There was no statistically significant difference. And now? @ Top 10 ways to save science from its statistical self – Null hypothesis testing should be banished, estimating effect sizes should be emphasized – By Tom Siegfried JULY 10, 2015 AT 9:00 AM – As 10 melhores maneiras de salvar a ciência de seu teste estatístico de hipótese nula devem ser banidas, estimando tamanhos de efeito deve ser enfatizado @ Não houve diferença estatística significativa. E agora? @ Um mundo além de p < 0,05 – A world beyond p < 0.05 – OCT 14, 2019 | BY SANDRA MERLO | STATISTIC – “The American Statistician” is a scientific journal on statistics published by the “American Statistical Association”. The journal has been published since 1947 and reached a high impact factor in 2018 (5,381). In early 2019, the magazine published a supplement to issue 73, which was titled “Statistical Inference in the 21st Century: A World Beyond p < 0.05”. The entire supplement is open access. Both the editors and the researchers who wrote for this supplement argue that the procedure of using only the p-value to make decisions about what is and is not statistically significant is incorrect. The “American Statistical Association” had already commented on the subject in 2016, through the publication of the manifesto “ASA Statement on p-Values ​​and Statistical Significance”, in which it warned the scientific community about the misuse of the p-value. Now, through their scientific journal, they are making the same warning again. The matter was also recently discussed in the journal Nature (“Scientists rise up against statistical significance”). Um mundo além de p < 0,05 – OUT 14, 2019 – O foco exagerado em p < 0,05 prejudica o raciocínio estatístico e produz distorções na literatura científica. “The American Statistician” é uma revista científica sobre estatística publicada pela “American Statistical Association”. A revista é publicada desde 1947 e atingiu alto fator de impacto em 2018 (5.381). No início de 2019, a revista publicou um suplemento ao número 73, o qual foi intitulado “Statistical Inference in the 21st Century: A World Beyond p < 0.05”. Todo o suplemento é de acesso aberto. Tanto os editores, quanto os pesquisadores que escreveram para este suplemento argumentam que é incorreto o procedimento de utilizar apenas o valor do p para tomar decisões sobre o que é ou não é significante em estatística. A “American Statistical Association” já havia se pronunciado em 2016 sobre o assunto, através da publicação do manifesto “ASA Statement on p-Values and Statistical Significance”, no qual alertava a comunidade científica sobre o mau uso do valor do p. Agora, através de sua revista científica, eles voltam a fazer o mesmo alerta. O assunto foi também recentemente discutido na revista Nature (“Scientists rise up against statistical significance”). @ Published: 01 September 2017 – Redefine Statistical Significance – We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance from 0.05 to 0.005 for claims of new discoveries – Daniel J. Benjamin, James O. Berger, […]Valen E. Johnson Nature Human Behaviour volume 2, pages6–10 (2018) @ EDITORIAL 20 March 2019 – It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance – Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better. @ COMMENT 20 March 2019 – Scientists rise up against statistical significance – Valentin Amrhein, Sander Greenland, Blake McShane and more than 800 signatories call for an end to hyped claims and the dismissal of possibly crucial effects. Valentin Amrhein , Sander Greenland & Blake McShane @ The ASA Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose – Ronald L. Wasserstein &Nicole A. LazarPages 129-133 | Accepted author version posted online: 07 Mar 2016, Published online:09 Jun 2016 @ American Statistical Association & ´´Não houve diferença estatística significativa. E agora? A frase “não houve diferença estatística significativa” soa quase como uma sentença de morte para muitos alunos de graduação, pós-graduação e até mesmo para alguns pesquisadores. Isso é importante, pois resultados negativos também são resultados, tão válidos quanto os positivos, e sua publicação evita a duplicação de esforços, ou seja, cientistas da mesma área não irão tentar os mesmos experimentos (Vianna, 2001). Além disso, a publicação deste tipo de artigo abre espaço para a discussão sobre os motivos pelos quais os experimentos não tiveram os resultados esperados. O resultado é o mesmo: economia de tempo e de recursos. Uma prova de que essa percepção é importante é o surgimento de revistas como o Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine, o Journal of Negative Results – Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, o Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, o Journal of Interesting Negative Results, entre outros, que publicam apenas pesquisas de refutação de hipóteses. Outro periódico, o Journal of Errology, publicou durante anos apenas os resultados de pesquisas que NÃO deram certo, como protocolos que não funcionaram como deveriam ou então erros que invalidaram a pesquisa. Esse periódico possuía um sistema de revisão aberto, feito por meio de discussões online. Entretanto, em alguns casos, não encontrar diferença estatística significativa é tão relevante quanto encontrá-la. Afinal, se você faz Ciência e não está cometendo erros, então provavelmente você não está fazendo isso certo!´´ # Probabilities – Reading – Click – Blog – Post – Very Important Information @ Links about ´´My´´ Dissertation, ´´My´´ Monograph and Animal Models for Human Diseases like Cardiovascular Diseases

