 32 lungs with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 28 smoker and non-smoker control lungs, and 18 lungs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both studies identified novel cell types/states including a population of abnormal profibrotic epithelial cells in lungs from patients with pulmonary fibrosis that simultaneously express epithelial, mesenchymal, aging, and developmental markers. [CREDIT: KROPSKI LAN, VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER]

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SCIENCE IMMUNOLOGY

Activating Acetylcholine Production. This month’s cover shows a section of mouse jejunum prepared seven days after infection with the helminth parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Hyperplasia of both yellow goblet cells (stained with the UEA-I lectin) and magenta tuft cells (expressing doublecortin-like kinase 1) is observed as part of the host immune response to this infection. Roberts et al. found that ILC2 synthesis and secretion of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine contributed to effective expulsion of the parasites. [CREDIT: NAVEEN PARMAR/NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY]

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SCIENCE ROBOTICS

Untethered soft robots walk this way. Pneumatic soft robots typically require bulky electromechanical components, such as pumps and valves, to achieve legged locomotion. To simplify the design of untethered quadruped robots, Drotman et al. use fluidic circuits, rather than electronic circuits, to achieve programmable locomotion in their robot. Specifically, a bioinspired gait pattern is achieved using a soft ring oscillator that produces rhythmic motions analogous to biological central pattern generator neural circuits found in nature. This month’s cover is a photograph of a Drotman et al. legged soft robot (see also the Focus by Rajappan et al.).[CREDIT: DROTMAN ET AL./SCIENCE ROBOTICS]

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SCIENCE SIGNALING

This week features a Research Article that demonstrates that systemic ROS signaling in response to localized light stress in Arabidopsis thaliana enhances stress tolerance throughout the plant and requires proteins that mediate the rapid enlargement of plasmodesmata pores. The image is an electron micrograph showing adjacent plant cells connected by an M-shaped plasmodesma, which crosses the cell walls and connects the cytoplasm of the two cells.

[Image: Fichman et al./Science Signaling]

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SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE

Insights into Nephrotoxicity. This image shows a cross section of a three-dimensional polarized human kidney proximal tubule cyst (green, aquaporin-1; red, actin; blue, nuclear stain). Cohen et al. studied drug-induced nephrotoxicity using vascularized human kidney cell spheroids in vitro. Exposure to cyclosporine and cisplatin disrupted cell polarity and caused toxicity due to glucose accumulation, which could be counteracted by inhibiting glucose reabsorption. Better kidney function and reduced markers of kidney damage were seen in patients treated with cyclosporine or cisplatin and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition, demonstrating the utility of this kidney spheroid platform to investigate mechanisms of drug-induced toxicity. [CREDIT: YAAKOV NAHMIAS/THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM]

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Sweden mulls law change to fight online hate against researchers

Academics and public health officials quit Covid-19 research or need police protection after attracting threats1 MarchLong-term reform debated as China prepares for more online tests 

Postgraduate admissions assessments may have digital element despite falling number of Covid casesBy Jing Liu 28 FebruaryCovid’s drain on US academic science starts raising alarm 

Toll on younger scientists highlights lack of research-specific pandemic aidBy Paul Basken 26 February

IN-DEPTH

By David Matthews

France’s elite universities face campus sexual assault reckoning

Campaigners say tight-knit elitism, boozy initiation weeks and a lacklustre administrative response have led to a culture of silence in grandes écoles26 FebruaryHow academia shunned the science behind the Covid vaccine 

Katalin Karikó’s struggle with mRNA gives universities mandate – if they want – to tackle persistent barriersBy Paul Basken 8 FebruaryOnline exams: is technology or authentic assessment the answer? 

Academics debate how best to test students’ learning at a distance and reduce cheating: remote invigilation or exercises that ask students to apply their knowledgeBy Anna McKie 28 January

FEATURES 

FeaturesBy Andy Farnell

We can’t teach in a technological dystopia

The pandemic brought out the best in teaching staff in many universities. Yet countervailing forces are stamping out their creativity, warns Andy Farnell4 MarchWill international recruitment survive Covid-19? 