The diffusion of relevant information and knowledge is essential for a country progress always!!

A difusão de relevantes informações e conhecimentos é sempre essencial para o progresso de um país!!

links-of-this-blog-part-1

links-of-my-blog-part-2

Informações relevantes relacionadas à leitura de livros e seus aspectos interligados no ambiente escolar – Rodrigo Nunes Cal – Parte 1 @ RELEVANT INFORMATION RELATED TO BOOK READING AND ITS INTERCONNECTED ASPECTS IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT – RODRIGO NUNES CAL – PART 1 

Informações relevantes relacionadas à leitura de livros e seus aspectos interligados no ambiente escolar – Rodrigo Nunes Cal – Parte 2 @ RELEVANT INFORMATION RELATED TO BOOK READING AND ITS INTERCONNECTED ASPECTS IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT – RODRIGO NUNES CAL – PART 2

  • – >Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics – ´´My´´ Dissertation @ #energy #time #tempo #energia #life #health #saúde #vida #people #person #pessoa #pessoas #reading #leitura #vision #visão #Innovation #internet #history #história #Graphics #Gráficos #dissertation #dissertação #mestrado #research #pesquisa #details #detalhes #thoughts #thinking #reflection #reflexão #pensamentos #importance #communication #comunicações #importância #information #knowledge #informações #conhecimento #Ciência #Science #data #dados #diffusion #difusão #countries #países #cell #DNA #Célula #RNA #substances #drugs #vaccines #TherapeuticalSubstances #efficacy #eficiência #diagnosis #prognosis #treatment #disease #UnknownDiseases #name #times #influences #longevity #age #ages #test #humans #AnimalTesting #MedicalDevices #tests #laboratories #investmens #researches #references #citations #ImpactFactor #journals


Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals

GRUPO_AF1 – ´´My´´ Dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 1 – ´´My´´ Dissertation

GRUPO_AF2 – ´´My´´ Dissertation

GRUPO AFAN 2 – ´´My´´ Dissertation

Slides – mestrado – ´´My´´ Dissertation

CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS

DMBA CARCINOGEN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo – ´´My´´ Dissertation

Do the downloads !!! Share!! Thanks!!

´´The world people need to have very efficient researches and projects resulting in very innovative drugs, vaccines, therapeutical substances, medical devices and other technologies according to the age, the genetics and medical records of the person. So, the treatment, disgnosis and prognosis will be very efficient and better, of course´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

Note/Obs: I thought each person could do their own friend request permission setting since Facebook’s technology is so big, for example. Eu achava que cada pessoa poderia fazer sua própria configuração de permissão de solicitação de amizade já que a tecnologia do Facebook é muito grande, por exemplo.

https://www.sciencenews.org/author/tom-siegfried

´´Tom Siegfried is a contributing correspondent. He was editor in chief of Science News from 2007 to 2012and he was the managing editor from 2014 to 2017. He is the author of the blog Context. In addition to Science News, his work has appeared in Science, NatureAstronomy, New Scientist and Smithsonian. Previously he was the science editor of The Dallas Morning News. He is the author of four books: The Bit and the Pendulum (Wiley, 2000); Strange Matters (National Academy of Sciences’ Joseph Henry Press, 2002);  A Beautiful Math (2006, Joseph Henry Press); and The Number of the Heavens (Harvard University Press, 2019). Tom was born in Lakewood, Ohio, and grew up in nearby Avon. He earned an undergraduate degree from Texas Christian University with majors in journalism, chemistry and history, and has a master of arts with a major in journalism and a minor in physics from the University of Texas at Austin. His awards include the American Geophysical Union’s Robert C. Cowen Award for Sustained Achievement in Science Journalism, the Science-in Society award from the National Association of Science Writers, the American Association for the Advancement of Science-Westinghouse Award, the American Chemical Society’s James T. Grady-James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public, and the American Institute of Physics Science Communication Award.´´

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00031305.2019.1583913

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332173354_Moving_to_a_World_Beyond_p_005

Moving to a World Beyond “p < 0.05March 2019 The American Statistician 73(sup1):1-19DOI:10.1080/00031305.2019.1583913

Editorial

Moving to a World Beyond “p < 0.05”

Ronald L. Wasserstein,Allen L. Schirm &Nicole A. LazarPages 1-19 | Published online: 20 Mar 2019

Editorial

The ASA Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose

Ronald L. Wasserstein &Nicole A. LazarPages 129-133 | Accepted author version posted online: 07 Mar 2016, Published online:09 Jun 2016

https://amstat.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00031305.2016.1154108#.YSbdx46j_IX

https://sandramerlo.com.br/um-mundo-alem-de-p-005/

PROFISSIONAL

http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.do?metodo=apresentar&id=K4704346D6

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0189-zPublished: 01 September 2017

https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/utas20/current

American Statistical Association

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https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00857-9

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00874-8

  • EDITORIAL
  • 20 March 2019

It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00874-8

Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better.

  • COMMENT
  • 20 March 2019

Scientists rise up against statistical significance

Valentin Amrhein, Sander Greenland, Blake McShane and more than 800 signatories call for an end to hyped claims and the dismissal of possibly crucial effects.

Editorial

The ASA Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose

Ronald L. Wasserstein &Nicole A. LazarPages 129-133 | Accepted author version posted online: 07 Mar 2016, Published online:09 Jun 2016

https://amstat.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00031305.2016.1154108#.XInvWyPMzyW

Redefine statistical significance

Nature Human Behaviour volume 2, pages6–10 (2018)Cite this article

We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance from 0.05 to 0.005 for claims of new discoveries.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0189-z

* Link about my monograph: Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/my-monography-chagas-disease-research-in-laboratory-2/

-Link about animal model diseases like cardiovascular diseases: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2020/04/29/33426/

– Links related with my dissertation: https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/28/links-of-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-and-monograph-induction-of-benzonidazole-resistance-in-human-isolates-of-trypanoso/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/11/29/about-my-dissertation-the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-progression-of-experimental-lung-cancer-in-mice-pathol-res-pract-2012-jul-152087377-81-doi-10-1016-j-prp-2012-04-006-epub-20/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2018/07/15/i-did-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-graphics-about-variations-of-all-mice-weigths-during-all-exerimental-time-my-dissertation-they-can-be-an-excelent-reference-for-future-researches-like-2/

https://science1984.wordpress.com/2019/03/08/it-is-fundamental-professors-students-researchers-and-other-people-worldwide-know-about-my-dissertation-because-the-research-was-very-innovative-and-important-in-the-world-these-data-like-graphics/

Não houve diferença estatística significativa. E agora?

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  • EDITORIAL
  • 20 March 2019

It’s time to talk about ditching statistical significance

Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better.

  •  
  •  
Bar chart made of measuring cylinders filled with different amounts of varied coloured liquids
Some statisticians are calling for P values to be abandoned as an arbitrary threshold of significance.Credit: Erik Dreyer/Getty

Fans of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy know that the answer to life, the Universe and everything is 42. The joke, of course, is that truth cannot be revealed by a single number.