The pandemic has prompted dire predictions about international student enrolment at anglophone universities. But will those fears come to pass? Is there an alternative to standard international education? And how much do universities really spend on recruitment agents? Ellie Bothwell reportsMariana Mazzucato: ‘I was sick of just being told: “You make me happy”’ 

After her first book, The Entrepreneurial State, catapulted her into the academic stratosphere, the UCL economist has paused her audiences with senior politicians to write a follow-up that uses the Apollo moonshot as a model for a mission-based approach to social challenges

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OPINION 

By Alexis Artaud de La Ferrière

Social sciences’ lack of common truth criteria invite political attack

Worries about Islamo-leftism in France and free speech in England reflect disciplines’ straddling of science and activism, says Alexis Artaud de La Ferrière5 MarchThe government is the biggest threat to French academic freedom 

The crackdown on ‘Islamo-leftism’ is a purely political move to court right-wing votes in the coming election, says William BaryloDoes the disembodied Zoom class boost gender equality? 

Teaching online renders women’s bodies invisible, but are their talking heads really judged on a par with men’s, asks Kate Eichhorn

Don’t underestimate what students have lost during the pandemicBy Bertus Jeronimus 4 March

AMRC founder Keith Ridgway

The UK needs a German lesson in levelling up By Keith Ridgway 3 March

Leaving lectures behind makes sense for our university – here’s whyBy Guy Daly 3 March

Carolyn Evans

Off-the-shelf models of university free speech need local packaging By Carolyn Evans 2 March

WORLD POLICY 

The developing world needs more specialist universities 

Pakistan’s labour shortages illustrate that well-rounded graduates also need to be properly prepared for specific industries, says Tahir Shah

EDITOR’S PICK

Another journal rejection? Put on your helmet 

Knock-backs are frequent and unavoidable. But treating referees’ comments with a hard-headed pragmatism lessens the sting, says Adrian Furnham

THE NEWSROOM BLOG 

A crack in the foundations 

International student mobility was the rock on which universities built their empire. With Covid turning prior certainties into unknowns, what now?

CAREERS 

By John McKendrick

Feedback is everywhere in academia – but more feedback is needed

John McKendrick has recently concluded that we are letting down unsuccessful job applicants by not providing full and constructive feedback27 FebruaryCareers Clinic: what’s your top self-care tip for pandemic working? 

THE’s Careers Clinic brings together the great and the good of higher education to answer a burning careers questionBrowse 6000+ global university jobs

BOOK REVIEWS 

Book of the weekBy Catherine Rottenberg

The New Internationalists, by Sue Clayton

Catherine Rottenberg applauds a bold attempt to forge a politics of solidarity in response to humanitarian crisis4 MarchIs Free Speech Racist?
, by Gavan Titley 

Martin Myers applauds a bold attempt to re-examine one of the sacred cows of liberal societiesA History of the Church through its Buildings, by Allan Doig 

James Stevens Curl has reservations about a broad overview of the development of Christianity through its architectureBooks interview: Alicia Walker 

The sociology professor tells Matthew Reisz about her rural childhood, satisfying a hunger for the wider world through reading, and her (scholarly) interest in unfaithful menThe Hidden Spring: A Journey to the Source of Consciousness, by Mark Solms 

Anil Seth has mixed feelings about an ambitious study of consciousness that draws extensively on psychoanalysis

SHELF LIFE 

Books interview: Alicia Walker 

The sociology professor tells Matthew Reisz about her rural childhood, satisfying a hunger for the wider world through reading, and her (scholarly) interest in unfaithful men

WHAT ARE YOU READING? 