And yet this is the job often assigned to values: a measure of how surprising a result is, given assumptions about an experiment, including that no effect exists. Whether a P value falls above or below an arbitrary threshold demarcating ‘statistical significance’ (such as 0.05) decides whether hypotheses are accepted, papers are published and products are brought to market. But using P values as the sole arbiter of what to accept as truth can also mean that some analyses are biased, some false positives are overhyped and some genuine effects are overlooked.Scientists rise up against statistical significance

Change is in the air. In a Comment in this week’s issue, three statisticians call for scientists to abandon statistical significance. The authors do not call for P values themselves to be ditched as a statistical tool — rather, they want an end to their use as an arbitrary threshold of significance. More than 800 researchers have added their names as signatories. A series of related articles is being published by the American Statistical Association this week (R. L. Wasserstein et al. Am. Stat. https://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2019.1583913; 2019). “The tool has become the tyrant,” laments one article.

Statistical significance is so deeply integrated into scientific practice and evaluation that extricating it would be painful. Critics will counter that arbitrary gatekeepers are better than unclear ones, and that the more useful argument is over which results should count for (or against) evidence of effect. There are reasonable viewpoints on all sides; Nature is not seeking to change how it considers statistical analysis in evaluation of papers at this time, but we encourage readers to share their views (see go.nature.com/correspondence).

If researchers do discard statistical significance, what should they do instead? They can start by educating themselves about statistical misconceptions. Most important will be the courage to consider uncertainty from multiple angles in every study. Logic, background knowledge and experimental design should be considered alongside values and similar metrics to reach a conclusion and decide on its certainty.

When working out which methods to use, researchers should also focus as much as possible on actual problems. People who will duel to the death over abstract theories on the best way to use statistics often agree on results when they are presented with concrete scenarios.

Researchers should seek to analyse data in multiple ways to see whether different analyses converge on the same answer. Projects that have crowdsourced analyses of a data set to diverse teams suggest that this approach can work to validate findings and offer new insights.

In short, be sceptical, pick a good question, and try to answer it in many ways. It takes many numbers to get close to the truth.

Nature 567, 283 (2019)

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-00874-8

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´´As you know, the world needs to have very efficient researches resulting new therapeutical substances, medical devices, prevention, diagnostic and prognostic methods, drugs and vaccines, for example. Very detailed researches are fundamental in this process. So, high impact innovations are essential to the world people!!´´ Rodrigo Nunes Cal 

´´Como você sabe, o mundo precisa de pesquisas muito eficientes que resultem em novas substâncias terapêuticas, aparelhos médicos, métodos de prevenção, de diagnósticos e de prognósticos, medicamentos e vacinas, por exemplo. Pesquisas muito detalhadas são fundamentais neste processo, obviamente. Portanto, inovações de grande impacto são essenciais para as pessoas do mundo todo!!´´ Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´Ter grandes metas, muitas das quais ditas como impossíveis é muito importante porque pode induzir de várias maneiras em diferentes intensidades na sociedade científica mundial o surgimento de grandes descobertas científicas para toda a humanidade, beneficiando significativamente a vida das pessoas e fazendo com que a expectativa de vida humana aumente significativamente. Dessa forma, doenças conhecidas hoje como sendo fatais e incuráveis, podem se tornar doenças curáveis, com a obtenção de novas tecnologias altamente eficazes de prevenção, diagnóstico, prognóstico e de tratamento´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´Having big goals, many of which are said to be impossible, is very important because it can induce, in different ways, in different intensities in the world scientific society, the emergence of great scientific discoveries for all of humanity, significantly benefiting people’s lives and causing the increase of human life expectancy significantly. Thus, diseases known today as being fatal and incurable, can become curable diseases, with the achievement of highly effective prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment technologies´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

  • ´´The very unknown path may be the best path to take in life´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´O caminho muito desconhecido pode ser o melhor caminho a seguir na vida´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´A Ciência abre um leque de possibilidades dos mais variados assuntos e dos mais variados níveis de dificuldades. Sendo assim, a compreensão total dos mecanismos fisiológicos envolvidos na patogênese das doenças, destacando-se as doenças fatais que ocorrem em humanos, é de suma importância para a humanidade, com toda certeza. Quem sabe num futuro próximo essa compreensão seja muito bem entendida e quem sabe, como muitas pessoas sonham na imortalidade física, dentre elas cientistas, essa grande conquista pode ser adquirida. Como você sabe, a humanidade necessita urgentemente de novas descobertas científicas, destacando-se a aquisição de medicamentos e vacinas altamente eficazes contra um grande número de doenças, dentre elas as doenças desconhecidas e silenciosas, a obtenção de aparelhos médicos muito eficientes de diagnóstico, prognóstico e tratamento de doenças, entre outros. Com certeza, precisamos ter esperança e motivação para a realização de ótimos trabalhos e para uma qualidade de vida bem melhor e uma expectativa de vida cada vez maior´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´Science opens up a range of possibilities for the most varied subjects and the most varied levels of difficulties. Therefore, the full understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, highlighting the fatal diseases that occur in humans, is of paramount importance for humanity, for sure. Maybe in the near future this understanding will be very well understood and who knows, as many people dream of physical immortality, among them scientists, this great achievement can be acquired. As you know, humanity urgently needs new scientific discoveries, highlighting the acquisition of highly effective medicines and vaccines against a large number of diseases, including unknown and silent diseases, obtaining very efficient medical devices for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of diseases, among others. Certainly, we need to have hope and motivation to do great work and for a much better quality of life and an ever-increasing life expectancy´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

  • Note: The statistics on the number of people who visited this blog in 2018 were not entirely based on real visitors.

As estatísticas sobre número de pessoas que acessaram este blog no ano de 2018 não foram totalmente baseadas em visitantes reais.

´´Great difficulties may have come, but it is of great importance to have in mind the possibility of great victories in the future, bringing happiness and health for a long time´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´O caminho muito desconhecido pode ser o melhor caminho a seguir na vida´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´Understanding the great difficulties of a given subject can be a very long process, however, of great value for the progress of Science in all aspects´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´Entender as grandes dificuldades de um determinado assunto pode ser um processo muito longo, mas de grande valor para o progresso da Ciência em todos os seus aspectos´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

My Curriculum Lattes: http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.do?id=K4240145A2

My Facebook Page: http://www.facebook.com/scientificblog

´´Compreender as grandes dificuldades de um determinado assunto pode ser um processo muito demorado, porém, de grande valia para o progresso da Ciência em todos os aspectos´´ Rodrigo Nunes Cal

Observação/Note: I won a scholarship by FAPEMIG during the period of ´´my´´ monograph in Uberaba. Ganhei bolsa de estudo pela FAPEMIG durante o período da ´´minha´´ monografia em Uberaba. During the period that I participated of ´´my´´ dissertation at FAMERP, I didn’t win a scholarship. Já durante o mestrado que fiz na FAMERP, não ganhei bolsa de estudo.

´´Os gráficos baseados em dados da ´´minha´´ dissertação que fiz podem ser uma excelente referência para muitos tipos de pesquisas e projetos, é claro !! Por exemplo, para pesquisas e projetos que tenham como objetivo analisar os tipos de influências das idades em camundongos e humanos (estudos genéticos, por exemplo) em relação a diferentes estágios de determinadas doenças, como aquelas em que a comunidade científica desconhece (doenças desconhecidas) e que poderão surgir no mundo. Outros tipos de pesquisas e projetos que podem ser feitos são aqueles que analisam a eficácia de diversos tipos de substâncias terapêuticas em camundongos e humanos nos diversos tipos de doenças com o objetivo de saber qual a melhor substância terapêutica para cada doença, levando em consideração a idade e genética, com certeza. Contudo, realizar pesquisas com o objetivo de avaliar qual é a influência da idade e da genética na eficiência terapêutica em animais de experimentação e em humanos, consequentemente, possui um grande valor, já que muitas pessoas adoecem e acabam falecendo mesmo sendo submetidas à ótimos sistemas de diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico, dependendo da doença que possui e do estágio da mesma´´.