What are you reading? – March 2021 

Our regular look over the shoulders of our scholar-reviewers

SUMMITS 

  • Innovation & Impact Summit 19 April – 22 April 2021Cultivating resilience, changing the worldNow, more than ever, society is looking to the global research community to respond to emerging challenges. This virtual summit will examine how academia, government and industry can align to support all facets of society. The summit will also see the live reveal of the THE Impact Rankings 2021.EARLY BIRD DISCOUNTBOOK BY 22 MAR 2021IN PARTNERSHIP WITHRANKING REVEAL
  • Asia Universities Summit 1 June – 3 June 2021Aichi, JapanCrossing boundaries, unlocking creativityTHE’s first summit in Japan will discover how the country’s spirit of innovation lives in research, education and collaborations with industry, and will feature the reveal of the THE Asia University Rankings 2021.EARLY BIRD DISCOUNTBOOK BY 30 APR 2021IN PARTNERSHIP WITHRANKING REVEAL

Innovation and Impact Summit seeks to build on Covid response

Sustainability in a post-pandemic world the focus of THE event held in partnership with Auckland and Penn StateTimes Higher Education rankings: 2021 schedule announced

Rankings portfolio will include new league table on the Arab WorldMore than 1,000 universities submit data for impact ranking

Russia leads on number of submissions but institutions across a record 98 territories take partWhat does the pandemic mean for university reputation? 

Communications experts at leading universities say Covid-19 could be ‘make or break’ for institutions’ prestige 

RANKINGS 

By Ellie Bothwell

One-fifth of the world’s top universities led by women

Number of female vice-chancellors at high-ranking institutions has reached new milestone based on THE World University Rankings data 5 MarchRomanian universities are becoming increasingly homogeneous 

Higher education reforms promised differentiation, but a failure to implement bold changes and a lack of desire for innovation are resulting in the opposite trend, says Liviu AndreescuAccess all our rankingsTHE Emerging Economies University Rankings 2021: methodology

The Emerging Economies University Rankings 2021 focus on a unique group of institutions. To ensure that they are judged properly, we adjust the performance indicators in our World University RankingsAccess all our rankingsTimes Higher Education rankings: 2021 schedule announced

Rankings portfolio will include new league table on the Arab WorldAccess all our rankingsMore than 1,000 universities submit data for impact ranking

Russia leads on number of submissions but institutions across a record 98 territories take partAccess all our rankingsTHE to launch new Arab University Rankings

Methodology will be based on framework of World University Rankings, but include some bespoke elementsAccess all our rankingsDutch universities ‘have strongest global reputations’ 

THE analysis finds that UK and Canadian systems are also among most prestigious, while Australian universities are losing international statureAccess all our rankings

Facing the challenge of uncertainty in higher education

PA Consulting hosted a debate at THE Live 2019 between four senior leaders about leading universities in an era of unprecedented complexityPromoted by PA ConsultingSPONSORED

What it takes to get a condom on the shelf

For pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the journey from inspiration to realisation is a long one.Promoted by University of WollongongSPONSORED

How has the coronavirus accelerated the future of assessment?

As universities transform teaching and learning online, Jisc urges institutions to meet five future assessment goals by 2025Promoted by JiscSPONSOREDClose

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Times Higher Education rankings: 2021 schedule announced

Rankings portfolio will include new league table on the Arab WorldFebruary 25, 2021Ellie BothwellTwitter: @elliebothwell

data

Source: iStock

Times Higher Education has confirmed the schedule for its portfolio of university rankings for the 2021 calendar year.

After the publication of the 2021 list of the world’s most international universities on 28 January, the next release will be the Emerging Economies University Rankings, which will be launched at the Southern Africa Impact Forum on 9 March. Later that month, the Japan University Rankings will be launched on 25 March, and the results will provide a glimpse into how students in the country have found the experience of teaching and learning during the pandemic.

In April, we will publish the third edition of our Impact Rankings, which will include more than 1,200 universities across 98 countries/regions. The results will be revealed at the virtual Innovation & Impact Summit on 21 April.