´´A partir daí, ao comprovar que há influência significativa da idade e da genética, consequentemente, no processo de patogênese de doenças nos animais de experimentação e nos humanos, seria muito mais conveniente e lógico um grupo de indivíduos de certa faixa etária e histórico familiar e individual de doenças adquiridas e possíveis de serem adquiridas no decorrer do tempo serem tratados com outros tipos de medicamentos, substâncias terapêuticas, vacinas, dentre outros. Com certeza, para a realização destes tipos de pesquisa deve haver grande investimento financeiro nos laboratórios a fim de aquisição de aparelhos científicos altamente eficientes. Com certeza, pesquisas à nível genético e com relação à influência da idade do ser vivo na patogênese de doenças, até das doenças desconhecidas pelo mundo científico. O fato é que este tipo de pesquisa é muito importante porque como todos sabem, há muitas doenças que voltam a se manifestar nas pessoas mesmo depois de excelentes tratamentos, dos mais variados tipos. E outro ponto a ser refletido é a permanência de doenças fatais´´.

´´Assim, este tipo de influência da idade e consequentemente da genética na fisiopatologia das doenças hereditárias ou não hereditárias, um indivíduo de uma determinada idade será submetido a um tratamento terapêutico diferente de outro com a mesma doença mas com idade diferente da de até a pesquisa mostrou uma influência significativa na patogênese da doença, portanto, utilizará outro tipo de substância terapêutica, medicamentos, entre outros. Isso certamente acontecerá se a comunidade científica mundial comprovar cientificamente essas hipóteses por meio de várias pesquisas e projetos científicos. As pessoas precisam ter excelentes inovações para a expectativa de vida humana aumentar muito rapidamente cada vez mais. Portanto, quanto mais a medicina personalizada for, melhor será para cada um de nós´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

´´The graphics based on data from ´´my´´ dissertation I did can be an excellent reference for many types of researches and projects, of course!! For example, for researches and projects that the goals are analyse the type of influences of ages in mice and human (genetic studies, for example) in relation to different stages of determined diseases, like those that the scientific community do not know about them (unknown diseases). Other types of researches and projects that can be done is those that analyse the efficiency of many types of therapeutical substances in mice and human in many types of diseases with the objective of knowing which is the best therapeutic substance for each disease, taking into account age and genetics, for sure. For example, to carry out research with the objective of evaluating the influence of age and genetics on therapeutic efficiency in experimental animals and in humans´´.

´´Thus, by proving that there is a significant influence of age and genetics, consequently, in the process of pathogenesis of diseases in experimental animals and in humans, it would be much more convenient and logical to have a group of individuals of a certain age group and family and individual history of acquired diseases and possible to be acquired over time being treated with other types of drugs, therapeutic substances, vaccines, among others. Certainly, to carry out these types of research there must be a large financial investment in laboratories in order to acquire highly efficient scientific devices. Certainly, research at the genetic level and regarding the influence of the age of the living being on the pathogenesis of diseases, even diseases unknown to the scientific world. The fact is that this type of research is very important because as everyone knows, there are many diseases that come back to manifest in people even after excellent treatments, of the most varied types. And another point to be reflected on is the permanence of fatal diseases´´.

´´Taking into account this type of influence of age and consequently genetics on the pathophysiology of inherited or not inherited diseases, an individual of a certain age will be submitted to a different therapeutic treatment from another with the same disease but who has a different age than through the research has shown a significant influence on the pathogenesis of the disease, therefore, will use another type of therapeutic substance, medicine, among others. This will certainly happen if the world scientific community scientifically proves these hypotheses through various research and scientific projects. So, the people need to have excellent innovation to the human expectancy  of life increase so much faster more and more´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal

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