June will see the release of the Asia University Rankings and the Young University Rankings. The former will be launched at our Asia Universities Summit on 2 June, while the latter will be revealed at the Young Universities Summit on 23 June.

The Latin America University Rankings will be published on 13 July. We will also be launching a new ranking for the Arab World in July – our first ranking on the region with a bespoke methodology. The full methodology for the inaugural Arab University Rankings will be announced in May.

Our World University Rankings 2021 will be released on 1 September at our flagship World Academic Summit, which will be on the theme ‘How powerful is place?’. This will be followed by the release of our 11 subject rankings tables.

In October, we will release the World Reputation Rankings at the Leadership & Management Summit. Our US College Rankings will be published in the autumn too, at a date to be confirmed.


Full 2021 rankings schedule (click on a ranking below to view the latest edition)

ellie.bothwell@timeshighereducation.comRead more about: World University RankingsRankings

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Times Higher Education subscriptions

Subscribe

If you like what you’re reading online, why not take advantage of our subscription and get unlimited access to all of Times Higher Education‘s content?

You’ll get full access to our website, print and digital editions.SubscribeClose

By using the THE website you agree to our use of cookies as described in our cookie policy.OKSkip to main contentTimes Higher Education

×

Close

Times Higher Education rankings: 2021 schedule announced

Rankings portfolio will include new league table on the Arab WorldFebruary 25, 2021Ellie BothwellTwitter: @elliebothwell

data

Source: iStock

Times Higher Education has confirmed the schedule for its portfolio of university rankings for the 2021 calendar year.

After the publication of the 2021 list of the world’s most international universities on 28 January, the next release will be the Emerging Economies University Rankings, which will be launched at the Southern Africa Impact Forum on 9 March. Later that month, the Japan University Rankings will be launched on 25 March, and the results will provide a glimpse into how students in the country have found the experience of teaching and learning during the pandemic.

In April, we will publish the third edition of our Impact Rankings, which will include more than 1,200 universities across 98 countries/regions. The results will be revealed at the virtual Innovation & Impact Summit on 21 April.

June will see the release of the Asia University Rankings and the Young University Rankings. The former will be launched at our Asia Universities Summit on 2 June, while the latter will be revealed at the Young Universities Summit on 23 June.

The Latin America University Rankings will be published on 13 July. We will also be launching a new ranking for the Arab World in July – our first ranking on the region with a bespoke methodology. The full methodology for the inaugural Arab University Rankings will be announced in May.

Our World University Rankings 2021 will be released on 1 September at our flagship World Academic Summit, which will be on the theme ‘How powerful is place?’. This will be followed by the release of our 11 subject rankings tables.

In October, we will release the World Reputation Rankings at the Leadership & Management Summit. Our US College Rankings will be published in the autumn too, at a date to be confirmed.


Full 2021 rankings schedule (click on a ranking below to view the latest edition)

ellie.bothwell@timeshighereducation.comRead more about: World University RankingsRankings

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More than 1,000 universities submit data for impact rankingBy Ellie Bothwell 24 FebruaryTHE to launch new Arab University RankingsBy Ellie Bothwell 12 FebruaryTHE World University Rankings 2022: time to submit your dataBy Ellie Bothwell 22 JanuaryA new view of university reputationBy Duncan Ross 13 January

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BPP UNIVERSITYRecruiter logo

Assistant Professor, Geology

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNIVERSITYSee all jobs

Uncertainty creates opportunities for young universities

A Huawei book launch and roundtable Q&A discussed how to negotiate disruption in a new era of technology and communicationsPromoted by HuaweiSPONSOREDClose

Times Higher Education subscriptions

Subscribe

If you like what you’re reading online, why not take advantage of our subscription and get unlimited access to all of Times Higher Education‘s content?

You’ll get full access to our website, print and digital editions.SubscribeClose

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